Personne : Messaddeq, Younès
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Université Laval. Département de physique, de génie physique et d'optique
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- PublicationAccès libreTemplated dewetting for self-assembled ultra low-loss chalcogenide integrated photonics(OSA Pub., 2021-10-11) Jean, Philippe; LaRochelle, Sophie; Shi, Wei; Messaddeq, Younès; Douaud, AlexandreIntegrated photonics is of growing interest but relies on complex fabrication methods that have yet to match optical losses of bulkier platforms like optical fibers or whispering gallery mode resonators. Spontaneous matter reorganization phenomenon (e.g. dewetting) in thin-films provides a way for self-assembled structures with atomic scale surface rugosity, potentially alleviating the problems of roughness scattering loss and fabrication complexity. In this article, we study solid-state dewetting in chalcogenide glass thin-films and demonstrate its applicability to the fabrication of high-quality integrated photonics components. Optimal dewetting parameters are derived from a comprehensive experimental study of thin-film properties under high temperature rapid annealing. Atomic scale surface roughness are obtained using dewetting, with RMS values as low as Rq = 0.189 nm. Several integrated photonics components are fabricated using the method and characterized. We show that the use of pre-patterned templates leads to organized, reproducible patterns with large-scale uniformity and demonstrate the record high quality-factor of 4.7 × 106 in compact (R = 50 µm) microdisks, corresponding to 0.08 dB⋅cm−1 waveguide propagation loss. The integrated devices are directly fabricated on standard silicon-on-insulator dice using the micro-trench filling technique and coupled to silicon waveguides, making them readily deployable with existing silicon devices and systems.
- PublicationAccès libreFemtosecond self-reconfiguration of laser-induced plasma patterns in dielectrics(American Physical Society, 2018-05-11) Messaddeq, Sandra Helena; Varin, Charles; Déziel, Jean-Luc; Dubé, Louis J.; Messaddeq, YounèsLaser-induced modification of transparent solids by intense femtosecond laser pulses allows fast integration of nanophotonic and nanofluidic devices with controlled optical properties. Experimental observations suggest that the local and dynamic nature of the interactions between light and the transient plasma plays an important role during fabrication. Current analytical models neglect these aspects and offer limited coverage of nanograting formation on dielectric surfaces. In this paper, we present a self-consistent dynamic treatment of the plasma buildup and its interaction with light within a three-dimensional electromagnetic framework. The main finding of this work is that local light-plasma interactions are responsible for the reorientation of laser-induced periodic plasma patterns with respect to the incident light polarization, when a certain energy density threshold is reached. Plasma reconfiguration occurs within a single laser pulse, on a femtosecond time scale. Moreover, we show that the reconfigured subwavelength plasma structures actually grow into the bulk of the sample, which agrees with the experimental observations of self-organized volume nanogratings. We find that mode coupling of the incident and transversely scattered light with the periodic plasma structures is sufficient to initiate the growth and self-organization of the pattern inside the medium with a characteristic half-wavelength periodicity.
- PublicationAccès libreSulfur-rich chalcogenide claddings for athermal and high-Q silicon microring resonators(OSA Pub., 2021-02-26) Jean, Philippe; LaRochelle, Sophie; Thibault, Tristan; Shi, Wei; Messaddeq, Younès; Douaud, AlexandreHeterogeneous integration of materials with a negative thermo-optic coefficient is a simple and efficient way to compensate the strong detrimental thermal dependence of silicon-on-insulator devices. Yet, the list of materials that are both amenable for photonics fabrication and exhibit a negative TOC is very short and often requires sacrificing loss performance. In this work, we demonstrate that As20S80 chalcogenide glass thin-films can be used to compensate silicon thermal effects in microring resonators while retaining excellent loss figures. We present an experimental characterization of the glass thin-film and of fabricated hybrid microring resonators at telecommunication wavelengths. Nearly athermal operation is demonstrated for the TM polarization with an absolute minimum measured resonance shift of 5.25 pm K−1, corresponding to a waveguide effective index thermal dependence of 4.28×10-6 RIU/K. We show that the thermal dependence can be controlled by changing the cladding thickness and a negative thermal dependence is obtained for the TM polarization. All configurations exhibit unprecedented low loss figures with a maximum measured intrinsic quality factor exceeding 3.9 × 105, corresponding to waveguide propagation loss of 1.37 dB cm−1. A value of−4.75(75)×10-5 RIU/K is measured for the thermo-optic coefficient of As20S80 thin-films.
