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Guillemette, Chantal

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Université Laval. Faculté de pharmacie
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Voici les éléments 1 - 10 sur 17
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    UGT genomic diversity : beyond gene duplication
    (Informa Healthcare, 2009-10-26) Lévesque, Éric; Bellemare, Judith.; Harvey, Mario.; Ménard, Vincent; Guillemette, Chantal
    The human uridine diphospho (UDP)-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) superfamily comprises enzymes responsible for a major biotransformation phase II pathway: the glucuronidation process. The UGT enzymes are located in the endoplasmic reticulum of almost all tissues, where they catalyze the inactivation of several endogenous and exogenous molecules, including bilirubin, sex steroids, numerous prescribed drugs, and environmental toxins. This metabolic pathway is particularly variable. The influence of inheritable polymorphisms in human UGT-encoding genes has been extensively documented and was shown to be responsible for a fraction of the observed phenotypic variability. Other key genomic processes are likely underlying this diversity; these include copy-number variations, epigenetic factors, and newly discovered splicing mechanisms. This review will discuss novel molecular aspects that may be determinant to UGT phenotypes.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Overexpression of uridine diphospho glucuronosyltransferase 2B17 in high risk chronic lymphocytic leukemia
    (American Society of Hematology, 2012-11-20) Gruber, Michaela; Lévesque, Éric; Bellemare, Judith.; Hörmann, Gregor; Guillemette, Chantal; Gleiss, Andreas; Porpaczy, Edith; Bilban, Martin; Le, Trang; Zehetmayer, Sabine; Mannhalter, Christine; Gaiger, Alexander; Shehata, Medhat; Fleiss, Karin; Skrabs, Cathrin; Vanura, Katrina; Jäger, Ulrich
    Uridine diphospho glucuronosyltransferase 2B17 (UGT2B17) glucuronidates androgens and xenobiotics including certain drugs. The UGT2B17 gene shows a remarkable copy number variation (CNV), which predisposes for solid tumors and influences drug response. Here, we identify a yet undescribed UGT2B17 mRNA overexpression in poor-risk chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). In total, 320 CLL patients and 449 healthy donors were analyzed. High (above median) UGT2B17 expression was associated with established CLL poor prognostic factors and resulted in shorter treatment-free and overall survival (hazard ratio ([death] 2.18; 95% CI 1.18-4.01; P = .013). The prognostic impact of mRNA expression was more significant than that of UGT2B17 CNV. UGT2B17 mRNA levels in primary CLL samples directly correlated with functional glucuronidation activity toward androgens and the anticancer drug vorinostat (R > 0.9, P < .001). After treatment with fludarabine containing regimens UGT2B17 was up-regulated particularly in poor responders (P = .030). We observed an exclusive involvement of the 2B17 isoform within the UGT protein family. Gene expression profiling of a stable UGT2B17 knockdown in the CLL cell line MEC-1 demonstrated a significant involvement in key cellular processes. These findings establish a relevant role of UGT2B17 in CLL with functional consequences and potential therapeutic implications.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    A rare UGT2B7 variant creates a novel N-glycosylation site at codon 121 with impaired enzyme activity
    (American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 2016-09-12) Benoît-Biancamano, Marie-Odile; Desjardins, Sylvie; Guillemette, Chantal; Girard-Bock, Camille; Villeneuve, Lyne
    UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) superfamily are glycoproteins resident of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes that undergo post-translational modifications (PTM). UGT2B7 is of particular interest because of its action on a wide variety of drugs. Most studies currently survey common variants and are only examining a small fraction of the genetic diversity. However, rare variants (frequency <1%) might have significant effect as they are predicted to greatly outnumber common variants in the human genome. Here, we discovered a rare single nucleotide UGT2B7 variant of potential pharmacogenetic relevance that encodes a nonconservative amino acid substitution at codon 121. This low-frequency variation, found in two individuals of a population of 305 healthy volunteers, leads to the translation of an asparagine (Asn) instead of an aspartic acid (Asp) (UGT2B7 p.D121N). This amino acid change was predicted to create a putative N-glycosylation motif NX(S/T) subsequently validated upon endoglycosidase H treatment of microsomal fractions and inhibition of N-glycosylation of endogenously produced UGT2B7 with tunicamycin from HEK293 cells. The presence of an additional N-linked glycan on the UGT2B7 enzyme, likely affecting proper protein folding, resulted in a significant decrease, respectively by 49 and 40%, in the formation of zidovudine and mycophenolic acid glucuronides. A systematic survey of the dbSNP database uncovered 32 rare and naturally occurring missense variations predicted to create or disrupt N-glycosylation sequence motifs in the other UGT2B enzymes. Collectively, these variants have the potential to increase the proportion of variance explained in the UGT pathway due to changes in PTM such as N-linked glycosylation with consequences on drug metabolism.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Crosstalk between alternatively spliced UGT1A isoforms and colon cancer cell metabolism
    (American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 2017-01-03) Rouleau, Michèle; Picard, Frédéric; Têtu, Bernard; Roberge, Joannie; Audet-Delage, Yannick; Guillemette, Chantal; Rouleau, Mélanie; Miard, Stéphanie
