Personne :
Fournier, Valérie

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Université Laval. Département de phytologie
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Voici les éléments 1 - 10 sur 28
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    The impact of lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Ait.) and cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) pollination on honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colony health status
    (Public Library of Science, 2020-01-24) Giovenazzo, Pierre; Dufour, Claude.; Fournier, Valérie
    Commercial lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Ait.) and cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) crops benefit from the presence of honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) for pollination. Unfortunately, beekeepers are observing negative impacts of pollination services on honey bee colonies. In this study, we investigated three beekeeping management strategies (MS) and measured their impact on honey bee colony health and development. Experimental groups (five colonies/MS) were: A) Control farmland honey producing MS (control MS); B) Blueberry pollination MS (blueberry MS); C) Cranberry pollination MS (cranberry MS) and D) Double pollination MS, blueberry followed by cranberry (double MS). Our goals were to 1) compare floral abundance and attractiveness of foraging areas to honey bees between apiaries using a Geographic Information System, and 2) compare honey bee colony health status and population development between MS during a complete beekeeping season. Our results show significantly lower floral abundance and honey bee attractiveness of foraging areas during cranberry pollination compared to the other environments. The blueberry pollination site seemed to significantly reduce brood population in the colonies who provided those services (blueberry MS and double MS). The cranberry pollination site seemed to significantly reduce colony weight gain (cranberry MS and double MS) and induce a significantly higher winter mortality rate (cranberry MS). We also measured significantly higher levels of Black queen cell virus and Sacbrood virus in the MS providing cranberry pollination (cranberry MS and double MS).
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Taxonomical and functional trait diversity of wild bees in different urban settings
    (PeerJ Inc., 2017-03-07) Normandin-Leclerc, Étienne; Vereecken, Nicolas J.; Fournier, Valérie; Buddle, Christopher M.
    Urbanization is one of the major anthropogenic processes contributing to local habitat loss and extirpation of numerous species, including wild bees, the most widespread pollinators. Little is known about the mechanisms through which urbanization impacts wild bee communities, or the types of urban green spaces that best promote their conservation in cities. The main objective of this study was to describe and compare wild bee community diversity, structure, and dynamics in two Canadian cities, Montreal and Quebec City. A second objective was to compare functional trait diversity among three habitat types (cemeteries, community gardens and urban parks) within each city. Bees were collected using pan traps and netting on the same 46 sites, multiple times, over the active season in 2012 and 2013. A total of 32,237 specimens were identified, representing 200 species and 6 families, including two new continental records, Hylaeus communis Nylander (1852) and Anthidium florentinum (Fabricius, 1775). Despite high community evenness, we found significant abundance of diverse species, including exotic ones. Spatio-temporal analysis showed higher stability in the most urbanized city (Montreal) but low nestedness of species assemblages among the three urban habitats in both cities. Our study demonstrates that cities are home to diverse communities of wild bees, but in turn affect bee community structure and dynamics. We also found that community gardens harbour high levels of functional trait diversity. Urban agriculture therefore contributes substantially to the provision of functionally diverse bee communities and possibly to urban pollination services.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Pupal development of Aethina tumida (Coleoptera : Nitidulidae) in thermo-hygrometric soil conditions encountered in temperate climates
    (Oxford University Press, 2014-04-01) Giovenazzo, Pierre; Bernier, Martine; Fournier, Valérie
    The pupal development of Aethina tumida Murray (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) was studied at various combinations of thermo-hygrometric soil conditions (temperatures of 16, 18, and 20°C and soil water content levels of 0.37, 0.56, and 0.73 m3 water per cubic meter of dry soil) representative of southeastern Canada. Survivorship and development duration of A. tumida pupae, as well as sex ratio and life span of emerging adults, were assessed. Assays were conducted in growth chambers on an average of 50 third-instar larvae per thermo-hygrometric combination. Results show that survivorship of pupae decreased with lower temperature and higher soil water content. Pupal development time shortened as temperature increased (69–78 d at 16°C, 47–54 d at 18°C, and 36–39 d at 20°C), but was longer in dryer soil. Optimal soil water content for pupal development was 0.56 m3 water per cubic meter of soil. We estimated that the minimum development temperature for pupae is between 10.2 and 13.2°C, depending on soil water content. The sex ratio of emerging adults was influenced by soil water content. We measured one female to one male for dry and intermediately wet soils and three females to one male for wet soils. Higher soil water content reduced the life span of emerging adults by half. This study contributes to a better understanding of A. tumida population dynamics in eastern Canada.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Insecticidal effect of Bacillus pumilus PTB180 and Bacillus subtilis PTB185 used alone and in combination against the foxglove aphid and the melon aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae)
