Personne : Koubaa, Ahmed
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- PublicationRestreintEffect of bark fiber content and size on the mechanical properties of bark/HDPE composites(Elsevier, 2010-01-01) Cloutier, Alain; Soulounganga, Patrice; Koubaa, Ahmed; Ngueho Yemele, Martin Claude; Wolcott, Michael P.Black spruce and trembling aspen bark fibers and high density polyethylene were used to process bark–plastic composites by extrusion. Fibers of fine, medium, and coarse size and contents of 50% and 60% based on oven-dry weight were used. The effects of species, fiber content and size on the flexural and tensile properties of the composite were investigated and were found to be highly significant. Black spruce bark composites exhibited higher strength but showed more brittle behavior than aspen bark composites. The effect of content on mechanical properties was more important than size. Compared to wood flour composites, those from bark showed lower strength.
- PublicationAccès librePhenotypic correlations among growth and selected wood properties in white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss)(MDPI, 2019-07-16) Mvolo, Cyriac Serge; Defo, Maurice.; Cloutier, Alain; Koubaa, Ahmed; Ngueho Yemele, Martin Claude; Beaulieu, JeanWe examined phenotypic relationships among radial growth-related, physical (i.e., related to wood density), and anatomical (i.e., related to tracheid dimensions) wood properties in white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss), in order to determine the strength and significance of their correlations. Additionally, principal component analysis (PCA) was used to establish if all of the properties must be measured and to determine the key properties that can be used as proxies for the other variables. Radial growth-related and physical properties were measured with an X-ray densitometer, while anatomical properties were measured with a Fiber Quality Analyzer. Fifteen wood properties (tracheid length (TL) and diameter (TD), earlywood tracheid length (ETL) and diameter (ETD), latewood tracheid length (LTL) and diameter (LTD), ring width (RW), ring area (RA), earlywood width (EWW), latewood width (LWW), latewood proportion (LWP), ring density (RD), intra-ring density variation, earlywood density (EWD), and latewood density (LWD)) were assessed. Relationships were evaluated at intra-ring and inter-ring levels in the juvenile wood (JW) and mature wood (MW) zones. Except for a few cases when mature tracheid diameter (TD) was involved, all intra-ring anatomical properties were highly and significantly correlated. Radial growth properties were correlated, with stronger relationships in MW compared to JW. Physical properties were often positively and significantly correlated in both JW and MW. A higher earlywood density coupled with a lower latewood density favored wood uniformity, i.e., the homogeneity of ring density within a growth ring. Managing plantations to suppress trees growth during JW formation, and enhancing radial growth when MW formation starts will favor overall wood quality. In order, RW-EWW-RA, TL-ETL-LTL, and RD-EWD-LWP are the three clusters that appeared in the three wood zones, the whole pith-to-bark radial section, the juvenile wood zone, and the mature wood zone
- PublicationAccès libreDensification of wood veneers combined with oil-heat treatment. Part II : Hygroscopicity and mechanical properties(Dept. of Wood and Paper Science College of Natural Resources North Carolina State University, 2012-01-13) Cloutier, Alain; Fang, Chang-Hua; Koubaa, Ahmed; Blanchet, PierreIn an effort to achieve high mechanical performance and improved dimensional stability, densification combined with oil-heat treatment (OHT) was performed. In our previous study, OHT was successfully applied to densified veneer, which resulted in improved dimensional stability. In the present study, the impact of OHT on densified wood veneer hygroscopicity and mechanical properties was determined. OHT at 180, 200, and 220ºC for 1, 2, and 3 hours was applied to densified Aspen (Populus tremuloides) veneers. OHT was found to be an efficient treatment to reduce the hygroscopicity of densified aspen veneers, although OHT had a negative impact on Brinell hardness. However, due to the contribution of densification, the hardness of oil-heat treated veneers was still two to three times higher than that of non-densified veneers. Similar results were found for tensile strength. Bending strength increased slightly at low OHT temperature, and then decreased at high temperature. Bending strength of oil-heat treated densified veneer samples was higher than that of non-densified ones. No significant effect of OHT was found on tensile MOE, but bending MOE increased after OHT. Compared to OHT duration, OHT temperature had a larger impact on densified wood hygroscopicity and mechanical properties.