- PublicationAccès libreAtomic level structure of Ge-Sb-S glasses : chemical short range order and long Sb-S bonds(Elsevier Science, 2018-09-28) Pethes, Ildikó; Ari, Julien; Nazabal, Virginie; Messaddeq, Younès; Kaban, Ivan; Darpentigny, Jacques; Welter, Edmund; Gutowski, Olof; Bureau, Bruno; Jóvári, PálThe structure of Ge20Sb10S70, Ge23Sb12S65 and Ge26Sb13S61 glasses was investigated by neutron diffraction (ND), X-ray diffraction (XRD), extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements at the Ge and Sb K-edges as well as Raman scattering. For each composition, large scale structural models were obtained by fitting simultaneously diffraction and EXAFS data sets in the framework of the reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) simulation technique. Ge and S atoms have 4 and 2 nearest neighbors, respectively. The structure of these glasses can be described by the chemically ordered network model: Ge-S and Sb-S bonds are always preferred. These two bond types adequately describe the structure of the stoichiometric glass while S-S bonds can also be found in the S-rich composition. Raman scattering data show the presence of Ge-Ge, Ge-Sb and Sb-Sb bonds in the S-deficient glass but only Ge-Sb bonds are needed to fit diffraction and EXAFS datasets. A significant part of the Sb-S pairs has 0.3–0.4 Å longer bond distance than the usually accepted covalent bond length (∼2.45 Å). From this observation it was inferred that a part of Sb atoms have more than 3 S neighbors.
- PublicationAccès libreDemonstration of an erbium-doped fiber with annular doping for low gain compression in cladding-pumped amplifiers(The Optical Society, 2018-10-01) Essiambre, René-Jean.; Chen, Haoshuo; Matte-Breton, Charles; Fontaine, Nicolas K.; Jin, Cang; Ryf, Roland; LaRochelle, Sophie; Messaddeq, Younès; Kelly, C.We present the design and characterization of a cladding-pumped amplifier with erbium doping located in an annular region near the core. This erbium-doped fiber is proposed to reduce gain saturation, leading to smaller gain compression when compared to uniform core doping. Through numerical simulations, we first compare the performance of three fibers with different erbium doping profiles in the core or the cladding. When the doped fibers are operated at the optimum length, results show that the smaller overlap of the signal mode field with the annular erbium doping region leads to higher gain and lower saturation of the amplifier. A single-core erbium-doped fiber with an annular doping and a D-shaped cladding was fabricated. Measurements demonstrate less than 4 dB of gain compression over the C-band for input power ranging from −40 dBm to 3 dBm. Small gain compression EDFAs are of interest for applications that require input channel reconfiguration. Higher gain and saturation output power are also key issues in cladding-pumped multi-core amplifiers.