    (Cambridge University Press, 2021-09-10) McCune, Frédéric; Antoun, Hani; Nguyen, Thi Thuy An; Naasz, Rémi; Kahia, Mouna; Fournier, Valérie
    The foxglove aphid, Aulacorthum solani (Kaltenbach) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and the melon aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae), are among the serious insect pests found in greenhouses. The efficacy of microbial control against these insects has been demonstrated and can be enhanced by the combination of different microbial agents. This study evaluated the efficacy of Bacillus pumilus Meyer and Gottheil PTB180 and Bacillus subtilis (Ehrenberg) Cohn PTB185, used alone and together, to control these two aphids both in the laboratory and in greenhouse on tomato, Solanum lycopersicum Linnaeus (Solanaceae), and cucumber, Cucumis sativus Linnaeus (Cucurbitaceae), plants. The results from the laboratory tests showed an increase in mortality induced by all biological treatments. In the greenhouse, all treatments induced mortality rates significantly higher than that of the control for A. solani. Similarly, all treatments performed better than the control against A. gossypii, significantly reducing its reproduction. Furthermore, we found no additive effects when mixing products nor negative interactions affecting survival for the bacteria investigated. These microorganisms therefore have potential for use in biological control.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Risk assessment and predation potential of Stratiolaelaps scimitus (Acari: Laelapidae) to control Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) in honey bees
    (Public Library of Science, 2018-12-07) Rondeau, Sabrina; Giovenazzo, Pierre; Fournier, Valérie
    The biocontrol of the honey bee ectoparasite Varroa destructor is an underexploited but promising avenue that would benefit from being integrated in a Varroa management program. Our study aimed to investigate the potential of the predatory mite Stratiolaelaps scimitus to control Varroa infestations in honey bees. Tests on safety and predation were carried out to: (1) assess the risk of predation of the honey bee brood by S. scimitus under laboratory conditions and within the colony, and (2) evaluate the predation potential of S. scimitus on phoretic Varroa mites. Under laboratory conditions, S. scimitus was able to feed upon free Varroa mites, but also attacked every unprotected honey bee brood stages with a strong preference for bee eggs. When introduced inside colonies, however, S. scimitus does not have negative effects on the survival of the bee brood. Moreover, observations made in the laboratory revealed that S. scimitus does not attack Varroa mites when they are attached to the body of bees. However, all Varroa mites that had naturally fallen from the bees were predated upon by S. scimitus and died in less than 24h. This study provides evidence that S. scimitus does not represent a significant threat to the bee brood, but also suggests that its effect in Varroa control will probably be limited as it does not attack phoretic Varroa mites. Our results represent a first step in assessing the potential of S. scimitus to control V. destructor and provide novel information about the predator’s behavior inside the honey bee colony.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Response of wild bee communities to beekeeping, urbanization, and flower availability
    (SpringerLink, 2019-11-09) McCune, Frédéric; Normandin-Leclerc, Étienne; Mazerolle, Marc J.; Fournier, Valérie
    Wild bees provide pollination services and are currently declining at the global scale. A potential cause for this decline is competitive interactions with domestic honey bees. Urban beekeeping, a fairly new activity, is rapidly gaining popularity. In contrast with agricultural and natural areas, the extent of competition between honey bees and wild bees in urban areas is unclear. The objectives of this study were to quantify the impact of honey bees, urbanization, and the availability of floral resources on wild bee communities. We hypothesized that honey bees exert negative impacts on wild bees, that floral resources favor wild bee communities and mitigate the negative impacts of competition with honey bees, and that the influence of heat islands, used as a proxy for urbanization, varies between wild bees with their functional traits (nesting behavior). We tested these hypotheses with a data set of 19,077 wild bee specimens collected using colored pan-traps at 25 urban sites in 2012 and 2013. We investigated community and population patterns after accounting for imperfect detection probability. We found no evidence of competition between wild and domesticated bees. Our analyses indicate mixed effects of urban heat islands across species and positive effects of floral resources. We conclude that cities can allow the coexistence of urban beekeeping and wild bees under moderate hive densities. However, it will remain crucial to further investigate the competitive interactions between wild and honey bees to determine the threshold of hive densities beyond which competition could occur.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Flight phenology and trap selection for monitoring potential viral vector Aphididae and Aleyrodidae (Hemiptera) in strawberry (Rosaceae) fields of Québec, Canada
    (Cambridge University Press, 2019-04-10) Bonneau, Phanie; Brisson, Jean Denis; Fournier, Valérie; Tellier, Stéphanie