- PublicationRestreintEffects of hot water treatment of raw bark, coupling agent, and lubricants on properties of bark/HDPE composites(Elsevier Science Publishers, 2012-06-13) Cloutier, Alain; Soulounganga, Patrice; Stevanovic-Janezic, Tatjana; Koubaa, Ahmed; Ngueho Yemele, Martin Claude; Wolcott, Michael P.Hot water treated and untreated black spruce bark (BSB) and trembling aspen bark (TAB) fibers were combined with high density polyethylene (HDPE) to produce bark thermoplastic composites by extrusion. Bark fibers of three size categories (fine, medium, and coarse) were used at contents of 50% and 60% based on oven dry weight. The effects of hot water treatment of raw bark and the addition of coupling agent (MAPE) and lubricants (OP-100, talc) on the flexural and tensile properties of bark/HDPE composites were investigated. Results showed a significant impact of hot water treatment on tensile properties of composites made with BSB and on tensile and flexural strength of composites made with TAB. The addition of coupling agent and lubricants significantly improved the flexural and tensile strength properties of bark/HDPE composites but reduced toughness and strain.
- PublicationAccès librePhenotypic and genotypic correlations for wood properties of hybrid poplar clones of southern Quebec(Molecular Diversity Preservation International, 2018-03-15) Huda, Azmul; Périnet, Pierre; Cloutier, Alain; Koubaa, Ahmed; Fortin, Yves; Hernández, RogerThis study aims to understand the phenotypic and genotypic correlations among wood anatomical, physical, and mechanical properties of hybrid poplar clones. Samples were taken from seven clones grown on three sites in Southern Quebec, Canada. Five trees per clone were randomly sampled from each site to measure anatomical (fiber length, fiber proportion, vessel proportion, fiber wall thickness, tension wood), physical (basic density, volumetric, longitudinal, tangential, and radial shrinkage), and mechanical wood properties (flexural modulus of elasticity (MOE), modulus of rupture (MOR), ultimate crushing strength parallel to the grain). The observed phenotypic and genotypic correlations between these wood properties were moderate to strong, except for fiber length and vessel proportion. Genotypic correlations for all wood properties were higher than for corresponding phenotypic correlations. Furthermore, fiber length showed weak correlations, whereas, vessel proportion showed strongly negative correlations with all other properties. Strong correlations were also found among fiber proportion, fiber wall thickness, basic density, and mechanical properties. Furthermore, results from this study show close genotypic and phenotypic correlations between fiber proportion, fiber wall thickness, and wood density, which consequently affect the mechanical performance of wood products. These findings indicate that there is a substantial opportunity to improve wood quality by selecting several wood properties for different end uses.
- PublicationAccès libreVariation in wood quality in white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss). Part I. Defining the juvenile–mature wood transition based on tracheid length(MDPI, 2015-01-08) Mvolo, Cyriac Serge; Koubaa, Ahmed; Beaulieu, Jean; Cloutier, Alain; Mazerolle, Marc J.Estimations of transition age (TA) and juvenile wood proportion (JWP) are important for wood industries due to their impact on end-product quality. However, the relationships between analytical determination of TA based on tracheid length (TL) and recognized thresholds for adequate end products have not yet been established. In this study, we used three different statistical models to estimate TA in white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) based on TL radial variation. We compared the results with technological maturity. A two-millimeter threshold, previously suggested for good paper tear strength, was used. Tracheid length increased from pith to bark and from breast height to upper height. Juvenile wood (JW) was conical with the three models. At breast height, TA ranged from 11 to 27 years and JWP ranged from 15.3% to 47.5% across the three models. The linear mixed model produced more conservative estimates than the maximum-quadratic-linear (M_Q_L) model. Both the linear mixed model and the M_Q_L model produced more conservative TA estimates than the piecewise model. TA estimates by the MIXED model, and to a lesser extent by the M_Q_L model, were equivalent to those for real mature wood, whereas TA estimates by the piecewise model were considerably lower, falling into the transition wood area.
- PublicationAccès libreAnalysis of the interaction between internal porosity and oriented strand board performance using X-ray computed tomography(Berlin : Springer, 2022-09-19) Zhuang, Biaorong; Cloutier, Alain; Koubaa, AhmedThe internal structure of oriented strand board (OSB) is made of a large number of voids. This results from the complexity of strand distribution within the panel and impacts panel performance greatly. In this research, X-ray microcomputer tomography was used to investigate the void characteristics of OSB panels with different structures. The results indicated that OSB panels have a porosity profile opposite to that of density. Unidirectionally oriented homogeneous boards showed slightly higher total porosity, a steeper porosity profile, and higher void size than other three-layer boards. Still, there was no significant difference be-tween them. Although the changes in bending properties resulted from changes in core layer strand orientation, the slight difference in internal bond and water ab-sorption rate was caused by the narrower void distribution and a larger void size. Panels containing a mixture of black spruce and aspen strands had a higher po-rosity, a steeper porosity profile, and a small void size compared to panels with black spruce strands. This resulted in better bending properties, worse internal bonding, and a lower water absorption rate and thickness swelling. Thus, the in-ternal bond, water absorption rate, and thickness swelling of the panels with a mixed spruce-aspen core layer decreased with an increase in core layer propor-tion. An opposite trend was observed for panels with a black spruce core layer.
