Personne : Mauriege, Pascale
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Université Laval. Département de kinésiologie
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- PublicationRestreintIrisin is more strongly predicted by muscle oxidative potential than adiposity in non-diabetic men(Springer Science & Business Media B.V., 2015-03-28) Joanisse, Denis R.; Dubois, Marie Julie; Marette, André; Fleury, Pascale; Tremblay, Angelo; Lacaille, Michel; Weisnagel, John; Huth, Claire; Mauriege, PascaleNumerous controversies surround the peptide hormone irisin. Although implicated as a myokine promoting the browning of adipose tissue in rodents, its roles in humans remain unclear. Contradictory results have also been found with respect to the relationships between adiposity or metabolic health and plasma irisin levels in humans. We investigated the relationship between irisin levels and body composition (hydrostatic weighing), insulin sensitivity (hyperinsulinemiceuglycemic clamp), fitness level (ergocycle VO2max) and skeletal muscle metabolic profile in 53 men (aged 34–53 years) from four groups: sedentary non-obese controls (body mass index [BMI] <25 kg/m2), sedentary obese (BMI >30 kg/m2), sedentary obese glucose-intolerant, and non-obese highly trained endurance active. Baseline plasma irisin levels were significantly different between groups, being lowest in trained men (140.6±38.2 ng/mL) and highest in metabolically deteriorated glucose-intolerant subjects (204.0±50.5 ng/mL; ANOVA p=0.01). Including all subjects, irisin levels were positively associated with adiposity (e.g. fat mass, r=0.430, p<0.01) and negatively associated with fitness (r=-0.369, p<0.01), insulin sensitivity (M/I, r=-0.355, p<0.01) and muscle citrate synthase (CS) activity (r=-0.482, p<0.01). Most correlations lost statistical significance when excluding active individuals, except for insulin resistance (r=-0.413, p<0.01) and CS (r=-0.462, p<0.01). Multiple regression analyses reveal CS as the strongest independent predictor of irisin levels (r2 range 0.214 to 0.237). We conclude that muscle oxidative potential is an important factor linked to circulating irisin levels. Keywords : Irisin . Myokine . Adipose tissue . Adipokine . Obesity. Insulin sensitivity
- PublicationRestreintWaist circumference is useless to assess the prevalence of metabolic abnormalities in severely obese women(Springer, 2007-07-14) Drapeau, Vicky; Biron, Simon; Mauriege, Pascale; Tremblay, Angelo; Richard, Denis; Marceau, Picard; Lemieux, Isabelle.; Bergeron, JeanBackground : The present retrospective study aims to provide additional evidence supporting the fact that waist circumference, in severe obesity, is not a good clinical marker to identify individuals with the metabolic syndrome or an altered metabolic profile. Methods : Relationships between waist circumference and metabolic profile of pre- (n = 165) and postmenopausal (n = 43) severely obese women were compared to associations observed in pre- (n = 52) and postmenopausal (n = 35) moderately obese women. Results : Results showed that abdominal obesity assessed by waist circumference was more highly correlated with fasting glycemia, HDL-cholesterol and the cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol ratio in moderately than in severely obese women, before menopause. After menopause, waist circumference was not a valuable predictor of metabolic abnormalities in both groups. Moreover, when waist circumference was included as a criterion of the metabolic syndrome (as defined by the NCEP ATP III guidelines) in severely obese women, the prevalence of this metabolic condition was over-estimated by 72%. Conclusion : These results emphasize the uselessness of waist circumference to assess the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome or an altered metabolic profile in severely obese women.
