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Parent, Martin

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Université Laval. Département de psychiatrie et de neurosciences



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  • PublicationRestreint
    Distribution and ultrastructural features of the serotonin innervation in rat and squirrel monkey subthalamic nucleus
    (Oxford University Press, 2010-04-01) Wallman, Marie-Josée; Parent, Martin; Descarries, Laurent
    The main purpose of this light and electron microscopic immunocytochemical study was to characterize and compare the serotonin (5-HT) innervation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in rats and squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) following labeling with an antibody against the 5-HT transporter (SERT). Unbiased counts of SERT+ axon varicosities revealed an average density of 5-HT innervation higher in monkeys (1.52 × 106 varicosities/mm3) than rats (1.17 × 106), particularly in the anterior half of the nucleus (1.70 × 106). As measured by electron microscopy, SERT+ axon varicosity profiles in the STN of both species were smaller than unlabeled profiles. The number of SERT+ profiles displaying a synaptic junction indicated that, in both rat and monkey STN, approximately half of 5-HT axon varicosities were asynaptic. In monkeys, all synaptic junctions made by SERT+ varicosities were asymmetrical, as opposed to only 77% in rats. Despite the higher density of 5-HT innervation in the anterior half of monkey STN, the ultrastructural features of its SERT+ varicosities, including synaptic incidence, did not significantly differ from those in its posterior half. These findings suggest that, throughout the rat and monkey STN, 5-HT afferents may exert their influence via both synaptic delivery and diffusion of 5-HT, and that an ambient level of 5-HT maintained in STN by these two modes of transmission might also modulate neuronal activity and influence motor behavior. A better understanding of the factors governing the complex interplay between these signaling processes would greatly improve our knowledge of the physiopathology of the STN.
  • PublicationRestreint
    Axonal branching pattern of neurons of the subthalamic nucleus in primates
    (Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology, 2000-07-05) Sato, Fumi; Parent, Martin; Parent, André; Lévesque, Martin
    Axonal projections arising from the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were traced after labeling small pools (5-15 cells) of neurons with biotinylated dextran amine. Seventy-five single axons were reconstructed from serial sagittal sections with a camera lucida. Most of the STN labeled cells displayed five to eight long, sparsely spined dendrites that arborized mostly along the main axis of the nucleus. Based on their axonal targets, five distinct types of STN projection neurons have been identified: 1) neurons projecting to the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr), the internal (GPi) and external (GPe) segments of the globus pallidus (21.3%); 2) neurons targeting SNr and GPe (2.7%); 3) neurons projecting to GPi and GPe (48%); 4) neurons targeting GPe only (10.7 %); and 5) neurons with axons that coursed toward the sriatum, but whose terminal arborization could not be visualized in detail (17.3%). Axons of the first two types bifurcated into rostral subthalamopallidal and caudal pallidonigral branches. However, the majority of STN axons had only a single branch that coursed rostrally toward the pallidum and striatum. These results reveal that, in contrast to current beliefs, the primate STN is not a monolithic entity. This nucleus harbors several subtypes of projection neurons, each endowed with a highly patterned set of collaterals. This organization allows STN neurons to exert a multifarious effect not only on the GPe, with which the STN is reciprocally connected, but also on the two major output structures of the basal ganglia, the SNr and the GPi.
  • PublicationAccès libre
    Striatal neurons expressing D1 and D2 receptors are morphologically distinct and differently affected by dopamine denervation in mice
    (Nature Publishing Group, 2017-01-27) Gagnon, Dave; De Koninck, Yves; Beaulieu, Jean Martin; Sánchez, Maria Gabriela; Parent, Martin; Petryszyn, Sarah; Parent, André; Bories, Cyril
    The loss of nigrostriatal dopamine neurons in Parkinson’s disease induces a reduction in the number of dendritic spines on medium spiny neurons (MSNs) of the striatum expressing D1 or D2 dopamine receptor. Consequences on MSNs expressing both receptors (D1/D2 MSNs) are currently unknown. We looked for changes induced by dopamine denervation in the density, regional distribution and morphological features of D1/D2 MSNs, by comparing 6-OHDA-lesioned double BAC transgenic mice (Drd1a-tdTomato/Drd2-EGFP) to sham-lesioned animals. D1/D2 MSNs are uniformly distributed throughout the dorsal striatum (1.9% of MSNs). In contrast, they are heterogeneously distributed and more numerous in the ventral striatum (14.6% in the shell and 7.3% in the core). Compared to D1 and D2 MSNs, D1/D2 MSNs are endowed with a smaller cell body and a less profusely arborized dendritic tree with less dendritic spines. The dendritic spine density of D1/D2 MSNs, but also of D1 and D2 MSNs, is significantly reduced in 6-OHDA-lesioned mice. In contrast to D1 and D2 MSNs, the extent of dendritic arborization of D1/D2 MSNs appears unaltered in 6-OHDA-lesioned mice. Our data indicate that D1/D2 MSNs in the mouse striatum form a distinct neuronal population that is affected differently by dopamine deafferentation that characterizes Parkinson’s disease.