- PublicationAccès libreEngineering nanoparticle features to tune Rayleigh scattering in nanoparticles-doped optical fibers(Springer Nature, 2021-04-27) Fuertes, Victor; Gagnon, Stéphane; Grégoire, Nicolas; Labranche, Philippe; Ledemi, Yannick; LaRochelle, Sophie; Messaddeq, Younès; Wang, RuohuiRayleigh scattering enhanced nanoparticles-doped optical fibers are highly promising for distributed sensing applications, however, the high optical losses induced by that scattering enhancement restrict considerably their sensing distance to few meters. Fabrication of long-range distributed optical fiber sensors based on this technology remains a major challenge in optical fiber community. In this work, it is reported the fabrication of low-loss Ca-based nanoparticles doped silica fibers with tunable Rayleigh scattering for long-range distributed sensing. This is enabled by tailoring nanoparticle features such as particle distribution size, morphology and density in the core of optical fibers through preform and fiber fabrication process. Consequently, fibers with tunable enhanced backscattering in the range 25.9-44.9 dB, with respect to a SMF-28 fiber, are attained along with the lowest two-way optical losses, 0.1-8.7 dB/m, reported so far for Rayleigh scattering enhanced nanoparticles-doped optical fibers. Therefore, the suitability of Ca-based nanoparticles-doped optical fibers for distributed sensing over longer distances, from 5 m to more than 200 m, becomes possible. This study opens a new path for future works in the field of distributed sensing, since these findings may be applied to other nanoparticles-doped optical fibers, allowing the tailoring of nanoparticle properties, which broadens future potential applications of this technology.
- PublicationAccès libreNonlinear increase, invisibility, and sign inversion of a localized fs-laser-induced refractive index change in crystals and glasses(Springer Nature, 2020-04-20) Dupont, Albert; Bérubé, Jean-Philippe; Ledemi, Yannick; Fortin, Vincent; Messaddeq, Younès; Vallée, Réal; Lapointe, JérômeMultiphoton absorption via ultrafast laser focusing is the only technology that allows a three-dimensional structural modification of transparent materials. However, the magnitude of the refractive index change is rather limited, preventing the technology from being a tool of choice for the manufacture of compact photonic integrated circuits. We propose to address this issue by employing a femtosecond-laser-induced electronic band-gap shift (FLIBGS), which has an exponential impact on the refractive index change for propagating wavelengths approaching the material electronic resonance, as predicted by the Kramers–Kronig relations. Supported by theoretical calculations, based on a modified Sellmeier equation, the Tauc law, and waveguide bend loss calculations, we experimentally show that several applications could take advantage of this phenomenon. First, we demonstrate waveguide bends down to a submillimeter radius, which is of great interest for higher-density integration of fs-laser-written quantum and photonic circuits. We also demonstrate that the refractive index contrast can be switched from negative to positive, allowing direct waveguide inscription in crystals. Finally, the effect of the FLIBGS can compensate for the fs-laser-induced negative refractive index change, resulting in a zero refractive index change at specific wavelengths, paving the way for new invisibility applications.
- PublicationRestreintCarbonic anhydrase XII in valve interstitial cells promotes the regression of calcific aortic valve stenosis.(Academic Press Inc, Ltd., 2016-03-11) Lachance, Dominic.; Bouchareb, Rihab; Asselin, Jérémie; Boudreau, Denis; Marette, André; Boulanger, Marie-Chloé; Le Quang, Khai; Côté, Nancy.; Bossé, Yohan; Shayhidin, Elnur Elyar; Messaddeq, Younès; El Husseini, Diala; Mahmut, Ablajan; Pibarot, Philippe; Hadji, Fayez; Mathieu, PatrickAims: Calcific aortic valve stenosis (CAVS) is the most common heart valve disease. In the present work we sought to determine the reversibility of mineralization in the aortic valve. Methods and results: By using in vitro analyses we found that valve interstitial cells (VICs) have the ability to resorb minerals. We documented that agonist of P2Y2 receptor (P2Y2R) promoted the expression of carbonic anhydrase XII (CAXII) at the cell membrane of VICs, whereby minerals are resorbed. P2Y2R-mediated mineral resorption was corroborated by using mouse VICs isolated from wild type and P2Y2R-/- mice. Measurements of extracellular pH (pHe) by using core–shell nanosensors revealed that P2Y2R-mediated CAXII export to the cell membrane led to an acidification of extracellular space, whereby minerals are resorbed. In vivo, we next treated LDLR-/-/ApoB100/100/IGF2 mice, which had developed CAVS under a high-fat/high-sucrose diet for 8 months, with 2-thioUTP (a P2Y2R agonist) or saline for the next 2 months. The administration of 2-thioUTP (2 mg/kg/day i.p.) reduced the mineral volume in the aortic valve measured with serial microCT analyses, which improved hemodynamics and reduced left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). Examination of leaflets at necropsy confirmed a lower level of mineralization and fibrosis along with higher levels of CAXII in mice under 2-thioUTP. In another series of experiment, the administration of acetazolamide (a CA inhibitor) prevented the acidification of leaflets and the regression of CAVS induced by 2-thioUTP in LDLR-/-/ApoB100/100/IGF2 mice. Conclusion: P2Y2R-mediated expression of CAXII by VICs acidifies the extracellular space and promotes the regression of CAVS.
