Personne :
Giroux-Talbot, Mariève

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Département de biologie moléculaire, de biochimie médicale et de pathologie, Faculté de médecine, Université Laval
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  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Autologous transplantation of rabbit limbal epithelia cultured on fibrin gels for ocular surface reconstruction
    (Éditeur non identifié, 2006-02-01) Guérin, Sylvain; Germain, Lucie; Giasson, Claude J.; Giroux-Talbot, Mariève; Auger, François A.; Bazin, Richard; Carrier, Patrick; Deschambeault, Alexandre
    Purpose: Regeneration of the corneal epithelium could be severely impaired in patients suffering from limbal stem cell deficiency. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the restoration of the corneal epithelium by grafting onto denuded corneas autologous limbal cells cultured on fibrin gels. The rabbit model was chosen to allow the microscopic evaluation over time after grafting. Methods: Rabbit limbal epithelial cells (RLECs) were isolated and cultured from small limbal biopsies (3 mm2). The epithelium was separated from stroma after dispase digestion and put in culture on lethally irradiated fibroblasts used as a feeder layer. At the first passage, RLECs were cultured on a fibrin gel matrix. At confluence, the cultured epithelia were grafted in vivo on denuded autologous rabbit corneas. At different postoperative times, grafted and control (without graft or grafted with fibrin gels only) rabbit corneas were compared in vivo with a slit lamp microscope, and in situ by histological and immunohistological microscopy of harvested biopsies. Results: A small limbal biopsy was sufficient to generate enough RLECs to prepare several grafts and to perform cell analysis. Only two weeks were required to produce a cultured epithelium suitable for autologous transplantation. One month after grafting, a normal corneal phenotype was observed on the ocular surface of grafted rabbits in contrast to the control rabbits (ungrafted or grafted with fibrin gel only) where histological signs of conjunctivalization were found. The absence of goblet cells and negative staining for keratin 4 confirmed that the cultured cells persisted and that the epithelium regenerated after grafting was not from conjunctival origin. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that an autologous epithelium cultured on a physiologically biodegradable matrix can be prepared from a small biopsy and grafted on denuded cornea. The autologous graft allows epithelial regeneration from cultured cells and promotes corneal healing of unilateral total stem cell deficiency.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Characterization of wound reepithelialization using a new human tissue–engineered corneal wound healing model
    (Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, 2008-04-01) Giasson, Claude-J.; Guérin, Sylvain; Germain, Lucie; Giroux-Talbot, Mariève; Auger, François A.; Carrier, Patrick; Deschambeault, Alexandre
    Purpose. The reepithelialization of the corneal surface is an important process for restoring the imaging properties of this tissue. The purpose of the present study was to characterize and validate a new human in vitro three-dimensional corneal wound healing model by studying the expression of basement membrane components and integrin subunits that play important roles during epithelial cell migration and to verify whether the presence of exogenous factors could accelerate the reepithelialization. Methods. Tissue-engineered human cornea was wounded with a 6-mm biopsy punch, and the reepithelialization from the surrounding margins was studied. Biopsy samples of the reepithelialized surface were harvested 3 days after wounding and were processed for histologic, electron microscopic, and immunofluorescence analyses. The effects of fibrin and epithelial growth factor (EGF) on wound reepithelialization were also studied. Results. Results demonstrated that this in vitro model allowed the migration of human corneal epithelial cells on a natural extracellular matrix. During reepithelialization, epithelial cell migration followed a consistent wavelike pattern similar to that reported for human corneal wound healing in vivo. This model showed a histologic appearance similar to that of native tissue as well as expression and modulation of basement membrane components and the integrin subunits known to be main actors during the wound healing process. It also allowed quantification of the reepithelialization rate, which was significantly accelerated in the presence of fibrin or EGF. The results indicated that αvβ6 integrin expression was increased in the migrating epithelial cells compared with the surrounding corneal tissue. Conclusions. The similarity observed with the in vivo wound healing process supports the use of this tissue-engineered model for investigating the basic mechanisms involved in corneal reepithelialization. Moreover, this model may also be used as a tool to screen agents that affect reepithelialization or to evaluate the effect of growth factors before animal testing.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Impact of cell source on human cornea reconstructed by tissue engineering