  • PublicationAccès libre
    Morphological evidence for dopamine interactions with pallidal neurons in primates
    (Frontiers Media S.A., 2015-08-11) Parent, Martin; Eid, Lara
    The external (GPe) and internal (GPi) segments of the primate globus pallidus receive dopamine (DA) axonal projections arising mainly from the substantia nigra pars compacta and this innervation is here described based on tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunohistochemical observations gathered in the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus). At the light microscopic level, unbiased stereological quantification of TH positive (+) axon varicosities reveals a similar density of innervation in the GPe (0.19 ± 0.02 × 106 axon varicosities/mm3 of tissue) and GPi (0.17 ± 0.01 × 106), but regional variations occur in the anteroposterior and dorsoventral axes in both GPe and GPi and along the mediolateral plane in the GPe. Estimation of the neuronal population in the GPe (3.47 ± 0.15 × 103 neurons/mm3) and GPi (2.69 ± 0.18 × 103) yields a mean ratio of, respectively, 28 ± 3 and 68 ± 15 TH+ axon varicosities/pallidal neuron. At the electron microscopic level, TH+ axon varicosities in the GPe appear significantly smaller than those in the GPi and very few TH+ axon varicosities are engaged in synaptic contacts in the GPe (17 ± 3%) and the GPi (15 ± 4%) compared to their unlabeled counterparts (77 ± 6 and 50 ± 12%, respectively). Genuine synaptic contacts made by TH+ axon varicosities in the GPe and GPi are of the symmetrical and asymmetrical type. Such synaptic contacts together with the presence of numerous synaptic vesicles in all TH+ axon varicosities observed in the GPe and GPi support the functionality of the DA pallidal innervation. By virtue of its predominantly volumic mode of action, DA appears to exert a key modulatory effect upon pallidal neurons in concert with the more direct GABAergic inhibitory and glutamatergic excitatory actions of the striatum and subthalamic nucleus. We argue that the DA pallidal innervation plays a major role in the functional organization of the primate basal ganglia under both normal and pathological conditions.
  • PublicationRestreint
    Jules Bernard Luys : a singular figure of 19th Century neurology
    (Cambridge University Press, 2002-08-01) Parent, Martin; Parent, André; Leroux-Hugon, Véronique
    Jules Bernard Luys was a highly industrious and dedicated French investigator who made important contributions to the fields of neuroanatomy and neuropsychiatry in the second half of the 19th century. His name is still eponymically attached to the subthalamic nucleus and the centre médian nucleus, two structures that are at the center of our current thinking about the functional organization of the basal ganglia and the pathophysiology of Parkinson’s disease. While developing a highly original view of the anatomical and functional organization of the human brain, Luys contributed significantly to our knowledge of the neuropathological and clinical aspects of mental illnesses. Luys devoted the last part of his career to hysteria and hypnosis, engaging himself in experiments as extravagant as the action of medication at distance. In doing so, he became perhaps the most highly caricatured example of the fascination that hysteria exerted upon various renowned neurologists at the end of the 19th century. This paper briefly summarizes the contribution of this remarkable figure of the history of neurology.
