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Godin, Gaston

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Sciences infirmières-Direction, Faculté des sciences infirmières, Université Laval
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Voici les éléments 1 - 10 sur 16
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Interaction between familial history of obesity and fat intakes on obesity phenotypes
    (Karger, 2009-01-16) Paradis, Ann-Marie; Pérusse, Louis; Godin, Gaston; Vohl, Marie-Claude
    Aim: To evaluate whether familial history of obesity (FHO) interacts with dietary fat intake (DFI) on obesity-related phenotypes. Methods: We recruited 664 participants aged between 18 and 55 years. A positive FHO (FHO+) was defined as having at least 1 obese first-degree relative and a negative FHO (FHO-) as no obese first-degree relative. Dietary intakes were collected from a food-frequency questionnaire. Body mass index, weight and waist girth were recorded using standard procedures. Fat mass and fat-free mass were assessed by electrical bioimpedance. Results: Significant interaction effects (FHO x DFI) were observed for body mass index, weight, waist girth and fat mass (p interaction = 0.05, 0.04, 0.04, 0.02, respectively). Among FHO+ individuals, indices of obesity increased with an increasing amount of DFI, whereas these associations were not observed in FHO- individuals. We also found that FHO+ individuals consuming a high-fat diet were at higher risk of obesity than FHO- individuals consuming a low-fat diet (3.6, CI 2.1-6.2). Conclusion: These results suggest a stronger relationship between DFI and obesity-related phenotypes in individuals with FHO+.
  • Publication
    Self-efficacy and implementation intentions-based interventions on fruit and vegetable intake among adults : impact at 12-month follow-up
    (Sage, 2013-05-15) Guillaumie, Laurence; Godin, Gaston; Manderscheid, Jean-Claude; Spitz, Elisabeth; Muller, Laurent
    This study tested the effect of theory-based interventions designed to increase fruit and vegetable intake (FVI). Adults (n = 291) were randomized into four groups: implementation intentions (II) group; self-efficacy (SE) group; combination of implementation intentions and self-efficacy (II+SE) group; and a control group receiving written information on nutrition. They were reassessed at 1, 3, 6 and 12 month follow-up. This study found that short interventions such as SE and II+SE can achieve significant differences in FVI at six-month follow-up compared to the control group. However, this effect was not maintained at 12-month follow-up. Practitioners should add materials or follow up meetings to ensure maintenance of behavioral change.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Validity of a self-reported measure of familial history of obesity
    (BioMed Central, 2008-09-10) Paradis, Ann-Marie; Pérusse, Louis; Godin, Gaston; Vohl, Marie-Claude
    Background: Familial history information could be useful in clinical practice. However, little is known about the accuracy of self-reported familial history, particularly self-reported familial history of obesity (FHO). Methods: Two cross-sectional studies were conducted. The aims of study 1 was to compare self-reported and objectively measured weight and height whereas the aims of study 2 were to examine the relationship between the weight and height estimations reported by the study participants and the values provided by their family members as well as the validity of a self-reported measure of FHO. Study 1 was conducted between 2004 and 2006 among 617 subjects and study 2 was conducted in 2006 among 78 participants. Results: In both studies, weight and height reported by the participants were significantly correlated with their measured values (study 1: r = 0.98 and 0.98; study 2: r = 0.99 and 0.97 respectively; p < 0.0001). Estimates of weight and height for family members provided by the study participants were strongly correlated with values reported by each family member (r = 0.96 and 0.95, respectively; p < 0.0001). Substantial agreement between the FHO reported by the participants and the one obtained by calculating the BMI of each family members was observed (kappa = 0.72; p < 0.0001). Sensitivity (90.5%), specificity (82.6%), positive (82.6%) and negative (90.5%) predictive values of FHO were very good. Conclusion: A self-reported measure of FHO is valid, suggesting that individuals are able to detect the presence or the absence of obesity in their first-degree family members.