- PublicationRestreintPlasminogen-activator inhibitor-1 polymorphisms are associated with obesity and fat distribution in the Québec Family Study : evidence of interactions with menopause(Raven Press, 2005-01-01) Bouchard, Claude; Pérusse, Louis; Mauriege, Pascale; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Bouchard, LuigiObjective: Obesity is associated with increased plasma levels of plasminogen-activator inhibitor1 (PAI1), the major fibrinolysis inhibitor. PAI1 levels are also increased at menopause, a condition that is associated with fat mass gain, especially in the abdominal area. Design: We hypothesized that genetic variations within PAI1 gene are related to the amount of body fat and its regional distribution. We genotyped 666 subjects of the Que´bec Family Study for five PAI1 gene polymorphisms. Stratified analyses were performed with analysis of covariance in men (n = 280) and women (n = 386) separately. Results: PAI1-675 4G/5G polymorphism was strongly associated with body mass index (P # 0.01) and fat mass (P # 0.05) in women. The PAI1-675 4G/5G promoter polymorphism and the c.43G.A (p.A15T, rs6092) variant within the exon 1 were associated with abdominal visceral fat but only in postmenopausal women (P # 0.05). More specifically, homozygotes for the 2675 5G and the 43A alleles had about 50% more visceral fat compared to carriers of the 2675 4G allele as well as carriers of the 43G allele. No association was observed in men. Conclusion: Taken together, these results suggest that the PAI1 gene is associated with obesity and may modulate the changes in adipose tissue distribution generally observed at menopause.
- PublicationRestreintContribution of genetic and metabolic syndrome to omental adipose tissue PAI-1 gene mRNA and plasma levels in obesity(Springer Nature, 2010-02-02) Pérusse, Louis; Mauriege, Pascale; Lebel, Stéfane; Hould, Frédéric-Simon; Marceau, Picard; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Bouchard, Luigi; Bergeron, JeanBackground Plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) has already been associated with atherosclerosis; myocardial infarction; and cardiovascular disease risk factors such as obesity, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia. However, factors regulating PAI-1 adipose tissue (AT) gene expression and plasma levels are not yet well defined. Aim This study aims to assess the contribution of PAI-1 omental AT mRNA levels and genetic and metabolic factors to variation in plasma PAI-1 concentrations. Methods Ninety-one non-diabetic premenopausal severely obese women (body mass index, BMI >35 kg/m2) undergoing bariatric surgery were phenotyped (fasting plasma glucose, lipid-lipoprotein, and PAI-1 levels) and genotyped for four PAI-1 polymorphisms. Omental AT PAI-1 mRNA levels were determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Stepwise regression analysis was used to identify independent PAI-1 AT mRNA and plasma level predictors. Results Among the variables included to the stepwise regression analysis, plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol (r = 0.38; p = 0.0004) and total cholesterol (r = 0.16; p = 0.0541) levels were the only two (out of 12) independent variables retained as predictive of PAI-1 omental AT mRNA levels, whereas BMI (r = 0.35; p = 0.0039), plasma HDL-cholesterol concentrations (r = −0.31; p = 0.0375), PAI-1 omental AT mRNA levels (r = 0.19; p = 0.0532) and PAI-1-844G/A (p = 0.0023), and rs6092 (p.A15T; p = 0.0358) polymorphisms contributed independently to plasma PAI-1 concentrations. Taken together, these variables explained 17.8% and 31.0% of the variability in PAI-1 AT mRNA and plasma levels, respectively. Conclusion These results suggest that PAI-1 polymorphisms contribute significantly to PAI-1 plasma levels but do not support the notion that omental AT is one of its major source.
