Personne : Beaulieu, Jean
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Université Laval. Département des sciences du bois et de la forêt
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- PublicationAccès libreMulti-trait selection for improved solid wood physical and flexural properties in white spruce(London Milford, 2022-03-22) Rashidijouybari, Iman; Lenz, Patrick; Beaulieu, Jean; Nadeau, Simon; Bousquet, Jean; Achim, AlexisCommercial production of high-quality lumber for Nordic conifers is negatively impacted by long rotation age and adverse negative correlations between growth and wood quality traits. A prospective solution to ensure sufficient fibre quality from future plantations is to identify key wood traits for desired applications and to consider them in tree breeding programs. In this study, we used the widespread and largely reforested white spruce (Picea glauca [Moench] Voss) in Canada to investigate the genetic control of wood flexural properties such as stiffness, i.e. modulus of elasticity (MOE), and strength, i.e. modulus of rupture (MOR). We also looked at their phenotypic and genetic correlations with other wood quality and growth traits to assess the efficiency of indirect methods of selection to improve wood flexural properties in the context of multi-trait selection in tree breeding programs. To achieve this, standardized solid wood samples, growth records and standing tree wood quality traits were collected from 289 trees belonging to 38 white spruce families from a polycross genetic trial established on two different sites in the province of Quebec, Canada. Flexural stiffness and strength, height, diameter at breast height (DBH) and wood density showed moderate to high heritability. Flexural stiffness was also positively correlated at the genetic level with flexural strength, average wood density and acoustic velocity as an indirect measure of dynamic MOE (rG = 0.99, rG = 0.78 and rG = 0.78, respectively). When selecting the top 5 per cent of the trees, the expected genetic gains varied from 3.6 per cent for acoustic velocity to 16.5 per cent for MOE. Selection based on wood density and acoustic velocity would result in considerable genetic gains in flexural stiffness. Several multi-trait selection scenarios were tested to investigate the genetic gains obtained from selecting with different combinations of growth and wood quality traits. The results showed that indirect selection for wood flexural properties by means of acoustic velocity and wood density are efficient methods that can be combined in operational white spruce breeding programs to increase simultaneously genetic gains for growth and wood flexural properties.
- PublicationAccès librePhenotypic correlations among growth and selected wood properties in white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss)(MDPI, 2019-07-16) Mvolo, Cyriac Serge; Defo, Maurice.; Cloutier, Alain; Koubaa, Ahmed; Ngueho Yemele, Martin Claude; Beaulieu, JeanWe examined phenotypic relationships among radial growth-related, physical (i.e., related to wood density), and anatomical (i.e., related to tracheid dimensions) wood properties in white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss), in order to determine the strength and significance of their correlations. Additionally, principal component analysis (PCA) was used to establish if all of the properties must be measured and to determine the key properties that can be used as proxies for the other variables. Radial growth-related and physical properties were measured with an X-ray densitometer, while anatomical properties were measured with a Fiber Quality Analyzer. Fifteen wood properties (tracheid length (TL) and diameter (TD), earlywood tracheid length (ETL) and diameter (ETD), latewood tracheid length (LTL) and diameter (LTD), ring width (RW), ring area (RA), earlywood width (EWW), latewood width (LWW), latewood proportion (LWP), ring density (RD), intra-ring density variation, earlywood density (EWD), and latewood density (LWD)) were assessed. Relationships were evaluated at intra-ring and inter-ring levels in the juvenile wood (JW) and mature wood (MW) zones. Except for a few cases when mature tracheid diameter (TD) was involved, all intra-ring anatomical properties were highly and significantly correlated. Radial growth properties were correlated, with stronger relationships in MW compared to JW. Physical properties were often positively and significantly correlated in both JW and MW. A higher earlywood density coupled with a lower latewood density favored wood uniformity, i.e., the homogeneity of ring density within a growth ring. Managing plantations to suppress trees growth during JW formation, and enhancing radial growth when MW formation starts will favor overall wood quality. In order, RW-EWW-RA, TL-ETL-LTL, and RD-EWD-LWP are the three clusters that appeared in the three wood zones, the whole pith-to-bark radial section, the juvenile wood zone, and the mature wood zone
- PublicationRestreintGenetic control of wood properties in Picea glauca - an analysis of trends with cambial age(National Research Council of Canada, 2010-04-15) MacKay, John; Lenz, Patrick; Cloutier, Alain; Beaulieu, JeanWe investigated the genetic control of wood properties as a function of cambial age to enable improvement of juvenile wood attributes in white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss). Increment cores were taken from 375 trees randomly selected from 25 open-pollinated families in a provenance–progeny trial repeated on three sites. High-resolution pith-to-bark profiles were obtained for microfibril angle (MFA), modulus of elasticity (MOE), wood density, tracheid diameter and cell wall thickness, fibre coarseness, and specific fibre surface with the SilviScan technology. Heritability estimates indicated that genetic control of cell anatomy traits and wood density increased with cambial age, whereas the genetic control of MFA and MOE remained relatively low across growth rings. Wood density, radial cell diameter, cell wall thickness, and specific fibre surface were highly heritable, indicating that significant genetic gains could be expected in tree improvement programs, although cambial age at selection may strongly influence the magnitude of realized gains. In contrast, growth-related properties, such as ring width, core length, and tree height, gave weak or nonsignificant heritability estimates. Adverse correlations between mechanical strength and properties related to paper quality suggest that breeding strategies must incorporate both types of traits to improve white spruce wood quality for different end uses.
