Personne : Julien, Pierre
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Département de médecine, Faculté de médecine, Université Laval
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- PublicationAccès libreOmega-3 fatty acids status in human subjects estimated using a food frequency questionnaire and plasma phospholipids levels(BioMed Central, 2012-07-09) Garneau, Véronique; Paradis, Ann-Marie; Pérusse, Louis; Rudkowska, Iwona; Godin, Gaston; Julien, Pierre; Vohl, Marie-ClaudeBackground Intakes of omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids (FA) are associated with several health benefits. The aim of this study was to verify whether intakes of n-3 FA estimated from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) correlate with n-3 FA levels measured in plasma phospholipids (PL). Methods The study sample consisted of 200 French-Canadians men and women aged between 18 to 55 years. Dietary data were collected using a validated FFQ. Fasting blood samples were collected and the plasma PL FA profile was measured by gas chromatography. Results Low intakes of n-3 long-chain FA together with low percentages of n-3 long-chain FA in plasma PL were found in French-Canadian population. Daily intakes of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were similar between men and women. Yet, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and total n-3 FA intakes were significantly higher in men compared to women (ALA: 2.28 g and 1.69 g, p < 0.0001, total n-3 FA: 2.57 g and 1.99 g, p < 0.0001; respectively). In plasma PL, DPA and DHA percentages were significantly different between men and women (DPA: 1.03% and 0.88%, p < 0.0001, DHA: 3.00% and 3.43%, p = 0.0005; respectively). Moreover, DHA (men: r = 0.52, p < 0.0001; women: r = 0.57, p < 0.0001) and total n-3 FA (men: r = 0.47, p < 0.0001; women: r = 0.52, p < 0.0001) intakes were positively correlated to their respective plasma PL FA levels. In women, EPA (r = 0.44, p < 0.0001) and DPA (r = 0.23, p = 0.02) intakes were also correlated respectively with EPA and DPA plasma PL FA percentages. Conclusion Estimated n-3 long-chain FA intake among this young and well-educated French-Canadian population is lower than the recommendations. Further, FFQ data is comparable to plasma PL results to estimate DHA and total n-3 FA status in healthy individuals as well as to evaluate the EPA and DPA status in women. Overall, this FFQ could be used as a simple, low-cost tool in future studies to rank n-3 FA status of individuals.
- PublicationRestreintTranscriptomic and metabolomic signatures of an n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids 2 supplementation in a normolipidemic/normocholesterolemic Caucasian population(Elsevier, 2012-06-28) Thifault, Elisabeth; Paradis, Ann-Marie; Rudkowska, Iwona; Barbier, Olivier; Lemieux, Simone; Julien, Pierre; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Couture, Patrick; Tchernof, AndréOMIC technologies, including transcriptomics and metabolomics, may provide powerful tools for identifying the effects of nutrients on molecular functions and metabolic pathways. The objective was to investigate molecular and metabolic changes following n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation in healthy subjects via traditional biomarkers as well as transcriptome and metabolome analyses. Thirteen men and 17 women followed a 2-week run-in period based on Canada's Food Guide and then underwent 6-week supplementation with n-3 PUFA (3 g/day). Traditional biochemical markers such as plasma lipids, inflammatory markers, glycemic parameters and erythrocyte fatty acid concentrations were measured. Changes in gene expression of peripheral blood mononuclear cells were assessed by microarrays, and metabolome profiles were assessed by mass spectrometry assay kit. After supplementation, plasma triglycerides decreased and erythrocyte n-3 PUFA concentrations increased to a similar extent in both genders. Further, plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations and fasting glucose levels increased in women after n-3 PUFA supplementation. N-3 PUFA supplementation changed the expression of 610 genes in men, whereas the expression of 250 genes was altered in women. Pathway analyses indicate changes in gene expression of the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha, nuclear transcription-factor kappaB, oxidative stress and activation of the oxidative stress response mediated by nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2. After n-3 PUFA supplementation, metabolomics profiles demonstrate an increase in acylcarnitines, hexose and leucine in men only and a decrease in saturation of glycerophosphatidylcholine and lysophosphatidylcholine concentrations in all subjects. Overall, traditional and novel biomarkers suggest that n-3 PUFA supplementation exerts cardioprotective effects.