- PublicationRestreintMetabolic profile in severely obese women is less deteriorated than expected when compared to moderately obese women(Springer, 2006-04-01) Drapeau, Vicky; Biron, Simon; Mauriege, Pascale; Tremblay, Angelo; Richard, Denis; Marceau, Picard; Lemieux, Isabelle.; Bergeron, JeanBackground: Obesity is well known to be associated with an increased prevalence of metabolic complications. Severe obesity is thus expected to have more important alterations of the metabolic profile than moderate obesity. This study aimed to compare the metabolic profile of pre- and postmenopausal severely obese women with moderately obese women. Methods: First, the metabolic profile of pre- (n=165) and postmenopausal (n=43) severely obese women (body mass index (BMI) ≥40 kg/m2) was compared to that of pre- (n=52) and postmenopausal (n=35) moderately obese women (BMI of 30-40 kg/m2). Thereafter, pre- and postmenopausal severely obese women were divided into two subgroups according to the presence/absence of a dysmetabolic profile. We used for comparison, a group of pre- and postmenopausal moderately obese women without a dysmetabolic profile. Results: The metabolic profile of pre- and postmenopausal severely obese women was less deteriorated than expected when compared to moderately obese women. Moreover, severely obese women with or without a dysmetabolic profile displayed comparable or even lower plasma levels of cholesterol, HDL and LDL-cholesterol, and a lower cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol ratio than moderately obese women (P≤0.05). After menopause, the metabolic profile of severely obese women, dysmetabolic or not, was similar to that of moderately obese women. Blood pressure was, however, higher in severely obese women compared to moderately obese women, only before menopause (P≤0.0001). Conclusion: These results indicate that despite their large accumulation of adipose tissue, most of the severely obese women had a metabolic profile less deteriorated than expected, when compared to moderately obese women.
- PublicationAccès libreImpact of adiponectin gene polymorphisms on plasma lipoprotein and adiponectin concentrations of viscerally obese men(Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, Lipid Research, 2004-11-16) Berthier, Marie-Thérèse; Côté, Mélanie.; Paradis, Ann-Marie; Mauriege, Pascale; Gaudet, Daniel; Houde, Alain; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Després, Jean-Pierre; Bergeron, JeanThe aim of this study was first to examine the relationships between adiponectin gene (Apm1) polymorphisms and anthropometric indices as well as plasma adiponectin and lipoprotein/lipid levels, and then to investigate whether the presence of visceral obesity or insulin resistance may modulate the impact of these polymorphisms on metabolic risk variables. Molecular screening of the Apm1 gene was achieved, and a sample of 270 unrelated men recruited from the greater Quebec City area and selected to cover a wide range of body fatness values was genotyped. Sequencing of the Apm1 gene revealed two previously reported polymorphisms (c.45T>G and c.276G>T) as well as two newly identified genetic variations (−13752delT and −13702G>C). Carriers of the c.276T allele had higher LDL-cholesterol and lower HDL-triglyceride concentrations than did 276G/G homozygotes (P = 0.02 and P = 0.01, respectively). Carriers of the c.45G allele exhibited higher plasma adiponectin concentrations than did 45T/T homozygotes (P = 0.04). After dividing each genotype group into subgroups for visceral AT, homozygotes for the normal allele at position −13752delT, carriers of the c.45G allele, and carriers of the c.276T allele had similar total apolipoprotein B (apoB) concentrations, whether they were viscerally obese or not. These results suggest that some Apm1 gene polymorphisms influence plasma adiponectin concentrations and lipoprotein/lipid levels. In addition, the impact of these polymorphisms is modulated by the presence of visceral obesity.
- PublicationRestreintWaist girth does not predict metabolic complications in severely obese men(American Diabetes Association, 2006-05-26) Drapeau, Vicky; Biron, Simon; Mauriege, Pascale; Richard, Denis; Marceau, Picard; Lemieux, Isabelle.; Bergeron, JeanThe epidemic of obesity has received considerable attention because of its increasing prevalence and its deleterious impact on health. In this regard, the metabolic syndrome has been recognized as a prevalent cause of cardiovascular disease, and the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines have proposed clinical tools for the identification of individuals characterized by this syndrome. However, there is considerable metabolic heterogeneity among equally overweight/ obese individuals. While some patients show a relatively “normal” metabolic risk profile despite being obese, others who are moderately overweight can nevertheless be characterized by metabolic complications. Thus, it is not uncommon to find severely obese patients with minimal changes in their metabolic risk profile, suggesting that they may be at lower cardiovascular disease risk than what could be expected from their massive obesity. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the relationships between selected features of the metabolic syndrome and waist circumference as a crude marker of abdominal obesity in moderately and severely obese men.
