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Pibarot, Philippe

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Université Laval. Faculté de médecine
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  • Publication
    Estimation of stroke volume and aortic valve area in patients with aortic stenosis : a comparison of echocardiography versus cardiovascular magnetic resonance
    (Elsevier, 2020-06-21) Guzzetti, Ezequiel; Garcia, Julio; Larose, Éric; Le Ven, Florent; Capoulade, Romain; Pibarot, Philippe; Bédard, Élisabeth; Clavel, Marie-Annick; Tastet, Lionel; Arsenault, Marie
    Background: In aortic stenosis, accurate measurement of left ventricular stroke volume (SV) is essential for the calculation of aortic valve area (AVA) and the assessment of flow status. Current American Society of Echocardiography and European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging guidelines suggest that measurements of left ventricular outflow tract diameter (LVOTd) at different levels (at the annulus vs 5 or 10 mm below) yield similar measures of SV and AVA. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of the location of LVOTd measurement on the accuracy of SV and AVA measured on transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) compared with cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). Methods: One hundred six patients with aortic stenosis underwent both TTE and CMR. SV was estimated on TTE using the continuity equation with LVOTd measurements at four locations: at the annulus and 2, 5, and 10 mm below annulus. SV was also determined on CMR using phase contrast acquired in the aorta (SVCMR-PC), and a hybrid AVACMR-PC was calculated by diving SVCMR-PC by the transthoracic echocardiographic Doppler aortic velocity-time integral. Comparison between methods was made using Bland-Altman analysis. Results: Compared with the referent method of phase-contrast CMR for the estimation of SVCMR-PC and AVACMR-PC (SVCMR-PC 83 6 16 mL, AVACMR-PC 1.27 6 0.35 cm2 ), the best agreement was obtained by measuring LVOTd at the annulus or 2 mm below (P = NS), whereas measuring 5 and 10 mm below the annulus resulted in significant underestimation of SV and AVA by up to 15.9 6 17.3 mL and 0.24 6 0.28 cm2 , respectively (P < .01 for all). Accuracy for classification of low flow was best at the annulus (86%) and 2 mm below (82%), whereas measuring 5 and 10 mm below the annulus significantly underperformed (69% and 61%, respectively, P < .001). Conclusions: Measuring LVOTd at the annulus or very close to it provides the most accurate measures of SV and AVA, whereas measuring LVOTd 5 or 10 mm below significantly underestimates these parameters and leads to significant overestimation of the severity of aortic stenosis and prevalence of low-flow status.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Association of left ventricular global longitudinal strain with asymptomatic severe aortic stenosis: natural course and prognostic value
    (American Medical Association, 2018-08-15) Vollema, E. Mara; Shen, Mylène; Sugimoto, Tadafumi; Abou-Rachid, Hakima; Pibarot, Philippe; Clavel, Marie-Annick; Ng, Arnold; Tastet, Lionel; Ajmone Marsan, Nina; Mertens, Bart; Dulgheru, Raluca; Lancellotti, Patrizio; Généreux, Philippe; Leon, Martin B.; Delgado, Victoria; Bax, Jeroen J.