- PublicationAccès libreDifferences in metabolomic and transcriptomic profiles between responders and non-responders to an n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) supplementation(Springer-Verlag, 2012-12-19) Thifault, Elisabeth; Paradis, Ann-Marie; Rudkowska, Iwona; Barbier, Olivier; Lemieux, Simone; Julien, Pierre; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Couture, PatrickStudies have demonstrated large within-population heterogeneity in plasma triacylglycerol (TG) response to n-3 PUFA supplementation. The objective of the study was to compare metabolomic and transcriptomic profiles of responders and non-responders of an n-3 PUFA supplementation. Thirty subjects completed a 2-week run-in period followed by a 6-week supplementation with n-3 PUFA (3 g/d). Six subjects did not lower their plasma TG (+9 %) levels (non-responders) and were matched to 6 subjects who lowered TG (−41 %) concentrations (responders) after the n-3 PUFA supplementation. Pre-n-3 PUFA supplementation characteristics did not differ between the non-responders and responders except for plasma glucose concentrations. In responders, changes were observed for plasma hexose concentrations, docosahexaenoic acid, stearoyl-CoA-desaturase-18 ratio, and the extent of saturation of glycerophosphatidylcholine after n-3 PUFA supplementation; however, no change in these parameters was observed in non-responders. Transcriptomic profiles after n-3 PUFA supplementation indicate changes in glycerophospholipid metabolism in both subgroups and sphingolipid metabolism in non-responders. Six key genes in lipid metabolism: fatty acid desaturase 2, phospholipase A2 group IVA, arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase, phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase, monoglyceride lipase, and glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, were expressed in opposing direction between subgroups. In sum, results highlight key differences in lipid metabolism of non-responders compared to responders after an n-3 PUFA supplementation, which may explain the inter-individual variability in plasma TG response.
- PublicationAccès libreChanges in plasma phospholipid fatty acid patterns and their impact on plasma triglyceride levels following fish oil supplementation(SciDoc Publishers, 2015-05-29) Cormier, Hubert; Rudkowska, Iwona; Lemieux, Simone; Julien, Pierre; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Couture, PatrickThe objective of the present study was to test for associations between changes in fatty acids (FAs) and changes in plasma triglyceride (TG) levels after an n-3 FA supplementation and to test whether SNPs from the FADS gene cluster were associ-ated with plasma FA levels or with specific FA patterns. A total of 210 subjects completed a 2-wk run-in period followed by 6-wk supplementation with 5g/d of fish oil. FA profiles of plasma phospholipids (PPLs) were obtained and 19 SNPs from the FADS gene cluster were genotyped. Principal component analysis was conducted and scores were calculated. There was an increase in EPA, DPA and DHA levels in PPLs as well as a decrease in ALA and all n-6 FA levels after the supplementa-tion. Factor analysis suggested 4 post-n-3 FA supplementation patterns. Changes in AA, ALA, DGLA, as well as changes in total n-3 and omega-6 FAs in absolute quantities of FAs were all associated with a change in TG levels whereas the cor-relation remained significant only for AA and DGLA when FAs were expressed as percentage of total FAs. Several SNPs from the FADS gene cluster were associated with post-supplementation FA levels. These results suggest that FAs alone or regrouped in factors could play a role in modulating plasma TG levels after fish oil supplementation. SNPs from the FADSgene cluster interact with both FAs and/or factors to modulate TG levels.
- PublicationAccès libreGenome-wide association study of the plasma triglyceride response to an n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation.(jlr.org, 2014-05-19) Guénard, Frédéric; Rudkowska, Iwona; Barbier, Olivier; Lemieux, Simone; Julien, Pierre; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Calder, Philip C.; Couture, Patrick; Minihane, Anne MarieStudies have shown a large interindividual variability in plasma TG response to long-chain n-3 PUFA supplementation, which may likely be attributable to genetic variability within the populations studied. The objective is to compare the frequency of SNPs in a genome-wide association study between responders (reduction in plasma TG levels ≥0.01 mM) and nonresponders (increase in plasma TG of ≥0 mM) to supplementation. Genomic DNA from 141 subjects who completed a 2-week run-in period followed by 6-week supplementation with 5 g of fish oil daily (1.9-2.2 g EPA and 1.1 g DHA daily) were genotyped on Illumina HumanOmni-5-QuadBeadChip. Thirteen loci had frequency differences between responders and nonresponders (P < 1 × 10(-5)), including SNPs in or near IQCJ-SCHIP1, MYB, NELL1, NXPH1, PHF17, and SLIT2 genes. A genetic risk score (GRS) was constructed by summing the number of risk alleles. This GRS explained 21.53% of the variation in TG response to n-3 PUFA supplementation when adjusted for age, sex, and BMI (P = 0.0002). Using Fish Oil Intervention and Genotype as a replication cohort, the GRS was able to explain 2% of variation in TG response when adjusted. In conclusion, subjects who decrease their plasma TG levels following n-3 PUFA supplementation may have a different genetic profile than individuals who do not respond.