- PublicationRestreintEffect of weight reduction on quality of life and eating behaviors in obese women(Ovid, 2007-05-01) Lemoine, Sophie; Drapeau, Vicky; Rossell, Nadia; Mauriege, Pascale; Poulain, Magali; Garnier, Sophie; Sanguignol, FrédéricObjective: To examine the impact of a 3-week weight-reducing program on body composition, physical condition, health-related quality of life, and eating behaviors of sedentary, obese (body mass index, 29-35 kg/m2) women, according to menopausal status and menopause duration (<5, >=5, and >=10 y). Design: Thirteen premenopausal and 27 postmenopausal women received a dietary plan of 1,400 ± 200 kcal/day and completed 110-minute endurance exercise 6 days per week. Body mass index, fat mass, lean mass, distance walked in the Six-Minute Walk Test, health-related quality of life estimated by the 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), and eating behaviors (restriction, disinhibition, and susceptibility to hunger) assessed by the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire were determined before and after weight reduction. Results: Body mass index and fat mass decreased (P < 0.0001), whereas distance walked increased in both groups after weight reduction (P < 0.001). Although the SF-36 mental component score increased after weight loss in both groups (P < 0.0001), the SF-36 physical component score increased in postmenopausal women only (P < 0.001). Restriction increased (P < 0.0001), whereas disinhibition and susceptibility to hunger decreased after weight reduction (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01, respectively) in both groups. Distance walked and SF-36 physical component score after weight loss were higher in women whose menopause ranged between 5 and 9 years and exceeded 10 years, respectively (P < 0.01). Conclusions: Our study shows that a short-term weight-reducing program combining caloric restriction and physical activity has a favorable impact on women's body composition, physical condition, health-related quality of life, and eating behaviors irrespective of their menopausal status.
- PublicationRestreintFood group preferences and energy balance in moderately obese postmenopausal women subjected to brisk walking program(National Research Council Canada, 2017-03-19) Garnier, Sophie; Drapeau, Vicky; Mauriege, Pascale; Lemoine-Morel, Sophie; Tremblay, Angelo; Vallée, Karine; Blouin, Sandra; Auneau, GérardL’objectif de l’étude était d’examiner les effets d’un programme de marche de 16 semaines sur les préférences alimentaires et l’équilibre énergétique de femmes caucasiennes, d’âge 60 ± 5 ans, sédentaires, ménopausées et modérément obèses (indice de masse corporelle, 29–35 kg/m2). 156 volontaires suivaient 3 sessions/semaine de 45 min de marche à 60 % de la fréquence cardiaque de réserve. L’apport énergétique total (AET) et les préférences alimentaires (journal alimentaire de 3 jours), la dépense énergétique totale (DET, journal d’activité physique de 3 jours), la condition physique (2 km-marche), des variables anthropométriques et la composition corporelle (bioimpédancemétrie) ont été mesurés avant et après la marche. Une analyse de variance à mesures répétées (temps) a été effectuée. La légère augmentation de la DET de 151 ± 24 kcal/jour (p < 0.0001) a entraîné une réduction de poids, de masse grasse, et du tour de taille (p < 0.0001). L’AET n’a pas changé malgré une légère diminution de l’apport glucidique et une faible augmentation de l’apport protéique (p < 0.05). L’analyse des journaux alimentaires a révélé une baisse de la consommation de fruits (p < 0.05), d’aliments sucrés et gras (p < 0.01), mais une augmentation de celle d’huiles (p < 0.0001) après la marche. Les femmes ayant perdu le plus de poids réduisaient davantage leur consommation de fruits, sucre, aliments sucrés et gras (p < 0.05). Les femmes dont la réduction de masse grasse était la plus importante diminuaient davantage leur consommation d’aliments gras (p < 0.05). En conclusion, bien que notre programme de marche ait modifié la consommation de certains groupes d’aliments, la perte de poids était principalement due à une réduction de DET.