  • Publication
    Associations between dietary patterns and obesity phenotypes
    (Springer Nature, 2009-09-08) Paradis, Ann-Marie; Pérusse, Louis; Godin, Gaston; Vohl, Marie-Claude
    Objective: To examine whether dietary patterns are associated with obesity phenotypes. Design: Cross-sectional study. Subjects: We recruited 664 participants aged between 18 and 55 years. Dietary data were collected from a food frequency questionnaire. A factor analysis was performed to derive dietary patterns. Body mass index (BMI), weight and waist girth were recorded using standard procedures. Fat mass and fat-free mass were assessed by electrical bioimpedance. Obesity was defined as having a BMIX30 kg m2 and a positive FHO (FHO þ ) as having at least one obese first-degree relative. Results: Two dietary patterns were identified; Western and Prudent. The Western pattern was mainly characterized by a higher consumption of refined grains, French fries, red meats, condiments, processed meats and regular soft drinks whereas the Prudent pattern was mainly characterized by a higher consumption of non-hydrogenated fat, vegetables, eggs and fish and seafood. Subjects in the top tertile of the Western pattern had higher BMI, weight, waist girth, waist-to-hip ratio and fat mass than those in the lower tertile. In contrast, subjects in the top tertile of the Prudent pattern had lower BMI, weight, waist girth, fat mass, HDL-cholesterol levels, and lower triglyceride levels than those in the lowest tertile. Individuals in the upper tertile of the Western pattern were more likely to be obese (obesity was defined as having a BMIX30 kg m2) (OR ¼ 1.82, 95% CI 1.16–2.87) whereas those in the upper tertile of the Prudent pattern were less likely to be obese (OR ¼ 0.62, 95% CI 0.40–0.96). These latter significant associations were only observed among those with FHO þ . No such association was observed among FHO individuals. Conclusion: Individuals having a high score of Western pattern were more likely to be obese and those having a high score of the Prudent pattern were less likely to be obese, and this is particularly among individuals with an FHO+.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Eating behaviors of non-obese individuals with and without familial history of obesity
    (Cambridge University Press, 2008-09-10) Paradis, Ann-Marie; Pérusse, Louis; Godin, Gaston; Lemieux, Simone; Vohl, Marie-Claude
    The aim of the present study was to examine whether eating behaviours and their subscales are associated with familial history of obesity (FHO) in a cohort of 326 non-obese men and women. Anthropometric measurements, eating behaviours (Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire) and dietary intakes (FFQ) have been determined in a sample of 197 women and 129 men. A positive FHO (FHO+) was defined as having at least one obese first-degree relative and a negative FHO (FHO-) as no obese first-degree relative. Men with FHO+ had higher scores of cognitive dietary restraint and flexible restraint than men with FHO-. In women, those with FHO+ had a higher score of disinhibition than women with FHO-. In both men and women, eating behaviours were not significantly associated with the number of obese family members. However, having an obese mother was associated with higher scores of cognitive dietary restraint, flexible restraint and rigid restraint in women. These findings demonstrate that eating behaviours of non-obese subjects are different according to the presence or absence of obese family members. More specifically, having an obese mother is associated with a higher dietary restraint score in women.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Omega-3 fatty acids status in human subjects estimated using a food frequency questionnaire and plasma phospholipids levels
    (BioMed Central, 2012-07-09) Garneau, Véronique; Paradis, Ann-Marie; Pérusse, Louis; Rudkowska, Iwona; Godin, Gaston; Julien, Pierre; Vohl, Marie-Claude
    Background Intakes of omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids (FA) are associated with several health benefits. The aim of this study was to verify whether intakes of n-3 FA estimated from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) correlate with n-3 FA levels measured in plasma phospholipids (PL). Methods The study sample consisted of 200 French-Canadians men and women aged between 18 to 55 years. Dietary data were collected using a validated FFQ. Fasting blood samples were collected and the plasma PL FA profile was measured by gas chromatography. Results Low intakes of n-3 long-chain FA together with low percentages of n-3 long-chain FA in plasma PL were found in French-Canadian population. Daily intakes of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were similar between men and women. Yet, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and total n-3 FA intakes were significantly higher in men compared to women (ALA: 2.28 g and 1.69 g, p < 0.0001, total n-3 FA: 2.57 g and 1.99 g, p < 0.0001; respectively). In plasma PL, DPA and DHA percentages were significantly different between men and women (DPA: 1.03% and 0.88%, p < 0.0001, DHA: 3.00% and 3.43%, p = 0.0005; respectively). Moreover, DHA (men: r = 0.52, p < 0.0001; women: r = 0.57, p < 0.0001) and total n-3 FA (men: r = 0.47, p < 0.0001; women: r = 0.52, p < 0.0001) intakes were positively correlated to their respective plasma PL FA levels. In women, EPA (r = 0.44, p < 0.0001) and DPA (r = 0.23, p = 0.02) intakes were also correlated respectively with EPA and DPA plasma PL FA percentages. Conclusion Estimated n-3 long-chain FA intake among this young and well-educated French-Canadian population is lower than the recommendations. Further, FFQ data is comparable to plasma PL results to estimate DHA and total n-3 FA status in healthy individuals as well as to evaluate the EPA and DPA status in women. Overall, this FFQ could be used as a simple, low-cost tool in future studies to rank n-3 FA status of individuals.