    Importance The optimal timing to operate in patients with asymptomatic severe aortic stenosis (AS) remains controversial. Left ventricular global longitudinal strain (LV GLS) may help to identify patients who might benefit from undergoing earlier aortic valve replacement. Objective To investigate the prevalence of impaired LV GLS, the natural course of LV GLS, and its prognostic implications in patients with asymptomatic severe AS with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Design, Setting, and Participants This registry-based study included the institutional registries of 3 large tertiary referral centers and 220 patients with asymptomatic severe AS and preserved LVEF (>50%) who were matched for age and sex with 220 controls without structural heart disease. The echocardiograms of patients and controls were performed between 1998 and 2017. Exposures Both clinical and echocardiographic data were assessed retrospectively. Severe AS was defined by an indexed aortic valve area less than 0.6 cm2/m2. Left ventricular global longitudinal strain was evaluated on transthoracic echocardiography using speckle tracking imaging. Main Outcomes and Measures The prevalence of impaired LV GLS, the natural course of LV GLS, and the association of impaired LV GLS with symptom onset and the need for aortic valve intervention. Results Two hundred twenty patients (mean [SD] age, 68 [13] years; 126 men [57%]) were included. Despite comparable LVEF, LV GLS was significantly impaired in patients with asymptomatic severe AS compared with age- and sex-matched controls without AS (mean [SD] LV GLS, −17.9% [2.5%] vs −19.6% [2.1%]; P < .001). After a median follow-up of 12 (interquartile range, 7-23) months, mean (SD) LV GLS significantly deteriorated (−18.0% [2.6%] to −16.3% [2.8%]; P < .001) while LVEF remained unchanged. Patients with impaired LV GLS at baseline (>−18.2%) showed a higher risk for developing symptoms (P = .02) and needing aortic valve intervention (P = .03) at follow-up compared with patients with more preserved LV GLS (≤−18.2%). Conclusions and Relevance Subclinical myocardial dysfunction that is characterized by impaired LV GLS is often present in patients with asymptomatic severe AS with preserved LVEF. Left ventricular global longitudinal strain further deteriorates over time and impaired LV GLS at baseline is associated with an increased risk for progression to the symptomatic stage and the need for aortic valve intervention.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Prosthesis-patient mismatch negatively affects outcomes after mitral valve replacement : meta-analysis of 10,239 patients
    (SP Sociedade Brasileira de Cirurgia Cardiovascular, 2019-03-01) Barros Oliveira Sá, Michel Pompeu; Pibarot, Philippe; Cavalcanti, Luiz Rafael Pereira; Clavel, Marie-Annick; Rayol, Sérgio da Costa; Gouvea Silva Diniz, Roberto; Motta Menezes, Alexandre; Lima, Ricardo Carvalho
    Objective: This study sought to evaluate the impact of prosthesis-patient mismatch on the risk of perioperative and long- term mortality after mitral valve replacement. Methods: Databases were researched for studies published until December 2018. Main outcomes of interest were perioperative and 10-year mortality and echocardiographic parameters. Results: The research yielded 2,985 studies for inclusion. Of these, 16 articles were analyzed, and their data extracted. The total number of patients included was 10,239, who underwent mitral valve replacement. The incidence of prosthesis-patient mismatch after mitral valve replacement was 53.7% (5,499 with prosthesis- patient mismatch and 4,740 without prosthesis-patient mismatch). Perioperative (OR 1.519; 95%CI 1.194–1.931, P<0.001) and 10-year (OR 1.515; 95%CI 1.280–1.795, P<0.001) mortality was increased in patients with prosthesis-patient mismatch. Patients with prosthesis-patient mismatch after mitral valve replacement had higher systolic pulmonary artery pressure and transprosthethic gradient and lower indexed effective orifice area and left ventricle ejection fraction. Conclusion: Prosthesis-patient mismatch increases perioperative and long-term mortality. Prosthesis-patient mismatch is also associated with pulmonary hypertension and depressed left ventricle systolic function. The findings of this study support the implementation of surgical strategies to prevent prosthesis- patient mismatch in order to decrease mortality rates.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    ApoB/ApoA-I ratio is associated with faster hemodynamic progression of aortic stenosis : results from the PROGRESSA (Metabolic Determinants of the Progression of Aortic Stenosis) study