- PublicationRestreintPrediction of tracheid length and diameter in white spruce (Picea glauca)(Rijksherbarium/Hortus botanicus, 2015-05-20) Mvolo, Cyriac Serge; Defo, Maurice.; Cloutier, Alain; Koubaa, Ahmed; Ngueho Yemele, Martin Claude; Beaulieu, JeanThe establishment of patterns of radial and longitudinal variations and the development of models to predict the wood anatomical properties, especially from juvenile wood, are of interest for both wood industry and researchers. Linear regressions were used to predict whole-tree, breast height and mature tracheid length and diameter in white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) and the WBE model was used to predict the variation of tracheid diameter. Tracheid length and diameter increased from pith to bark. Tracheid length decreased, while tracheid diameter increased from apex to lower heights. Cambial age was the most important predictor of tracheid length. The final tracheid length models with either a log transformation or a third-order polynomial of cambial age explained 82% of the variation in the whole-tree tracheid length. At breast height, 83% of the variation in the whole tracheid length was explained using the juvenile value at a cambial age of 3 years. Up to 87% of the variation was explained by the model, including the average value of juvenile wood. However, mature wood tracheid length at breast height could not be predicted from juvenile wood. Distance from the apex predicted the tracheid widening in outer rings but failed to predict tracheid expansion of samples collected at fixed cambial ages. The WBE explained 86% of conduit widening in the outer rings. The sampling strategy, i.e. collecting samples longitudinally at a fixed cambial age vs. at a fixed calendar year is important in predicting tracheid diameter.
- PublicationAccès libreValue creation network of canadian wood fibre(Centre interuniversitaire de recherche sur les réseaux d'entreprise, la logistique et le transport, 2012-07-01) Marier, Philippe; Lehoux, Nadia; Beaulieu, Jean; D'Amours, Sophie; Ouellet, DenisIn this paper, we describe the Canadian wood fibre value network by explaining what constitutes a value creation network, how to model this kind of network, and how it can be managed efficiently. Research for the forest industry conducted by national and international researchers as well as by Forac students are also provided. The paper finally reviews different technologies that could be useful to forest products companies in order to facilitate their decision-making process.
- PublicationAccès libreVariation in wood quality in white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss). Part I. Defining the juvenile–mature wood transition based on tracheid length(MDPI, 2015-01-08) Mvolo, Cyriac Serge; Koubaa, Ahmed; Beaulieu, Jean; Cloutier, Alain; Mazerolle, Marc J.Estimations of transition age (TA) and juvenile wood proportion (JWP) are important for wood industries due to their impact on end-product quality. However, the relationships between analytical determination of TA based on tracheid length (TL) and recognized thresholds for adequate end products have not yet been established. In this study, we used three different statistical models to estimate TA in white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) based on TL radial variation. We compared the results with technological maturity. A two-millimeter threshold, previously suggested for good paper tear strength, was used. Tracheid length increased from pith to bark and from breast height to upper height. Juvenile wood (JW) was conical with the three models. At breast height, TA ranged from 11 to 27 years and JWP ranged from 15.3% to 47.5% across the three models. The linear mixed model produced more conservative estimates than the maximum-quadratic-linear (M_Q_L) model. Both the linear mixed model and the M_Q_L model produced more conservative TA estimates than the piecewise model. TA estimates by the MIXED model, and to a lesser extent by the M_Q_L model, were equivalent to those for real mature wood, whereas TA estimates by the piecewise model were considerably lower, falling into the transition wood area.