    Alternative splicing at the human glucuronosyltransferase 1 gene locus (UGT1) produces alternate isoforms UGT1A_i2s that control glucuronidation activity through protein-protein interactions. Here, we hypothesized that UGT1A_i2s function into a complex protein network connecting other metabolic pathways with influence on cancer cell metabolism. This is based on a pathway enrichment analysis of proteomic data that identified several high-confidence candidate interaction proteins of UGT1A_i2 proteins in human tissues, namely the rate-limiting enzyme of glycolysis pyruvate kinase (PKM), which plays a critical role in cancer cell metabolism and tumor growth. The partnership of UGT1A_i2 and PKM2 was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation in the HT115 colon cancer cells and was supported by a partial co-localization of these two proteins. In support of a functional role for this partnership, depletion of UGT1A_i2 proteins in HT115 cells enforced the Warburg effect with higher glycolytic rate at the expense of mitochondrial respiration, and led to lactate accumulation. Untargeted metabolomics further revealed a significantly altered cellular content of 58 metabolites including many intermediates derived from the glycolysis and TCA cycle pathways. These metabolic changes were associated with a greater migration potential. The potential relevance of our observations is supported by the down-regulation of UGT1A_i2s mRNA in colon tumors compared to normal tissues. Alternate UGT1A variants may thus be part of the expanding compendium of metabolic pathways involved in cancer biology directly contributing to the oncogenic phenotype of colon cancer cells. Findings uncover new aspects of UGT functions diverging from their transferase activity.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Quantitative profiling of the UGT transcriptome in human drug metabolizing tissues
    (Nature Publishing Group., 2017-04-25) Rouleau, Michèle; Gilbert, Isabelle; Droit, Arnaud; Tourancheau, Alan; Guillemette, Chantal; Guauque-Olarte, Sandra; Villeneuve, Lyne
    Alternative splicing as a mean to control gene expression and diversify function is suspected to considerably influence drug response and clearance. We report the quantitative expression profiles of the human UGT genes including alternatively spliced variants not previously annotated established by deep RNA-sequencing in tissues of pharmacological importance. We reveal a comprehensive quantification of the alternative UGT transcriptome that differ across tissues and among individuals. Alternative transcripts that comprise novel in-frame sequences associated or not with truncations of the 5′- and/or 3′- termini, significantly contribute to the total expression levels of each UGT1 and UGT2 gene averaging 21% in normal tissues, with expression of UGT2 variants surpassing those of UGT1. Quantitative data expose preferential tissue expression patterns and remodeling in favor of alternative variants upon tumorigenesis. These complex alternative splicing programs have the strong potential to contribute to interindividual variability in drug metabolism in addition to diversify the UGT proteome.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Endogenous protein interactome of human UDP-glucuronosyltransferases exposed by untargeted proteomics
    (Frontiers Research Foundation, 2017-02-03) Rouleau, Michèle; Desjardins, Sylvie; Audet-Delage, Yannick; Guillemette, Chantal; Rouleau, Mélanie; Girard-Bock, Camille
    The conjugative metabolism mediated by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase enzymes (UGTs) significantly influences the bioavailability and biological responses of endogenous molecule substrates and xenobiotics including drugs. UGTs participate in the regulation of cellular homeostasis by limiting stress induced by toxic molecules, and by controlling hormonal signaling networks. Glucuronidation is highly regulated at genomic, transcriptional, post-transcriptional and post-translational levels. However, the UGT protein interaction network, which is likely to influence glucuronidation, has received little attention. We investigated the endogenous protein interactome of human UGT1A enzymes in main drug metabolizing non-malignant tissues, where UGT expression is most prevalent, using an unbiased proteomics approach. Mass spectrometry analysis of affinity-purified UGT1A enzymes and associated protein complexes in liver, kidney and intestine tissues revealed an intricate interactome linking UGT1A enzymes to multiple metabolic pathways. Several proteins of pharmacological importance such as transferases (including UGT2 enzymes), transporters and dehydrogenases were identified, upholding a potential coordinated cellular response to small lipophilic molecules and drugs. Furthermore, a significant cluster of functionally related enzymes involved in fatty acid ß-oxidation, as well as in the glycolysis and glycogenolysis pathways were enriched in UGT1A enzymes complexes. Several partnerships were confirmed by co-immunoprecipitations and co-localization by confocal microscopy. An enhanced accumulation of lipid droplets in a kidney cell model overexpressing the UGT1A9 enzyme supported the presence of a functional interplay. Our work provides unprecedented evidence for a functional interaction between glucuronidation and bioenergetic metabolism.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Immunohistochemical expression of conjugating UGT1A-derived splice proteins in normal and tumoral drug-metabolising tissues in humans
    (Wiley, 2010-10-29) Bellemare, Judith.; Pelletier, Georges; Popa, Ion; Têtu, Bernard; Harvey, Mario.; Guillemette, Chantal; Rouleau, Mélanie
