Personne :
Leanza, Yvan Raffaele.

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Leanza
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Yvan Raffaele.
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Département de psychologie, Faculté des sciences sociales, Université Laval
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Résultats de recherche

Voici les éléments 1 - 10 sur 30
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Sleep and quality of life in urban poverty : the effect of a slum housing upgrading program
    (American Sleep Disorders Association and Sleep Research Society, 2013-11-01) Simonelli, Guido; Vallières, Annie; Leanza, Yvan Raffaele.; Boilard, Alexandra; Hyland, Martin; Augustinavicius, Jura; Cardinali, Daniel P.; Pérez-Chada, Daniel; Vigo, Daniel Eduardo
    Study Objectives : To evaluate the effect of a housing transition on sleep quality and quality of life in slum dwellers, participating in a slum housing upgrading program. Design : Observational before-and-after study with a convergent-parallel mixed method design. Setting : Five slums located in the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Participants : A total of 150 slum dwellers benefited by a housing program of the nonprofit organization TECHO (spanish word for “roof”). Interventions : Participants moved from their very low-quality house to a basic prefabricated 18 m2 modular house provided by TECHO. Measurements and Results : The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and World Health Organization Quality of Life brief scale (WHOQOL-BREF) were administered before and after housing upgrading. Data about housing conditions, income, education, sleeping conditions, and cardiovascular risk were also collected. Semistructured interviews were used to expand and nuance quantitative data obtained from a poorly educated sample. Results showed that sleep quality significantly increased after the housing program (z = -6.57, P < 0.001). Overall quality of life (z = -6.85, P < 0.001), physical health domain (z = -4.35, P < 0.001), psychological well-being domain (z = -3.72, P < 0.001) and environmental domain (z = -7.10, P < 0.001) of WHOQOL-BREF were also improved. Interviews demonstrated the importance of serenity for improving quality of life. Conclusions : A minimal improvement in the quality of basic housing can significantly increase sleep quality and quality of life among slum dwellers. Understanding sleep and daily life conditions in informal urban settlements could help to define what kind of low-cost intervention may improve sleep quality, quality of life, and reduce existent sleep disparity.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Pour une approche interculturelle en travail social : théories et pratiques, de M. Cohen-Emerique
    (Alterstice, 2011-01-01) Leanza, Yvan Raffaele.; Boilard, Alexandra
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Qualitative studies of insomnia : current state of knowledge in the field
    (ScienceDirect, 2016-01-14) Morin, Charles M.; Vallières, Annie; Jarrin, Denise C.; Leanza, Yvan Raffaele.; Araujo, Tais Castelo Branco Crisostomo de
    Despite its high prevalence and burden, insomnia is often trivialized, under-diagnosed, and under-treated in practice. Little information is available on the subjective experience and perceived consequences of insomnia, help-seeking behaviors, and treatment preferences. The use of qualitative approaches (e.g., ethnography, phenomenology, grounded theory) may help gain a better understanding of this sleep disorder. The present paper summarizes the evidence derived from insomnia studies using a qualitative research methodology (e.g., focus group, semi-structured interviews). A systematic review of the literature was conducted using PsycINFO and Medline databases. The review yielded 22 studies and the quality of the methodology of each of them was evaluated systematically using the critical appraisal skills programme (CASP) appraisal tool. Selected articles possess at least a very good methodological rigor and they were categorized according to their main focus: “Experience of insomnia”, “Management of insomnia” and “Medicalization of insomnia”. The main findings indicate that: 1) insomnia is often experienced as a 24-h problem and is perceived to affect several domains of life, 2) a sense of frustration and misunderstanding is very common among insomnia patients, which is possibly due to a mismatch between patients' and health care professionals' perspectives on insomnia and its treatment, 3) health care professionals pay more attention to sleep hygiene education and medication therapies and less to the patient's subjective experience of insomnia, and 4) health care professionals are often unaware of non-pharmacological interventions other than sleep hygiene education. An important implication of these findings is the need to develop new clinical measures with a broader scope on insomnia and more targeted treatments that take into account the patient's experience of insomnia. Greater use of qualitative approaches in future research may produce novel and more contextualized information leading to a more comprehensive understanding of insomnia.
