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Simard, Martine

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Université Laval. École de psychologie
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  • PublicationAccès libre
    Normative data for the Rappel libre/Rappel indicé à 16 items (16-item Free and Cued Recall) in the elderly Quebec-French population
    (Swets Pub., 2014-05-12) Dion, Mélissa; Potvin, Olivier; Vallet, Guillaume; Belleville, Sylvie; Simard, Martine; Ferland, Guylaine; Rouleau, Isabelle; Renaud, Mélanie; Macoir, Joël; Hudon, Carol; Joubert, Sven; Bherer, Louis; Lecomte, Sarah
    Performance on verbal memory tests is generally associated with socio-demographic variables such as age, sex, and education level. Performance also varies between different cultural groups. The present study aimed to establish normative data for the Rappel libre/Rappel indicé à 16 items (16-item Free and Cued Recall; RL/RI-16), a French adaptation of the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (Buschke, 1984; Grober, Buschke, Crystal, Bang, & Dresner, 1988). The sample consisted of 566 healthy French-speaking older adults (50–88 years old) from the province of Quebec, Canada. Normative data for the RL/RI-16 were derived from 80% of the total sample (normative sample) and cross-validated using the remaining participants (20%; validation sample). The effects of participants’ age, sex, and education level were assessed on different indices of memory performance. Results indicated that these variables were independently associated with performance. Normative data are presented as regression equations with standard deviations (symmetric distributions) and percentiles (asymmetric distributions).
  • PublicationAccès libre
    Normative data for phonemic and semantic verbal fluency test in the adult french-Quebec population and validation study in Alzheimer's disease and depression
    (Swets Publishing Service, 2016-06-09) St-Hilaire, Alexandre; Simard, Martine; Macoir, Joël; Hudon, Carol
    Objective: Verbal fluency tasks are principally used to assess lexical access and have shown usefulness for differential diagnosis. The purpose of Study 1 was to provide normative data in the adult French–Quebec population (Canada) for semantic verbal fluency (animals), for two sets of phonemic verbal fluency (TNP and PFL), and for letter P alone (60 seconds per category/letter). The objectives of Study 2 were to establish the diagnostic and predictive validity of the present tasks and normative data in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and major depressive episode (MDE). Method: The normative sample consisted of 932 participants aged 19–91 years. Based on multiple linear regressions, equations to calculate Z-scores were provided. To assess validity, performance of 62 healthy participants was compared to 62 participants with AD and 41 with MDE aged over 50. Results: Age and education, but not gender, predicted performance on each verbal fluency task. Healthy adults aged 50 and younger had a better performance on semantic than phonemic verbal fluency. In comparison to MDE, AD participants had lower performance on animals and TNP, but not on letter P. Ninety percent of people with a Z-score ≤ −1.50 on semantic verbal fluency had AD and the global accuracy was 76.6%. Test–retest reliability over one year was high for both animals (r = .711) and TNP (r = .790) in healthy older participants, but dropped for animals in people with AD (r = .493). Conclusions: These data will strengthen accurate detection of verbal fluency deficits in French–Quebec adults.
  • PublicationRestreint
    Psychological distress and risk for dementia
    (Springer Healthcare, 2009-01-22) Simard, Martine; Hudon, Carol; Reekum, Robert van
    The concept of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) primarily emphasizes changes in individuals’ mental abilities, but it has recently been suggested that neuropsychiatric symptoms should also be considered important factors in age-related neurodegeneration. Psychological distress, defined as a reaction of an individual to external and internal stresses, is characterized by a mixture of psychological symptoms. It also may be considered a neuropsychiatric symptom encompassing depression, anxiety, and apathy. This paper reviews and summarizes recent evidence and relevant issues regarding the presence of psychological distress in healthy older adults and MCI patients and its relationship to risk for developing dementia. Results presented in this review show that psychological distress and depressive, anxious, and apathetic symptoms can be present in MCI and may predict progression to dementia. This article also provides suggestions for future research.
  • PublicationAccès libre
    Impact of depressive symptoms on memory for emotional words in mild cognitive impairment and late-life depression
    (IOS Press, 2016-05-10) Rousseau, François; Mouiha, Abderazzak; Simard, Martine; Callahan, Brandy; Laforce, Robert; Hudon, Carol
    Objectives: Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and late-life depression (LLD) are associated with increased risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). This is also true for aMCI with concomitant depressive symptoms (aMCI/D+), but few studies have investigated this syndrome. We aimed to clarify the association between cognitive and depressive symptoms in individuals at risk for AD by examining episodic memory for emotional stimuli in aMCI, aMCI/D+, and LLD. Methods: Participants were 34 patients with aMCI, 20 patients with aMCI/D+, 19 patients with LLD and 28 healthy elderly adults. In an implicit encoding task, participants rated the emotional valence of 12 positive, 12 negative, and 12 neutral words. Immediately and 20 minutes later, participants recalled as many words as possible. They were also asked to identify previously presented words during a yes/no recognition trial. Results: At immediate recall, aMCI participants displayed better recall of emotional words, particularly positive words. aMCI/D+ and control participants displayed better recall of positive and negative words compared to neutral words. LLD participants recalled more negative than neutral words. At delayed recall, emotional words were generally better-remembered than neutral words by all groups. At recognition, all subjects responded more liberally to emotional than to neutral words. Conclusion: We find that the type of emotional information remembered by aMCI patients at immediate recall depends on the presence or absence of depressive symptoms. These findings contribute to identifying sources of heterogeneity in individuals at risk for AD, and suggest that the cognitive profile of aMCI/D+ is different from that of aMCI and LLD. Future studies should systematically consider the presence of depressive symptoms in elderly at-risk individuals.
  • PublicationAccès libre
    Normative data for the dementia rating scale in the french-Quebec population
    (Taylor & Francis Group, 2013-08-14) Potvin, Olivier; Lavoie, Monica; Simard, Martine; Macoir, Joël; Callahan, Brandy; Hudon, Carol; Blanchet, Sophie
    The Dementia Rating Scale-2 is used to measure cognitive status of adults with cognitive impairment, especially of the degenerative type, by assessing five cognitive functions, namely attention, initiation/perseveration, construction, conceptualization, and memory. The present study aimed to establish normative data for this test in the elderly French-Quebec population. A total of 432 French-speaking elders from the province of Quebec (Canada), aged 50 to 85 years, were administered the Dementia Rating Scale-2. Age and education were found to be associated with the total score on the test, while gender was not. Percentile ranks were then calculated for age- and education-stratified groups. Previous studies have shown that cultural background can affect performance on the DRS and the development of culture-specific norms for French-speaking Quebecers could be very useful to clinicians and researchers working with this population.