    Glucuronidation by UDP-glucuronyltransferase (UGT) enzymes is the prevailing conjugative pathway for the metabolism of both xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. Alterations in this pathway, such as those generated by common genetic polymorphisms, have been shown to significantly impact on the health of individuals, influencing cancer susceptibility, responsiveness to drugs and drug-induced toxicity. Alternative usage of terminal exons leads to UGT1A-derived splice variants, namely the classical and enzymatically active isoforms 1 (i1) and the novel enzymatically inactive isoforms 2 (i2). In vitro functional data from heterologous expression and RNA interference experiments indicate that these i2 isoforms act as negative modulators of glucuronidation, likely by forming inactive complexes with active isoform 1. We used specific antibodies against either active i1 or inactive i2 proteins to examine their distribution in major drug-metabolizing tissues. Data revealed that UGT1A_i1 and inactive UGT1A_i2 are co-produced in the same tissue structures, including liver, kidney, stomach, intestine and colon. Examination of the cellular distribution and semi-quantitative level of expression of UGT1As revealed heterogeneous expression of i1 and i2 proteins, with increased expression of i2 in liver tumours and decreased levels of i1 and i2 in colon cancer specimens, compared to normal tissues. These differences in expression may be relevant to human colon and liver cancer tumorigenesis. Our data clearly demonstrate the similar immunolocalization of active and inactive UGT1A isoforms in most UGT1A-expressing cell types of major tissues involved in drug metabolism. These expression patterns are consistent with a dominant-negative function for the i2 encoded by the UGT1A gene.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Unravelling the transcriptomic landscape of the major phase II UDP-glucuronosyltransferase drug metabolizing pathway using targeted RNA sequencing
    (Nature, 2015-04-14) Lévesque, Éric; Margaillan, Guillaume; Rouleau, Michèle; Gilbert, Isabelle; Droit, Arnaud; Tourancheau, Alan; Guillemette, Chantal; Villeneuve, Lyne
    A comprehensive view of the human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) transcriptome is a prerequisite to the establishment of an individual's UGT metabolic glucuronidation signature. Here, we uncover the transcriptome landscape of the 10 human UGT gene loci in normal and tumoral metabolic tissues by targeted RNA next-generation sequencing. Alignment on the human hg19 reference genome identifies 234 novel exon-exon junctions. We recover all previously known UGT1 and UGT2 enzyme-coding transcripts and identify over 130 structurally and functionally diverse novel UGT variants. We further expose a revised genomic structure of UGT loci and provide a comprehensive repertoire of transcripts for each UGT gene. Data also uncover a remodelling of the UGT transcriptome occurring in a tissue- and tumor-specific manner. The complex alternative splicing program regulating UGT expression and protein functions is likely critical in determining detoxification capacity of an organ and stress-related responses, with significant impact on drug responses and diseases.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    The relative protein abundance of UGT1A alternative splice variants as a key determinant of glucuronidation activity in vitro
    (American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, etc., 2013-04-01) Roberge, Joannie; Guillemette, Chantal; Falardeau, Sarah-Ann; Rouleau, Mélanie; Villeneuve, Lyne
    Alternative splicing (AS) is one of the most significant components of the functional complexity of human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase enzymes (UGTs), particularly for the UGT1A gene, which represents one of the best examples of a drug-metabolizing gene regulated by AS. Shorter UGT1A isoforms [isoform 2 (i2)] are deficient in glucuronic acid transferase activity but function as negative regulators of enzyme activity through protein-protein interaction. Their abundance, relative to active UGT1A enzymes, is expected to be a determinant of the global transferase activity of cells and tissues. Here we tested whether i2-mediated inhibition increases with greater abundance of the i2 protein relative to the isoform 1 (i1) enzyme, using the extrahepatic UGT1A7 as a model and a series of 23 human embryonic kidney 293 clonal cell lines expressing variable contents of i1 and i2 proteins. Upon normalization for i1, a significant reduction of 7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin glucuronide formation was observed for i1+i2 clones (mean of 53%) compared with the reference i1 cell line. In these clones, the i2 protein content varied greatly (38–263% relative to i1) and revealed two groups: 17 clones with i2 < i1 (60% ± 3%) and 6 clones with i2 = i1 (153% ± 24%). The inhibition induced by i2 was more substantial for clones displaying i2 = i1 (74.5%; P = 0.001) compared with those with i2 < i1 (45.5%). Coimmunoprecipitation supports a more substantial i1-i2 complex formation when i2 exceeds i1. We conclude that the relative abundance of regulatory i2 proteins has the potential to drastically alter the local drug metabolism in the cells, particularly when i2 surpasses the protein content of i1.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Pharmacogenomics of human uridine diphospho-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) and clinical implications
    (Wiley, 2014-06-12) Lévesque, Éric; Rouleau, Michèle; Guillemette, Chantal
    Glucuronidation, mediated by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase enzymes (UGTs), is a major phase II biotransformation pathway and, complementary to phase I metabolism and membrane transport, one of the most important cellular defense mechanism responsible for the inactivation of therapeutic drugs, other xenobiotics and numerous endogenous molecules. Individual variability in UGT enzymatic pathways is significant and may have profound pharmacological and toxicological implications. Several genetic and genomic processes are underlying this variability and are discussed in the context of drug metabolism and diseases such as cancer.