    (Wiley, 2018-02-10) Arsenault, Benoit; Shen, Mylène; Bédard, Élisabeth; Côté, Nancy; Capoulade, Romain; Beaudoin, Jonathan; Bossé, Yohan; Bernier, Mathieu; Tremblay, Alexe; Pibarot, Philippe; Samson, Marilie; Dumesnil, Jean G.; Clavel, Marie-Annick; Després, Jean-Pierre; Tastet, Lionel; Mathieu, Patrick; Arsenault, Marie
    Background : Previous studies reported that middle‐aged patients with atherogenic lipoprotein‐lipid profile exhibit faster progression of aortic valve stenosis (AS). The ratio of apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A‐I (apoB/apoA‐I) reflects the balance between atherogenic and anti‐atherogenic lipoproteins. The aim of this study was to examine the association between apoB/apoA‐I ratio and AS hemodynamic progression and to determine whether this association varies according to age. Methods and Results : A total of 159 patients (66±13 years, 73% men) with AS were prospectively recruited in the PROGRESSA (Metabolic Determinants of the Progression of Aortic Stenosis) study. Hemodynamic progression of AS was determined by the change in peak aortic jet velocity (Vpeak) measured by Doppler‐echocardiography between baseline and 2‐year follow‐up. Patients in the top tertile of apoB/apoA‐I ratio (≥0.62) had a faster progression rate of AS compared with those in the bottom/mid tertiles (Vpeak progression: 0.30 [0.09˗0.49] versus 0.16 [0.01˗0.36] m/s, P=0.02). There was a significant interaction (P=0.007) between apoB/apoA‐I ratio and age. Among younger patients (ie, aged <70 years; median value of the cohort), those in the top tertile of apoB/apoA‐I ratio had a 3.4‐fold faster AS progression compared with those in the bottom/mid tertiles (Vpeak progression: 0.34 [0.13˗0.69] versus 0.10 [−0.03˗0.31] m/s, P=0.002), whereas there was no significant difference between tertiles in the subgroup of older patients (P=0.83). After comprehensive adjustment, higher apoB/apoA‐I ratio was significantly associated with faster AS progression in the subset of younger patients (all, standardized β≥0.36; P≤0.01). Conclusions : Higher apoB/apoA‐I ratio is significantly associated with faster hemodynamic progression of AS in the younger patients. These findings suggest that atherogenic lipid factors may play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of AS in younger patients, but may be are less important in older patients.
  • Publication
    A machine-learning framework to identify distinct phenotypes of aortic stenosis severity
    (ScienceDirect, 2021-05-19) Sengupta, Partho P.; Shen, Mylène; Shrestha, Sirish; Pibarot, Philippe; Kagiyama, Nobuyuki; Clavel, Marie-Annick; Hamirani, Yasmin; Tastet, Lionel; Kulkarni, Hemant; Yanamala, Naveena; Bing, Rong; Chin, Calvin W.L.; Pawade, Tania; Messika-Zeitoun, David; Newby, David E.; Dweck, Marc R.
    OBJECTIVES : The authors explored the development and validation of machine-learning models for augmenting the echocardiographic grading of aortic stenosis (AS) severity. BACKGROUND : In AS, symptoms and adverse events develop secondarily to valvular obstruction and left ventricular decompensation. The current echocardiographic grading of AS severity focuses on the valve and is limited by diagnostic uncertainty. METHODS : Using echocardiography (ECHO) measurements (ECHO cohort, n ¼ 1,052), we performed patient similarity analysis to derive high-severity and low-severity phenogroups of AS. We subsequently developed a supervised machine learning classifier and validated its performance with independent markers of disease severity obtained using computed tomography (CT) (CT cohort, n ¼ 752) and cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging (CMR cohort, n ¼ 160). The classifier’s prognostic value was further validated using clinical outcomes (aortic valve replacement [AVR] and death) observed in the ECHO and CMR cohorts. RESULTS : In 1,964 patients from the 3 multi-institutional cohorts, 1,346 (68%) subjects had either nonsevere or discordant AS severity. Machine learning identified 1,117 (57%) patients as having high-severity and 847 (43%) as having low-severity