Personne : Potvin, André
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Université Laval. École d'architecture
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- PublicationAccès libreA photobiological approach to biophilic design in extreme climates(Pergamon, 2019-03-20) Parsaee, Mojtaba; Demers, Claude; Potvin, André; Hébert, Marc; Lalonde, Jean-FrançoisThis paper proposes the biophilic design approach as a plausible hypothesis for the challenging conditions related to living and working in extreme cold climates. Biophilic design has recently been developed to overcome the adverse effects of the built environment and to improve human well-being by redefining the human-nature relationship. Yet, biophilic design should be adapted to extreme cold climates in order to meet the biological needs of people in northern territories. This issue becomes more important when considering the availability of natural light due to the strong seasonal photoperiod and its effects on human well-being in such regions. The present paper critically reviews biophilic design patterns and identifies their main shortcomings. These shortcomings include the lack of (1) recommendations applicable to extreme cold climates (2) adaptation to the local photoperiods, and (3) a systemic framework integrated into the design process. The paper draws attention to the image-forming and non-image-forming effects of light as a basis of the human-nature design approach. In this regard, photobiological outcomes have been reviewed. Then, the paper discusses the existing lighting standards and guidelines in North America and how they have mainly been developed to fulfil the image-forming demands for light. Further efforts are needed to revise these standards with respect to the non-image-forming effects of light and the biophilic design requirements. Finally, adaptive building envelopes are presented as a hypothetical solution to optimize the biophilic qualities of buildings and address the biological needs of people living and working in extreme cold climates in northern territories.
- PublicationAccès libreA post-occupancy evaluation of the influence of wood on environmental comfort(Dept. of Wood and Paper Science, College of Natural Resources, North Carolina State University, 2017-01-01) Watchman, Mélanie; Demers, Claude; Potvin, AndréEmerging research on the impact of interior finishes, more specifically wood, is beginning to shed light on informed design opportunities. As a natural building material with unique features, wood creates warm and pleasant atmospheres and has the potential of enhancing the well-being of occupants. This research attempted to better understand how occupants perceive wood in built environments and whether its indoor use influenced the satisfaction of occupants. The comfort of occupants may have been influenced by factors that were unrelated to the indoor environmental quality, which caused difficulties in comparing interior finishes in existing environments and limited research in this field. An exploratory comparative study, within a post-occupancy evaluation framework, investigated the subjective perception of occupants in relation to physical comfort factors. Thirty-six occupants completed a questionnaire to examine comfort satisfaction in a multifunctional room with extensive wooden interior finishes in comparison with a similar space without wood surfaces. The results indicated that occupants were more satisfied in the extensive wood surfaced room in terms of lighting, noise, and temperature, despite the similar environmental conditions in both spaces. Adjectives often used to describe the wood room included bright, pleasant, modern, and warm. Architects should consider the subjective qualities of wood when designing comfortable buildings.
- PublicationAccès libreWood and comfort : a comparative case study of two multifunctional rooms(Dept. of Wood and Paper Science, College of Natural Resources, North Carolina State University, 2017-01-01) Watchman, Mélanie; Demers, Claude; Potvin, AndréMany environmental advantages of wood in buildings have been thoroughly documented; however, this material’s effects on occupants are not well known or fully comprehended. This research aims to study comfort parameters in a multifunctional room characterised by extensive wood surfaces in comparison with a similar room with more conventional surfaces at Laval University, Quebec, Canada. The objectives of this research focus on determining the thermal, visual, and acoustical similarities and differences between two rooms using on-site surveys. Analysis of instrumental measurements and images of each room’s indoor environment under overcast skies determined the colour and texture of the surfaces. Quantitative and qualitative analyses revealed that both rooms share similar thermal and acoustic comfort parameters, but have contrasting visual characteristics. The colour, knots, and grain of the wood contributed to producing visually warm experiences resulting in a yellowish room, whereas a mix and match of artificial finishes generates a colder, bluish ambiance in the other room. The conclusion suggests that architects and designers should consider the indoor use of wood for its unique visual ambiances that enhance comfort levels.
- PublicationAccès libreModeling the impact of assembly tolerances regarding air leaks on the energy efficiency and durability of a cross-laminated timber structure(Raleigh N.C.: Dept. of Wood and Paper Science College of Natural Resources North Carolina State University, 2019-02-01) Martin, Ulysse; Potvin, André; Blanchet, PierreAir leaks have a considerable impact on the energy load and durability of buildings, particularly in cold climates. In wood construction using cross-laminated timber (CLT), air leaks are most likely to be concentrated at the joints between panels and other elements. This study used simulations of heat, air, and moisture transfers through a gap between two CLT panels causing air leakage in winter conditions under a cold climate. A real leakage occurrence was sized to validate the simulations. The aim of this work was to assess the impact on the energy loads and the durability of an air leak, as either infiltration or exfiltration, for different gap widths and relative humidity levels. The results showed that infiltrations had a greater impact on the energy load than exfiltrations but did not pose a threat to the durability, as opposed to exfiltrations. Gap sizes in CLT may vary, but the effect on the energy load was sensitive to the leakage path in the rest of the wall. As expected, a combination of winter exfiltration and a high level of interior relative humidity was particularly detrimental.