  • Publication
    Restreint
    Language barriers in mental health care : a survey of primary care practitioners
    (Springer Nature, 2013-12-29) Brisset, Camille; Leanza, Yvan Raffaele.; Rosenberg, Ellen; Muckle, Gina; Vissandjée, Bilkis; Kirmayer, Laurence J.; Xenocostas, Spyridoula; Laforce, Hugues
    Many migrants do not speak the official language of their host country. This linguistic gap has been found to be an important contributor to disparities in access to services and health outcomes. This study examined primary care mental health practitioners’ experiences with linguistic diversity. 113 practitioners in Montreal completed a self-report survey assessing their experiences working with allophones. About 40 % of practitioners frequently encountered difficulties working in mental health with allophone clients. Few resources were available, and calling on an interpreter was the most common practice. Interpreters were expected to play many roles, which went beyond basic language translation. There is a clear need for training of practitioners on how to work with different types of interpreters. Training should highlight the benefits and limitations of the different roles that interpreters can play in health care delivery and the differences in communication dynamics with each role.
  • Publication
    Restreint
    Interruptions and resistance : a comparison of medical consultations with family and trained interpreters
    (Elsevier, 2010-03-18) Boivin, Isabelle; Leanza, Yvan Raffaele.; Rosenberg, Ellen
    While working with trained interpreters in health care is strongly recommended, few studies have looked at the subtle differences in communication processes between trained and “ad hoc” interpreters, such as adult family members. Using Habermas’ Communicative Action Theory (CAT) which distinguishes between the Lifeworld (contextually grounded experiences) and the System (decontextualized rules), we analysed 16 family practice consultations with interpreters, 10 with a trained interpreter and 6 with a family member. We found clear differences in communication patterns between consultations with a trained interpreter and consultations with a family member as interpreter. In both cases the Lifeworld is frequently interrupted and the outcomes are similar: the Lifeworld is rarely heard and acknowledged by the physician. Physicians interrupt the Voice of the Lifeworld significantly more with a trained interpreter than with a family member. Family members and trained interpreters also interrupt the Voice of the Lifeworld just as much. However, these interruptions differ in their functions (both physicians and interpreters interrupt to keep the interview on track to meet the biomedical goals; family interpreters interrupt to control the agenda). We have identified patients’ resistance when physicians ignore their Lifeworld, but this resistance is usually only transmitted by professional interpreters (and not by family interpreters). We identified specific risks of working with family interpreters: imposing their own agenda (vs. the patient’s one) and controlling the consultation process. Even if the collaboration with trained interpreters becomes more widespread, work with “ad hoc” interpreters will continue to occur. Therefore, institutions should provide training and organizational support to help physicians and patients to achieve communication in all situations.
  • Publication
    Restreint
    Roles of community interpreters in pediatrics as seen by interpreters, physicians and researchers
    (John Benjamins Publishing Co, 2005-01-01) Leanza, Yvan Raffaele.