AS. High-severity patients in CT and CMR cohorts had higher valve calcium scores and left ventricular mass and fibrosis, respectively than the low-severity group. In the ECHO cohort, progression to AVR and progression to death in patients who did not receive AVR was faster in the high-severity group. Compared with the conventional classification of disease severity, machine-learning–based severity classification improved discrimination (integrated discrimination improvement: 0.07; 95% confidence interval: 0.02 to 0.12) and reclassification (net reclassification improvement: 0.17; 95% confidence interval: 0.11 to 0.23) for the outcome of AVR at 5 years. For both ECHO and CMR cohorts, we observed prognostic value of the machine-learning classifications for subgroups with asymptomatic, nonsevere or discordant AS. CONCLUSIONS : Machine learning can integrate ECHO measurements to augment the classification of disease severity in most patients with AS, with major potential to optimize the timing of AVR.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    A decade of revolutions in calcific aortic stenosis
    (Philadelphia W.B. Saunders, 2020-02-01) Pibarot, Philippe; Clavel, Marie-Annick
  • Publication
    Reply : meta-Analysis : valve-in-Valve TAVR Versus Redo SAVR
    (Elsevier Science, 2021-05-17) Pompeu, Michel; Pibarot, Philippe; Van den Eynde, Jef; Clavel, Marie-Annick; Simonato, Matheus
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Characteristics and usefulness of unintended premature ventricular contraction during invasive assessment of aortic stenosis
    (Elsevier Science Publishers, 2020-02-28) Dehghani, Payam; Aubin, Jeffery; Singer, Zachary; Pibarot, Philippe; Morrison, Jamie; Clavel, Marie-Annick; Lavoie, Andrea; Zimmermann, Rodney; Basran, Paul; Webb, John G. (John Graydon); Cheema, Asim
    Background Postextrasystolic potentiation (PESP)-associated augmentation in left ventricular-aorta pressure gradient (LVAoG) observed after incidental premature ventricular contraction (PVC) during resting echocardiography is similar to dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE)-associated augmentation in LVAoG in patients with low-flow, low-gradient (LF-LG) aortic stenosis (AS). What is not known is whether a similar relationship exists when unintended PVC causes PESP during cardiac catheterization in patients with AS. Methods We retrospectively reviewed all catheterizations performed for patients with at least moderate AS who had LVAoG assessment. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to determine the predictors of pre- and post-PVC mean LVAoG ≥ 40 mmHg. Results Between September 2015 to September 2017, of 140 individuals undergoing cardiac catheterization, 34 met study criteria. Mean pre-PVC gradient was 38.9 ± 22.8 mmHg. All patients exhibited PESP-associated augmentation of LVAoG by an average of 28 ± 12%. In multivariate analysis, the only significant predictor of post-PVC mean LVAoG ≥ 40 mmHg was preserved LV function (OR 6.81; 95% CI 1.41–32.82, p = 0.02). Inability to generate ≥ 40 mmHg of mean LVAoG post-PVC had 100% specificity for nonsevere AS in our observational cohort. Conclusions Unintended but interpretable PVCs occurred in one in four patients with AS undergoing cardiac catheterization with measurable hemodynamics. All of our patients with PVCs, regardless of underlying LVEF, exhibited PESP-associated augmentation of LVAoG. Our exploratory analysis suggests that inability to generate ≥40 mmHg of mean LVAoG post-PVC is highly specific for nonsevere AS.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Effect of age and aortic valve anatomy on calcification and haemodynamic severity of aortic stenosis
    (Elsevier, 2016-12-09) Larose, Éric; Shen, Mylène; Chetaille, Philippe; Bédard, Élisabeth; Capoulade, Romain; Pibarot, Philippe; Dumesnil, Jean G.; Clavel, Marie-Annick; Tastet, Lionel; Mathieu, Patrick; Arsenault, Marie