  • PublicationAccès libre
    Evidence for sprouting of dopamine and serotonin axons in the pallidum of Parkinsonian monkeys
    (Frontiers Research Foundation, 2018-05-15) Gagnon, Dave; Whissel, Carl; Di Paolo, Thérèse; Parent, Martin; Eid, Lara; Parent, André; Coudé, Dymka
    This light and electron microscopie immunohistochemical quantitative study aimed at determining the state of the dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) innervations of the internal (GPi) and external (GPe) segments of the pallidum in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) rendered parkinsonian by systemic injections of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). In contrast to the prominent DA denervation of striatum, the GPi in MPTP monkeys was found to be markedly enriched in DA (TH+) axon varicosities. The posterior sensorimotor region of this major output structure of the basal ganglia was about 8 times more intensely innervated in MPTP monkeys (0.71 ± 0.08 × 106 TH+ axon varicosities/mm3) than in controls (0.09 ± 0.01 × 106). MPTP intoxication also induced a two-fold increase in the density of 5-HT (SERT+) axon varicosities in both GPe and GPi. This augmentation was particularly pronounced anteriorly in the so-called associative and limbic pallidal territories. The total length of the labeled pallidal axons was also significantly increased in MPTP monkeys compared to controls, but the number of DA and 5-HT axon varicosities per axon length unit remained the same in the two groups, indicating that the DA and 5-HT pallidal hyperinnervations seen in MPTP monkeys result from axon sprouting rather than from the appearance of newly formed axon varicosities on non-growing axons. At the ultrastructural level, pallidal TH+ and SERT+ axons were morphologically similar in MPTP and controls, and their synaptic incidence was very low suggesting a volumic mode of transmission. Altogether, our data reveal a significant sprouting of DA and 5-HT pallidal afferents in parkinsonian monkeys, the functional significance of which remains to be determined. We suggest that the marked DA hyperinnervation of the GPi represents a neuroadaptive change designed to normalize pallidal firing patterns associated with the delayed appearance of motor symptoms, whereas the 5-HT hyperinnervation might be involved in the early expression of non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease.
  • PublicationRestreint
    Quantitative and ultrastructural study of serotonin innervation of the globus pallidus in squirrel monkeys
    (Wiley, 2013-02-25) Champigny, Marie-France; Parent, Martin; Eid, Lara; Parent, André
    The present immunohistochemical study was aimed at characterizing the serotonin (5‐HT) innervation of the internal (GPi) and external (GPe) pallidal segments in the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) with an antibody against the 5‐HT transporter (SERT). At the light microscopic level, unbiased counts of SERT+ axon varicosities showed that the density of innervation is similar in the GPi (0.57 ± 0.03 × 106 varicosities/mm3 of tissue) and the GPe (0.60 ± 0.04 × 106), with the anterior half of both segments being more densely innervated than the posterior half. Dorsoventral and mediolateral decreasing gradients of SERT varicosities occur in both pallidal segments, but are statistically significant only in the GPi. The neuronal density being significantly greater in the GPe (3.41 ± 0.23 × 103 neurons/mm3) than in the GPi (2.90 ± 0.11 × 103), the number of 5‐HT axon varicosities per pallidal neuron was found to be superior in the GPi (201 ± 27) than in the GPe (156 ± 26). At the electron microscopic level, SERT+ axon varicosities are comparable in size and vesicular content in GPi and GPe, where they establish mainly asynaptic contacts with unlabeled profiles. Less than 25% of SERT+ varicosities display a synaptic specialization, which is of the symmetrical or asymmetrical type and occurs exclusively on pallidal dendrites. No SERT+ axo‐axonic synapses are present, suggesting that 5‐HT exerts its well‐established modulatory action upon various pallidal afferents mainly through diffuse transmission, whereas its direct control of pallidal neurons results from both volumic and synaptic release of the transmitter.
  • PublicationRestreint
    Asynaptic feature and heterogeneous distribution of the cholinergic innervation of the globus pallidus in primates
    (Springer Verlag, 2014-12-19) Parent, Martin; Eid, Lara; Parent, André
    The internal (GPi) and external (GPe) segments of the primate globus pallidus receive a significant cholinergic (ACh) innervation from the brainstem pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus. The present immunohistochemical study describes this innervation in the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus), as visualized with an antibody raised against choline acetyltransferase (ChAT). At the light microscopic level, unbiased stereological quantification of ChAT positive (?) axon varicosities reveals a significantly lower density of innervation in GPi (0.26 ± 0.03 9 106) than in GPe (0.47 ± 0.07 9 106 varicosities/mm3 of tissue), with the anterior half of both segments more densely innervated than the posterior half. Neuronal density of GPi (3.00 ± 0.13 9 103 neurons/mm3) and GPe (3.62 ± 0.22 9 103 neurons/mm3) yields a mean ratio of ChAT? axon varicosities per pallidal neuron of 74 ± 10 in the GPi and 128 ± 28 in the GPe. At the electron microscopic level, the pallidal ChAT? axon varicosities are significantly smaller than their unlabeled counterparts, but are comparable in size and shape in the two pallidal segments. Only a minority of ChAT? varicosities displays a synaptic specialization (12 % in the GPi and 17 % in the GPe); these scarce synaptic contacts are mostly of the symmetrical type and occur exclusively on pallidal dendrites. No ChAT? axo-axonic synaptic modulatory action on pallidal afferents through diffuse transmission, whereas pallidal neurons may be influenced by both volumic and synaptic delivery of ACh.