    Strawberry decline disease, predominantly viral in origin, was a serious threat to the strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne ex Rozier; Rosaceae) fields of Québec, Canada, between 2012 and 2014. Our aim was to monitor the abundance and activity of the main insect vectors: the strawberry aphid, Chaetosiphon fragaefolii (Cockerell) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westwood (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). First, we compared the effectiveness of two trapping techniques, the yellow sticky trap and the yellow pan trap. Results showed that the sticky traps are more effective in capturing alates in flight. Second, we determined the peak flight period for each of the two vectors in several locations within the province of Québec. Results suggest that the peak abundance of winged C. fragaefolii is during the first two weeks of August, while the peak abundance of T. vaporariorum is in the last two weeks of September. Overall trap captures also found 53 different species of winged aphids, and we documented a new distribution record on commercial strawberry fields in Québec, Aleyrodes spiraeoides (Quaintance) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). Species composition and significant information of flight periods will be useful for the management of virus-transmitting insects associated with strawberry decline disease in Québec.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Ability of Muscidifurax raptorellus and other parasitoids and predators to control Drosophila suzukii populations in raspberries in the laboratory
    (MDPI AG, 2019-03-07) Bonneau, Phanie; Renkema, Justin; Fournier, Valérie; Firlej, Annabelle
    Drosophila suzukii is an invasive pest and economic threat to berry crops in Europe and the Americas. Current methods of control of this pest rely primarily on frequent applications of insecticides; therefore, there is a need for alternative control methods to reduce insecticide reliance. In this study, we evaluated the biological control potential of three parasitoid wasps: Diglyphus isaea, Muscidifurax raptorellus and Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae, and four predators: Chrysoperla carnea, Dicyphus hesperus, Orius insidiosus and Podisus maculiventris. Experiments were conducted for 15 days under controlled conditions in experimental arenas with D. suzukii females and raspberries, allowing for all life stages of D. suzukii to be available to natural enemies. Results showed the first evidence of M. raptorellus’s ability to parasitize D. suzukii, resulting in a 40% reduction. Orius insidiosus, P. vindemmiae and C. carnea were also efficient, reducing D. suzukii numbers by 49%, 43% and 32%, respectively. Predator preferences for each D. suzukii life stage were assessed. The clutch size, sex ratio and adult size variability of D. suzukii pupal parasitoids were also evaluated. This study expands the list of species that can effectively parasitize D. suzukii and provides new insights into the biological responses of M. raptorellus to D. suzukii pupae.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Diversity and nutritional value of pollen harvested by honey bee (Hymenoptera : Apidae) colonies during lowbush blueberry and cranberry (Ericaceae) pollination
    (Cambridge University Press, 2020-05-26) Giovenazzo, Pierre; Dufour, Claude.; Fournier, Valérie
    The growth of the commercial pollination industry raises important concerns regarding honey bee (Apis mellifera Linnaeus; Hymenoptera: Apidae) health and development. While providing such services, honey bees are often exposed to undiversified pollen sources that may contribute to nutritional deficiencies, notably in protein and amino acids. To understand how honey bees are affected during provision of pollination services, we compared honey bee colonies that pollinated lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton; Ericaceae) and/or cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton; Ericaceae) crops (management strategies) with control colonies in a diversified farmland environment. We identified the floral species of pollen collected by honey bee colonies in those crops compared to pollen collected by control colonies. We also analysed the protein and essential amino acid content of collected pollen and bee bread and measured the nutritional impact of pollination services on honey bee colonies. We found that honey bees providing blueberry and/or cranberry pollination services are exposed to a less diversified pollen diet than colonies located in a farmland environment, especially in a cranberry field. There was a significantly lower proportion of crude protein content in collected and stored pollen during provision of blueberry pollination services, which led to a smaller brood population. Many nutritional deficiencies were measured with regards to essential amino acids.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Supplying honey bees with waterers : a precautionary measure to reduce exposure to pesticides
    (Springer Berlin, 2021-01-05) McCune, Frédéric; Rondeau, Sabrina; Fournier, Valérie; Samson-Robert, Olivier
    Water is essential for honey bees (Apis mellifera L.), but contaminated sources of water in agricultural environments represent a risk of exposure to potentially harmful contaminants. Providing clean water to honey bees could be an efficient and cost-effective measure for beekeepers to reduce bee mortality associated with pesticides and improve the health of their colonies. The main goal of this study was to design a waterer prototype to fulfill the water requirements of honey bees and to evaluate the potential of this waterer in improving colonies’ health in agricultural settings, through mitigating the possible impact of an exposure to pesticides from puddle water. We tested the preference of honey bees regarding water composition and waterer prototypes, among which honey bees showed a strong preference for salted water and a poultry-type waterer. Our waterer models were quickly adopted and intensively used through the season in both the context of honey production in field crops and pollination services in cranberry crops. However, in neither context did the use of waterers reduce worker mortality nor increase overall colony weight. Our waterers provided bees with water containing fewer pesticides and were associated with reduced risks of drowning compared to natural sources of water. Our study suggests that the use of waterers fulfills an important requirement for honey bees and represents an interesting and convenient precautionary measure for beekeepers.