- PublicationAccès libreEffects of concentrated long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation before radical prostatectomy on prostate cancer proliferation, inflammation, and quality of life : study protocol for a phase IIb, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial(BioMed Central, 2018-01-10) Duchesne, Thierry; Savard, Josée; Guertin, Marie-Hélène; Fradet, Vincent; Pelletier, Jean-François; Bairati, Isabelle; Julien, Pierre; Robitaille, KarineBackground : Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in north-American men. Few dietary or lifestyle interventions have been tested to prevent prostate cancer progression. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation represents a promising intervention for prostate cancer patients. The aim of the study is to evaluate the effects of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn3), more precisely eicosapentaenoic acid monoacylglyceride (MAG-EPA) supplementation, on prostate cancer proliferation, inflammation mediators and quality of life among men who will undergo radical prostatectomy. Methods/design : We propose a phase IIb, randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial of MAG-EPA supplementation for 130 men who will undergo radical prostatectomy as treatment for a prostate cancer of Gleason score ≥ 7 in an academic cancer center in Quebec City. Participants will be randomized to 6 capsules of 625 mg of fish oil (MAG-EPA) per capsule containing 500 mg of EPA daily or to identically looking capsules of high oleic acid sunflower oil (HOSO) as placebo. The intervention begins 4 to 10 weeks prior to radical prostatectomy (baseline) and continues for one year after surgery. The primary endpoint is the proliferative index (Ki-67) measured in prostate cancer cells at radical prostatectomy. A secondary endpoint includes prostate tissue levels of inflammatory mediators (cytokines and proteins) at time of radical prostatectomy. Changes in blood levels of inflammatory mediators, relative to baseline levels, at time of radical prostatectomy and 12 months after radical prostatectomy will also be evaluated. Secondary endpoints also include important aspects of psychosocial functioning and quality of life such as depression, anxiety, sleep disturbances, fatigue, cognitive complaints and prostate cancer-specific quality of life domains. The changes in these outcomes, relative to baseline levels, will be evaluated at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after radical prostatectomy. Discussion : The results from this trial will provide crucial information to clarify the role of omega-3 supplementation on prostate cancer proliferation, inflammation and quality of life.
- PublicationAccès libreOmega-3 fatty acids, polymorphisms and lipid related cardiovascular disease risk factors in the Inuit population(BioMed Central Ltd., 2013-03-12) Abdous, Belkacem; Proust, Françoise; Rudkowska, Iwona; Hegele, Robert A.; Ouellette, Catherine; Boiteau, Véronique; Julien, Pierre; Dewailly, Éric; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Dubé-Linteau, Ariane; Giguère, Yves.; Chateau-Degat, Marie-LudivineBackground : Tissue concentrations of fatty acids (FAs) and genetic variations are well-known factors which affect the cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. The objective was to examine whether the genetic variability of 20 candidate genes and red blood cells (RBCs) percentage of total n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), a biomarker of dietary n-3 PUFA intake, modulate lipid related CVD risk factors in the Inuit population. Methods : Data from the Qanuippitaa Nunavik Health Survey (n = 553) were analysed via multivariate regression models with 40 known polymorphisms, RBCs percentage of n-3 PUFA, and the interaction term to take into account the effect on plasma lipid and apolipoporotein levels. Results : Individuals being heterozygotes for CETP C-4502T (rs183130) or G-971A (rs4783961) together with higher n-3 PUFA had lower triacylglycerol (TG) concentrations compared to homozygotes for the minor allele. Further, effects of a stronger beneficial association between n-3 PUFA in RBCs and plasma lipid parameters- including lower total cholesterol (TC), lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) or higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations- were associated with AGT M235T (rs699) TT genotype, CETP G-971A (rs4783961) AG genotype, T allele carriers of CETP C-4502T (rs183130), and T allele carriers of CETP Ile405Val (rs5882). In contrast, higher n-3 PUFA in RBCs were associated with adverse lipid profiles- including increased LDL-C, increased apolipoprotein B100 or decreased HDL-C concentrations- in G allele carriers of the APOA5 -3 A/G (rs651821), C allele carriers of APOA5 T-1131C (rs662799), G carriers of APOC3 SstI (rs5128) and G carriers of APOA4 Asn147Ser (rs5104). Conclusion : Overall, these results suggest that percentage of total n-3 PUFA of RBCs are associated with lipids related CVD risk factors conferred by genetic variations in the Inuit population.