  • PublicationAccès libre
    Distribution of VGLUT3 in highly collateralized axons from the rat dorsal raphe nucleus as revealed by single-neuron reconstructions
    (Public Library of Science, 2014-02-04) Gagnon, Dave; Parent, Martin
    This study aimed at providing the first detailed morphological description, at the single-cell level, of the rat dorsal raphe nucleus neurons, including the distribution of the VGLUT3 protein within their axons. Electrophysiological guidance procedures were used to label dorsal raphe nucleus neurons with biotinylated dextran amine. The somatodendritic and axonal arborization domains of labeled neurons were reconstructed entirely from serial sagittal sections using a computerized image analysis system. Under anaesthesia, dorsal raphe nucleus neurons display highly regular (1.72±0.50 Hz) spontaneous firing patterns. They have a medium size cell body (9.8±1.7 µm) with 2–4 primary dendrites mainly oriented anteroposteriorly. The ascending axons of dorsal raphe nucleus are all highly collateralized and widely distributed (total axonal length up to 18.7 cm), so that they can contact, in various combinations, forebrain structures as diverse as the striatum, the prefrontal cortex and the amygdala. Their morphological features and VGLUT3 content vary significantly according to their target sites. For example, high-resolution confocal analysis of the distribution of VGLUT3 within individually labeled-axons reveals that serotonin axon varicosities displaying VGLUT3 are larger (0.74±0.03 µm) than those devoid of this protein (0.55±0.03 µm). Furthermore, the percentage of axon varicosities that contain VGLUT3 is higher in the striatum (93%) than in the motor cortex (75%), suggesting that a complex trafficking mechanism of the VGLUT3 protein is at play within highly collateralized axons of the dorsal raphe nucleus neurons. Our results provide the first direct evidence that the dorsal raphe nucleus ascending projections are composed of widely distributed neuronal systems, whose capacity to co-release serotonin and glutamate varies from one forebrain locus to the other.
  • PublicationAccès libre
    La collatéralisation axonale dans les ganglions de la base chez le primate
    (2006) Parent, Martin; Parent, André
    L'élucidation de la microcircuiterie liant les différentes composantes des ganglions de la base est d'une importance capitale afin d'améliorer notre compréhension de ce système neuronal hautement complexe impliqué notamment dans le contrôle de la motricité. C'est dans cette optique qu'ont été entrepris les travaux de recherche consolidés dans cet ouvrage qui rapporte des données neuroanatomiques nouvelles obtenues chez le singe cynomolgus {Macaca fascicularis) et le singe écureuil (Saimiri sciureus) à l'aide d'une technique de pointe permettant le marquage et la reconstruction tridimensionnelle complète de neurones individuels. L'injection par microiontophorèse d'un traceur antérograde, la biotine dextran aminé, dans le pallidum interne, le complexe centre médian/parafasciculaire du thalamus ainsi que le cortex moteur primaire, a permis de tracer en détail l'arborisation axonale des neurones composant ces structures. L'étude approfondie des neurones de projection du pallidum interne révèle que la majorité des axones pallidofuges sont fortement collatéralisés, un même neurone étant en mesure d'influencer à la fois le thalamus ventral, le complexe centre médian/parafasciculaire du thalamus ainsi que le noyau pédonculopontin du tegmentum mésencéphalique par le biais d'un jeu complexe de collatérales axonales. Il en est de même pour les neurones de projection du complexe thalamique centre médian/parafasciculaire dont le branchement axonal permet d'influencer individuellement et de façon variée, à la fois le cortex cérébral et le striatum. Nos travaux révèlent en plus que, contrairement à ce que l'on croyait, la projection corticostriée en provenance du cortex moteur primaire chez le primate n'est pas dédiée uniquement au striatum. En effet, la découverte de neurones corticaux projetant à la fois au striatum et vers le tronc cérébral via des collatérales axonales prouve que le cortex moteur primaire peut influencer le striatum de façon directe et indirecte. L'ensemble de ces résultats révèle que les ganglions de la base forment un réseau neuronal très vaste dont les éléments constitutifs possèdent un axone fortement collatéralisé. Ces données neuroanatomiques jettent un éclairage nouveau sur l'organisation anatomique et fonctionnelle des ganglions de la base chez le primate et doivent être prises en considération dans l'élaboration de nouvelles approches thérapeutiques visant à contrer les processus neurodégénératifs qui affectent les ganglions de la base, comme ceux associés aux maladies de Parkinson et de Huntington.