    (IOVS, 2009-06-01) Giasson, Claude-J.; Guérin, Sylvain; Germain, Lucie; Audet, Caroline; Giroux-Talbot, Mariève; Auger, François A.; Gauvin, Robert; Carrier, Patrick; Deschambeault, Alexandre
    Purpose: To investigate the effect of the tissue origin of stromal fibroblasts and epithelial cells on reconstructed corneas in vitro. Methods: Four types of constructs were produced by the self-assembly approach using the following combinations of human cells: corneal fibroblasts/corneal epithelial cells, corneal fibroblasts/skin epithelial cells, skin fibroblasts/corneal epithelial cells, skin fibroblasts/skin epithelial cells. Fibroblasts were cultured with ascorbic acid to produce stromal sheets on which epithelial cells were cultured. After 2 weeks at the air-liquid interface, the reconstructed tissues were photographed, absorption spectra were measured, and tissues were fixed for histologic analysis. Cytokine expression in corneal- or skin-fibroblast-conditioned media was determined with the use of protein array membranes. The effect of culturing reconstructed tissues with conditioned media, or media supplemented with a cytokine secreted mainly by corneal fibroblasts, was determined. Results: The tissue source from which epithelial and mesenchymal cells were isolated had a great impact on the macroscopic and histologic features (epithelium thickness and differentiation) and the functional properties (transparency) of the reconstructed tissues. The reconstructed cornea had ultraviolet-absorption characteristics resembling those of native human cornea. The regulation of epithelial differentiation and thickness was mesenchyme-dependent and mediated by diffusible factors. IL-6, which is secreted in greater amounts by corneal fibroblasts than skin fibroblasts, decreased the expression of the differentiation marker DLK in the reconstructed epidermis. Conclusions: The tissue origin of fibroblasts and epithelial cells plays a significant role in the properties of the reconstructed tissues. These human models are promising tools for gaining a thorough understanding of epithelial-stromal interactions and regulation of epithelia homeostasis.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Role of the extracellular matrix proteins in the resistance of SP6.5 uveal melanoma cells toward cisplatin
    (Spandidos Publications, 2005-03-01) Paquet-Bouchard, Carine; Guérin, Sylvain; Germain, Lucie; Bérubé, Mélanie; Giroux-Talbot, Mariève; Petitclerc, Éric; Collin, Charles
    Uveal melanoma is the most frequent primary intraocular tumor in the adult population. This malignancy has a high mortality rate and responds poorly to existing chemotherapy. Recently, the tumor environment has been found to exert a profound influence on drug response through cell interaction with components from the extracellular matrix (ECM). In the present study, we investigated whether individual components from the ECM may affect cell survival and/or cell death induced by the cytotoxic agent cisplatin on the SP6.5 uveal melanoma cell line. Tumor cells were shown by immunofluorescence analyses to be surrounded by the ECM proteins fibronectin (FN), type IV collagen (CIV) and laminin (LM), both at the primary and metastatic sites. Binding of SP6.5 cells to FN, LM and CIV is primarily dictated by the expression of membrane bound integrins from the beta1 family as revealed by cell adhesion assays conducted on ECM-coated culture plates. Analysis of cell death by flow cytometry demonstrated that culturing SP6.5 cells in the presence of FN, CIV and LM, substantially reduced the percentage of cells undergoing apoptosis after cisplatin treatment when compared with those seeded on a non-permissive matrix. These results suggest that adhesion of the SP6.5 uveal melanoma cells to the ECM proteins FN, CIV and LM might therefore confer resistance to the chemotherapeutic agent cisplatin. The cellular resistance induced by the ECM proteins toward cisplatin could explain in part the local recurrence of metastasis derived from uveal melanoma often observed clinically after chemotherapy.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Étude de la guérison d'une déficience en cellules souches dans la cornée de lapin à l'aide de cellules épithéliales cultivées sur un gel de fibrine
    (2004) Giroux-Talbot, Mariève; Germain, Lucie
    Une déficience en cellules souches épithéliales mène à une conjonctivalisation progressive de la cornée se traduisant par une perte de vision. Nous nous sommes attardés à l'étude de la régénération de l'épithélium cornéen initiée par une greffe de cellules épithéliales de cornée de lapin (CECL) cultivées sur un gel de fibrine. À confluence des cellules, le gel est greffé de façon autologue sur une cornée de lapin déficiente en cellules souches et la guérison est observée par rapport à un contrôle non greffé. À différents temps, les cornées sont prélevées et utilisées pour une analyse histologique ou par immunomarquage. Nos résultats démontrent qu'en seulement deux semaines, nous pouvons préparer un greffon d'épithélium cornéen autologue qui est sans risque de rejet. Après un mois, les lapins ayant reçu une greffe montrent un phénotype cornéen normal comparé aux témoins non-greffés. Ces résultats indiquent que la greffe de CECL autologues permet d'aider à la guérison d'un déficit en cellules souches.