- PublicationAccès libreEDS integrated approach for sustainability (EDS-IA) : campus as a living laboratory experience(Springer Nature, 2019-05-01) Potvin, André; Diaz, Liliana; Walter, Leal Filho; Salvia, Amanda Lange; Pretorius, Rudi W.; Brandli, Luciana Londero; Manolas, Evangelos; Alves, Fátima; Azeiteiro, Ulisses; Rogers, Judy; Shiel, Chris; Do Paco, ArmindaSince 2016, InstitutEDSisdevelopinga new integrated approachto facilitatecollaborationsbetween different disciplines and to reinforce the developmentofpractical skills and key competencies needed tosolve concrete sustainable development problems: the EDS-IA. It aims to contribute to theacceleration ofthetransition to a closed and cyclic development system, building on the most recent knowledge mobilization frameworks in the field: the concept of Planetary Boundaries,the concept of Social Floor,the Sustainable Development Goals, Key Competencies in Sustainability and Multilevel Governance. Despite the broad consensus and the robustness of the scientific knowledge underlying all these frameworks, they are not sufficiently known beyond their own field of knowledge. In order to facilitate their diffusion and their appropriation by all the disciplines and actors concerned with the transition to sustainability, EDS-IA integrates themin a diagram as a tool that can be adapted todifferent development challenge in different contexts. During itsfirst year of implementation (2016-2017), researchers and student members of the Instituteparticipated in a series of major co-creation activitiesalong withstaff university members, governmental organizations as well as representatives of civil society. They made a diagnosisof the sustainable status of the campus and imaginedinnovating solutions for a “Campus as a living laboratory” through operations, teaching, research, and community services. In the second year (2017-2018), the transfer of the EDS-IA started through similar workshops with a university partner in Senegal(UADB). This paper presents the theoretical and methodological frameworksof the EDS-IAand the results of the first two years during which universities have been imagined as living laboratories for SDG promotion and implementation.
- PublicationAccès libreBiophilic, photobiological and energy-efficient design framework of adaptive building façades for Northern Canada(Sage, 2020-02-12) Parsaee, Mojtaba; Demers, Claude; Potvin, André; Hébert, Marc; Lalonde, Jean-FrançoisThis paper develops an integrated design framework of adaptive building façades (ABFs) to respond to photobiological and thermal needs of occupants, biophilic factors, energy requirements and climatic features in Northern Canada, i.e. near and above 50°N. The paper discusses the importance of biophilic and photobiological factors and ABFs to improve occupants’ health and human-nature relations and deal with the extreme climate in Northern Canada where non-adapted buildings that could negatively affect occupants’ wellbeing. The paper shows that existing ABFs must be further developed for northern applications in terms of (i) the physical structure and configuration of components (ii) the design of solar shading/louver panels to address photobiological and biophilic requirements (iii) the development of lighting adaptation scenarios to respond to biophilic and photobiological needs, local photoperiods and energy issues, and (iv) the overall biophilic quality for accessibility to natural patterns. The ABFs’ framework was developed in three phases including (1) process environmental data (2) produce adaptation scenarios, and (3) operate adaptation scenarios. The research discussed major issues of all phases that must be further studied, especially the development of hourly/daily/seasonally lighting adaptation scenarios. The paper develops a holistic parametric methodology to integrate and optimize major design variables of ABF’s components.
- PublicationAccès libreHuman-centric lighting performance of shading panels in architecture: a benchmarking study with lab scale physical models under real skies(Association for Applied Solar Energy, 2020-05-07) Parsaee, Mojtaba; Demers, Claude; Potvin, André; Hébert, Marc; Lalonde, Jean-François; Inanici, MehlikaThis study investigates shading panels’ (SPs) impacts on daylighting features in a lab scale model in terms of parameters representing potential human eyes’ biological responses identified as image forming (IF) and non-image forming (NIF). IF responses enable vision and NIF responses regulate internal body clocks known as circadian clocks. Human-centric lighting evaluates photopic units, representing IF responses, and melanopic units representing NIF responses, combined with correlated color temperature (CCT) of light for potential biological effects. SPs’ impacts on such parameters of daylighting have not yet been studied. Previous research mostly studied panels’ impacts on visual comfort and glare related to IF responses. This research explores the impact of SPs’ color, reflectance, orientation, and openness on photopic and melanopic units and CCT of daylighting inside a 1:50 physical scale model of a space. Approximately prototypes of SPs were evaluated. An experimental setup was designed under outdoor daylighting conditions to capture high dynamic range (HDR) images inside the model. HDR images were post processed to calculate and render the distribution of photopic and melanopic units, melanopic/photopic (M/P) ratios and CCTs in the captured viewpoint of the model. Results reveal the behavior of SPs’ color, reflectance, orientation, and openness in modifying daylighting parameters related to biological responses. Bluish panels, in particular, increase daylighting melanopic units and CCTs whereas reddish panels increase photopic units and reduce CCTs. The research results were discussed to provide an outline for future developments of panels to adapt daylighting to occupants' IF and NIF responses.