- PublicationRestreintAnalysis of the interaction between internal porosity and oriented strand board performance using X‑ray computed tomography(Berlin : Springer, 2022-09-24) Cloutier, Alain; Koubaa, Ahmed; Zhuang, BiaorongThe internal structure of oriented strand board (OSB) is made of a large number of voids. This results from the complexity of strand distribution within the panel and impacts panel performance greatly. In this research, X-ray microcomputer tomography was used to investigate the void characteristics of OSB panels with diferent structures. The results indicated that OSB panels have a porosity profle opposite to that of density. Unidirectionally oriented homogeneous boards showed slightly higher total porosity, a steeper porosity profle, and higher void size than other three-layer boards. Still, there was no signifcant diference between them. Although the changes in bending properties resulted from changes in core layer strand orientation, the slight diference in internal bond and water absorption rate was caused by the narrower void distribution and a larger void size. Panels containing a mixture of black spruce and aspen strands had a higher porosity, a steeper porosity profle, and a small void size compared to panels with black spruce strands. This resulted in better bending properties, worse internal bonding, and a lower water absorption rate and thickness swelling. Thus, the internal bond, water absorption rate, and thickness swelling of the panels with a mixed spruce-aspen core layer decreased with an increase in core layer proportion. An opposite trend was observed for panels with a black spruce core layer.
- PublicationAccès libreEffects of strands geometry on the physical and mechanical properties of oriented strand boards (OSBs) made from black spruce and trembling aspen(Raleigh, N.C. : Dept. of Wood and Paper Science College of Natural Resources North Carolina State University, 2022-05-05) Zhuang, Biaorong; Cloutier, Alain; Koubaa, AhmedBlack spruce is widely used for lumber production in Eastern Canada, and it has the potential to replace trembling aspen and paper birch for oriented strand board (OSB) manufacturing. This study evaluated the bending modulus of elasticity (MOE) and modulus of rupture (MOR), the internal bond (IB), and the thickness swelling (TS) of OSB panels made from black spruce and trembling aspen strands and how they were affected by strand geometry. All the panels met the CSA O437 (1993) standard for class O-2 properties except for the TS. The strand thickness had a significantly negative effect on the bending properties but a significantly positive effect on the IB and TS properties. The strand length had a significantly positive effect on the parallel bending properties but a significantly negative effect on the perpendicular bending properties and the IB, except for the TS. The OSB panels made from aspen obtained better bending properties, while the IB and TS properties were lower than those of the OSB black spruce panels. The results indicate that black spruce strands obtained from the Eastern Canadian softwood lumber industry are suitable for OSB production, but more work is required to reduce the TS.
- PublicationRestreintPrediction of tracheid length and diameter in white spruce (Picea glauca)(Rijksherbarium/Hortus botanicus, 2015-05-20) Mvolo, Cyriac Serge; Defo, Maurice.; Cloutier, Alain; Koubaa, Ahmed; Ngueho Yemele, Martin Claude; Beaulieu, JeanThe establishment of patterns of radial and longitudinal variations and the development of models to predict the wood anatomical properties, especially from juvenile wood, are of interest for both wood industry and researchers. Linear regressions were used to predict whole-tree, breast height and mature tracheid length and diameter in white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) and the WBE model was used to predict the variation of tracheid diameter. Tracheid length and diameter increased from pith to bark. Tracheid length decreased, while tracheid diameter increased from apex to lower heights. Cambial age was the most important predictor of tracheid length. The final tracheid length models with either a log transformation or a third-order polynomial of cambial age explained 82% of the variation in the whole-tree tracheid length. At breast height, 83% of the variation in the whole tracheid length was explained using the juvenile value at a cambial age of 3 years. Up to 87% of the variation was explained by the model, including the average value of juvenile wood. However, mature wood tracheid length at breast height could not be predicted from juvenile wood. Distance from the apex predicted the tracheid widening in outer rings but failed to predict tracheid expansion of samples collected at fixed cambial ages. The WBE explained 86% of conduit widening in the outer rings. The sampling strategy, i.e. collecting samples longitudinally at a fixed cambial age vs. at a fixed calendar year is important in predicting tracheid diameter.