    Objective: To evaluate the effect of age and aortic valve anatomy (tricuspid (TAV) vs bicuspid (BAV) aortic valve) on the relationship between the aortic valve calcification (AVC) and the haemodynamic parameters of aortic stenosis (AS) severity. Methods: Two hundred patients with AS and preserved left ventricular ejection fraction were prospectively recruited in the PROGRESSA (Metabolic Determinants of the Progression of Aortic Stenosis) study and underwent a comprehensive Doppler echocardiography and multidetector CT (MDCT). Mean transvalvular gradient (MG) measured by Doppler echocardiography was used to assess AS haemodynamic severity and AVC was evaluated by MDCT using the Agatston method and indexed to the left ventricular outflow tract area to obtain AVC density (AVCd). All analyses were adjusted for sex. Results: Thirty-nine patients had a BAV and 161 a TAV. Median age was 51 and 72 years for BAV and TAV patients, respectively. There was a modest correlation between MG and AVCd (ρ=0.51, p<0.0001) in the whole cohort. After dichotomisation for valve anatomy, there was a good correlation between AVCd and MG in the TAV group (ρ=0.61, p<0.0001) but weak correlation in the BAV group (ρ=0.32, p=0.046). In the TAV group, the strength of the AVCd–MG correlation was similar in younger (<72 years old; ρ=0.59, p<0.0001) versus older (≥72 years old; ρ=0.61, p<0.0001) patients. In the BAV group, there was no correlation between AVCd and MG in younger patients (<51 years old; ρ=0.12, p=0.65), whereas there was a good correlation in older patients (≥51 years old; ρ=0.55, p=0.009). AVCd (p=0.005) and age (p=0.02) were both independent determinants of MG in BAV patients while AVCd (p<0.0001) was the only independent determinant of MG in TAV patients. Conclusions: In patients with TAV as well as in older patients with BAV, AVCd appears to be the main factor significantly associated with the haemodynamic severity of AS and so it may be used to corroborate AS severity in case of uncertain or discordant findings at echocardiography. However, among younger patients with BAV, some may have a haemodynamically significant stenosis with minimal AVCd. The results of MDCT AVCd should thus be interpreted cautiously in this subset of patients.
  • Publication
    Sex-specific associations of genetically predicted circulating Lp(a) (Lipoprotein(a)) and hepatic LPA gene expression levels with cardiovascular outcomes : mendelian randomization and observational analyses
    (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2021-07-19) Thériault, Sébastien; Kaiser, Yannick; Guertin, Jakie; Perrot, Nicolas; Bourgeois, Raphaëlle; Couture, Christian; Manikpurage, Hasanga D.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Arsenault, Benoit; Pibarot, Philippe; Stroes, Erik S.; Clavel, Marie-Annick; Mathieu, Patrick; Boekholdt, Matthijs; Bossé, Yohan
    Background: Elevated Lp(a) (Lipoprotein(a)) levels are associated with coronary artery disease (CAD), ischemic stroke (IS), and calcific aortic valve stenosis (CAVS). Studies investigating the association between Lp(a) levels and these diseases in women have yielded inconsistent results. Methods: To investigate the association of Lp(a) with sex-specific cardiovascular outcomes, we determined the association between genetically predicted Lp(a) levels (using 27 single nucleotide polymorphisms at the LPA locus) and hepatic LPA expression (using 80 single nucleotide polymorphisms at the LPA locus associated with LPA mRNA expression in liver samples from the Genotype-Tissue Expression dataset) on CAD, IS, and CAVS using individual participant data from the UK Biobank: 408 403 participants of European ancestry (37 102, 4283, and 2574 with prevalent CAD, IS, and CAVS, respectively). The long-term association between Lp(a) levels and incident CAD, IS, and CAVS was also investigated in European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Norfolk: 18 721 participants (3964, 846, and 424 with incident CAD, IS, and CAVS, respectively). Results: Genetically predicted plasma Lp(a) levels were positively and similarly associated with prevalent and incident CAD and CAVS in men and women. Genetically predicted plasma Lp(a) levels were associated with prevalent and incident IS when we studied men and women pooled together, and in men only. Genetically predicted LPA expression levels were associated with prevalent CAD and CAVS in men and women but not with IS. Conclusions: Genetically predicted blood Lp(a) and hepatic LPA gene expression as well as serum Lp(a) levels predict the risk of CAD and CAVS in men and in women. Whether RNA interference therapies aiming at lowering Lp(a) levels could be useful in reducing cardiovascular disease risk in both men and women with high Lp(a) levels needs to be determined in large-scale cardiovascular outcomes trials.