- PublicationRestreintMechanical strain induces the production of spheroid mineralized microparticles in the aortic valve through a RhoA/ROCK-dependent mechanism.(Academic Press Inc, Ltd., 2013-12-22) Bouchareb, Rihab; Fournier, Dominique; Boulanger, Marie-Chloé; Messaddeq, Younès; Pibarot, Philippe; Mathieu, PatrickCalcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is a chronic disorder characterized by an abnormal mineralization of the leaflets, which is accelerated in bicuspid aortic valve (BAV). It is suspected that mechanical strain may promote/enhance mineralization of the aortic valve. However, the effect of mechanical strain and the involved pathways during mineralization of the aortic valve remains largely unknown. Valve interstitial cells (VICs) were isolated and studied under strain conditions. Human bicuspid aortic valves were examined as a model relevant to increase mechanical strain. Cyclic strain increased mineralization of VICs by several-fold. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analyses revealed that mechanical strain promoted the formation of mineralized spheroid microparticles, which coalesced into larger structure at the surface of apoptotic VICs. Apoptosis and mineralization were closely associated with expression of ENPP1. Inhibition of ENPP1 greatly reduced mineralization of VIC cultures. Through several lines of evidence we showed that mechanical strain promoted the export of ENPP1-containing vesicles to the plasma membrane through a RhoA/ROCK pathway. Studies conducted in human BAV revealed the presence of spheroid mineralized structures along with the expression of ENPP1 in areas of high mechanical strain. Mechanical strain promotes the production and accumulation of spheroid mineralized microparticles by VICs, which may represent one important underlying mechanism involved in aortic valve mineralization. RhoA/ROCK-mediated export of ENPP1 to the plasma membrane promotes strain-induced mineralization of VICs.
- PublicationAccès librePerfect vortex modes for nondestructive characterization of mode dependent loss in ring core fibers(New York, N.Y. : Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2022-08-02) Banawan, Mai; Mishra, Satyendra K.; Messaddeq, Younès; LaRochelle, Sophie; Rusch, LeslieRing core fibers (RCF) enable high-performance modal multiplexing with low crosstalk and can support orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes. RCFs are challenging to characterize due to the lack of commercial multiplexers, especially for high OAM orders. For fibers supporting large numbers of modes, typical cutback techniques for characterization are extremely wasteful of fiber, especially as one cutback is required for each mode. We show the differential modal loss across modes 3 to 10 was significantly underestimated using an OTDR when exciting modes individually or when exciting all modes indiscriminately. We exploit perfect vortex beams to achieve reliable and nondestructive characterization of mode-dependent loss (MDL) for OAM modes. Perfect vortex beams allow us to maximize the coupling efficiency at each mode launch, increasing the accuracy of MDL estimate. We fabricated fiber with a refractive index difference between the ring core and the cladding of a 5.1×10⁻². For this fiber, mode orders 3 to 10 are the most suitable for data transmission and were the focus of our work (the fiber support up to OAM order 13). Such a high index difference can lead to MDL. We demonstrate that the modal loss spans from 2.14 to 4.38 dB/km for orders 3 to 10.