- PublicationRestreintHyperinsulinemia and abdominal obesity affect the expression of hypertriglyceridemia in heterozygous familial lipoprotein lipase deficiency(American Diabetes Association, 1997-12-01) Murthy, M.R.V.; Nadeau, André; Lévesque, Georges; Gagné, Claude; Gaudet, Daniel; Julien, Pierre; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Cadelis, François; Després, Jean-Pierre; Brun, Louis-DanielWe have reported three missense mutations (G188E, P207L, and D250N) in the lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene among French-Canadians, resulting in the absence of measurable postheparin plasma LPL activity in homozygotes. Presence of triglyceride- and cholesterolrich VLDL, as well as cholesterol-poor HDL particles, has been shown in heterozygotes affected by partial reduction in postheparin LPL activity. However, significant heterogeneity in their plasma triglyceride levels has been found, even among individuals carrying the same LPL gene mutation, indicating that factors other than LPL deficiency could affect the phenotypic expression of hypertriglyceridemia in the heterozygous state. The aim of the present study was to examine the combined effects of abdominal fat accumulation and hyperinsulinemia on plasma triglyceride levels among heterozygous patients for familial LPL deficiency. Based on sex and BMI, 43 heterozygotes (25 women and 18 men) were matched with noncarrier control subjects. Our data indicate that heterozygotes with higher abdominal fat deposition, as defined as waist girth values above the 50th percentile, had higher plasma triglyceride levels than nonobese heterozygotes. However, an important proportion of male heterozygote subjects were hypertriglyceridemic, even in absence of abdominal obesity, suggesting that another factor(s) was involved in the modulation of hypertriglyceridemia in these subjects. Indeed, multivariate analyses revealed that fasting hyperinsulinemia was a significant correlate of hypertriglyceridemia among these heterozygotes. Results of the present study indicate that abdominal obesity and hyperinsulinemia both have deleterious effects on plasma triglyceride levels in familial LPL deficiency. It is suggested that heterozygotes with moderate obesity and/or insulin resistance may be at higher risk of coronary artery disease because of the expression of an atherogenic lipoprotein phenotype among these patients.
- PublicationRestreintEffect of apolipoprotein E, PPAR alpha and LPL gene mutations on fenofibrate’s ability to improve lipid profiles and reach clinical guidelines targets among hypertriglyceridemic patients(LWW Journals, 2002-06-01) Brisson, Diane; Perron, Patrice; Ledoux, Karine; Gaudet, Daniel; Bossé, Yohan; St-Pierre, Julie; Julien, Pierre; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Hudson, Thomas J.Fenofibrate is a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) agonist which regulates the transcription of genes encoding proteins involved in triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoproteins and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) metabolism. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relation between TG-related parameters considered in different clinical guidelines used in industrialized countries for the management of lipid disorders (namely fasting plasma TG, high density-lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), non-HDL-C concentrations and total-C/HDL-C ratio) and the presence of LPL-null (P207L), LPL-defective (D9N), PPARα -L162V, apolipoprotein (apo) E and PPARγ-P12A gene mutations, in a sample of 292 hypertriglyceridemic subjects treated with fenofibrate for 3 months. Although fenofibrate induced a decrease in plasma TG level and an increase in HDL-C level in all studied genotypes, mutation-specific differences were observed. After adjustment for age, gender, body mass index and the presence of apo E2 genotype, the LPL-P207L mutation was associated with residual post-treatment hypertriglyceridemia [TG > 2.0 mmol/l, odds ratio (OR) = 3.07, P = 0.005] and total-C/HDL-C ratio > 5 (OR = 2.68;P = 0.03). This effect was significantly related to higher plasma TG concentrations at baseline among carriers of a LPL-null mutation. Compared to apo E3 and E4 variants, the apo E2 allele was associated with a better response to fenofibrate on all lipid parameter, especially among PPARα -L162V carriers, whereas the simultaneous presence of apo E2 and PPARα -L162V tended to improve fenofibrate response among LPL-P207L heterozygotes. Finally, the LPL-D9N and PPARγ -P12A mutations did not affect fenofibrate lipid-lowering action. This study suggests that frequent genetic variations in genes encoding proteins involved in TG-rich lipoprotein metabolism could modulate the response to fenofibrate treatment, as defined in clinical guidelines.
- PublicationRestreintDrinkable lecithin nanovesicles to study the biological effects of individual hydrophobic macronutrients and food preferences(Elsevier, 2020-04-07) Chotard, Élodie; Mohammadi, Farzad; Rudkowska, Iwona; Bertrand, Nicolas; Berthiaume, Line; Julien, PierreFundamental nutritional studies on bioactive molecules require minimizing exposure to confounding foreign elements, like solvents. Herein, aqueous formulations of lecithin nanovesicles are proposed to study three individual trans fatty acids relevant to human nutrition: elaidic acid, trans-vaccenic acid and trans-palmitoleic acid. This proof-of-concept study describes the encapsulation of fatty acids, in vivo bioavailability, and the use of nanovesicles in behavioral experiments. The oral bioavailability of the encapsulated molecules and the selective exposure of animals to each trans-fatty acid of interest were confirmed in healthy rats. Behavioral studies also evidenced that nanovesicles can be used to evaluate the palatability of the lipids and investigate food preferences in mice. Altogether this study shows that lecithin nanovesicles offer an elegant tool to efficiently deliver hydrophobic molecules to animal models. This approach paves the way for future studies deconvoluting the nutritional effects of trans-fatty acids.