  • Publication
    Effect of implementation intentions to change behaviour : moderation by intention stability
    (Sage Publications, Inc., 2010-02-01) Bélanger-Gravel, Ariane; Pérusse, Louis; Godin, Gaston; Amireault, Steve; Gallani, Maria Cecilia; Vohl, Marie-Claude
    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of implementation intentions on leisure-time physical activity, taking into account the stability of intention. At baseline (T0), 349 participants completed a psychosocial questionnaire and were randomly assigned to implementation intention or control condition. Three months after baseline assessment (T1), participants in the experimental group were asked to plan where, when, and how they would exercise. Leisure-time physical activity was assessed 3 mo. later (i.e., at 6-mo. follow-up; T2). The intervention had no significant effect on physical activity at 6-mo. follow-up. However, a significant interaction of group and intention stability was observed, with the effect of the intervention on behaviour statistically significant only among those with unstable intention. Intention stability thus moderated the effect of the intervention, i.e., the intervention was more successful among individuals who needed support to change (unstable intenders).
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Validity and reliability of a brief selfreported questionnaire assessing fruit and vegetable consumption among pregnant women
    (BioMed Central, 2016-09-15) Vézina-Im, Lydi-Anne; Perron, Julie; Couillard, Charles; Godin, Gaston; Lemieux, Simone; Robitaille, Julie
    Background: Short instruments measuring frequency of specific foods, such as fruit and vegetable (FV), are increasingly used in interventions. The objective of the study was to verify the validity and test-retest reliability of such an instrument among pregnant women. Methods: Pregnant women from the region of Quebec City, Quebec, Canada, were recruited through e-mails sent to female students and employees of the local university from October 2014 to April 2015. To assess the validity of the fruit and vegetable questionnaire (FVQ) developed by Godin et al. (Can J Public Health 99: 494-498, 2008), pregnant women were asked in a first mailing to complete the FVQ assessing FV intake over the past 7 days and a 3-day estimated food record. A subsample (n¿=¿33) also gave a fasting blood sample and completed a validated semi-quantitative FFQ administered by a trained registered dietitian during a visit at the research center. FV intakes for all instruments were calculated in terms of servings of FV based on Canada’s Food Guide definition of a serving of fruit or vegetable. In order to assess its test-retest reliability, respondents were asked to complete the FVQ 14 days later in a second mailing. Results: Forty-eight pregnant women from all three trimesters completed the questionnaires in the first mailing. FV intake assessed using the FVQ was correlated to FV consumption measured using the food record (r¿=¿0.34, p¿=¿0.0180) and the FFQ (r¿=¿0.61, p¿=¿0.0002). Results were similar when controlling for energy intake and the experience of nausea in the past month. Only ß-cryptoxanthin was significantly correlated to FV intake assessed by the FFQ when adjusted for the presence of nausea (r¿=¿0.35, p¿=¿0.0471). Data on the test-retest reliability was available for 44 women and the intra-class coefficient for the FVQ was 0.72 at a mean 28-day interval. Conclusions: The FVQ has acceptable validity and test-retest reliability values, but seems to underestimate FV servings in pregnant women. It represents an interesting alternative for researchers or clinicians interested in estimating quickly FV intake among pregnant women, such as in large trials or during prenatal visits. The FVQ should however be coupled with other self-reported measures, such as a food record, for assessing precise individual FV intake.
  • Publication
    Cognitive styles of young ice hockey players
    (1984-12-01) Goulet, Claude; Talbot, Serge; Godin, Gaston; Drouin, Denis
    The Children's Embedded Figures Test was used to document field dependency among a group of 60 young French-Canadian hockey players enrolled in a structured ice hockey teaching program. The median age (8 yr., 4 mo.) was kept to form two age groups. Analysis of variance showed significant differences between age groups in total test scores and in both Tent and House series; the older children scored more field-independent.
  • Publication
    Prediction of daily fruit and vegetable consumption among overweight and obese individuals
    (ScienceDirect, 2010-02-06) Pérusse, Louis; Godin, Gaston; Bélanger-Gravel, Ariane; Amireault, Steve; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Guillaumie, Laurence
    The purpose of this study is twofold: to identify the determinants of daily fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption and the moderators of the intention–behaviour relationship. A sample of 225 overweight or obese adults completed a TPB questionnaire. F&V behaviour was assessed at baseline and three months later. Statistical analyses revealed that past behaviour, perceived behavioural control (PBC) and age were significant predictors of daily F&V consumption. In addition, intention was found to interact with anticipated regret. Interventions should encourage the development of habit and PBC. However, the age and level of anticipated regret of the targeted population should be considered when designing interventions.