    This paper is an attempt at defining more clearly the various roles of community interpreters and the processes implicitly connected with each of them. While the role of the interpreter is a subject that has been widely discussed in the social science literature, it is less present in the biomedical one, which tends to emphasize the importance of interpreting in overcoming language barriers, rather than as a means of building bridges between patients and physicians. Hence, studies looking at interpreted medical interactions suggest that the presence of an interpreter is more beneficial to the healthcare providers than to the patient. This statement is illustrated by the results of a recent study in a pediatric outpatient clinic in Switzerland. It is suggested that, in the consultations, interpreters act mainly as linguistic agents and health system agents and rarely as community agents. This is consistent with the pediatricians’ view of the interpreter as mainly a translating machine. A new typology of the varying roles of the interpreter is proposed, outlining the relation to cultural differences maintained therein. Some recommendations for the training of interpreters and healthcare providers are suggested.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Représentations et rôles des interprètes professionnels et familiaux dans les entretiens médicaux et implications pour le monde vécu
    (École de psychologie, Université Laval, 2012-06-01) Boivin, Isabelle; Leanza, Yvan Raffaele.; Rosenberg, Ellen
    Bien que le travail avec interprète professionnel soit fortement recommandé dans les consultations médicales plurilingues, de nombreuses consultations sont réalisées en présence dinterprètes familiaux (membres de la famille). Cette étude compare la situation médicale avec interprètes professionnels et celle avec interprètes familiaux selon deux perspectives : 1) les conceptions que médecins et interprètes ont des rôles des interprètes dans la consultation médicale, 2) les implications des postures de linterprète par rapport à la voix du monde vécu (lifeworld) lorsque celle-ci apparaît dans la consultation. Les principaux rôles de linterprète rapportés par les participants à notre enquête sont celui de linterprète professionnel comme « traducteur effacé » et celui de linterprète familial comme « interlocuteur à part entière ». Lun et lautre ont une vision différente du message et du contexte du patient. Dans certains cas, leur apport favorise une négociation de sens, dans dautres cas, il bloque la communication entre le médecin et le patient. Une meilleure connaissance des implications des postures de linterprète sur la communication permet de faire des choix éclairés quant à ces postures.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Qualitative studies of insomnia : Current state of knowledge in the field
    (W.B. Saunders Co., 2016-01-14) Morin, Charles M.; Denise C. Jarrin; Vallières, Annie; Leanza, Yvan Raffaele.; Araujo, Tais Castelo Branco Crisostomo de
    Despite its high prevalence and burden, insomnia is often trivialized, under-diagnosed, and undertreated in practice. Little information is available on the subjective experience and perceived consequences of insomnia, help-seeking behaviors, and treatment preferences. The use of qualitative approaches (e.g., ethnography, phenomenology, grounded theory) may help gain a better understanding of this sleep disorder. The present paper summarizes the evidence derived from insomnia studies using a qualitative research methodology (e.g., focus group, semi-structured interviews). A systematic review of the literature was conducted using PsycINFO and Medline databases. The review yielded 22 studies and the quality of the methodology of each of them was evaluated systematically using the critical appraisal skills programme (CASP) appraisal tool. Selected articles possess at least a very good methodological rigor and they were categorized according to their main focus: “Experience of insomnia”, “Management of insomnia” and “Medicalization of insomnia”. The main findings indicate that: 1) insomnia is often experienced as a 24-h problem and is perceived to affect several domains of life, 2) a sense of frustration and misunderstanding is very common among insomnia patients, which is possibly due to a mismatch between patients' and health care professionals' perspectives on insomnia and its treatment, 3) health care professionals pay more attention to sleep hygiene education and medication therapies and less to the patient's subjective experience of insomnia, and 4) health care professionals are often unaware of non-pharmacological interventions other than sleep hygiene education. An important implication of these findings is the need to develop new clinical measures with a broader scope on insomnia and more targeted treatments that take into account the patient's experience of insomnia. Greater use of qualitative approaches in future research may produce novel and more contextualized information leading to a more comprehensive understanding of insomnia.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Accueil de familles migrantes dans une polyclinique de pédiatrie : tensions, mutisme, désarticulation et ruptures
    (Département de psychologie (Université de Sherbrooke), 2006-06-01) Leanza, Yvan Raffaele.
    S’inscrivant dans le cadre plus large d’une recherche sur l’expérience de la différence culturelle pour de jeunes pédiatres de Suisse romande, les analyses présentées dans cet article retracent le parcours de familles migrantes (Kosovo et Sri Lanka) dans une polyclinique de pédiatrie. Avant même que les familles ne rencontrent le pédiatre, elles sont reçues par d’autres agents de l’institution (administratifs, infirmières, interprètes) et passent à travers un processus d’accueil qui amène à cette rencontre. L’observation des articulations entre les différentes étapes de ce processus montre une décontextualisation de la demande des familles. Par ailleurs, certaines contraintes institutionnelles tendent à instrumentaliser les consultations (suivi impossible, pression sur le temps). Ce contexte institutionnel orienté vers les familles (la polyclinique qui soigne) est doublé d’un contexte orienté vers les médecins et leur formation (la polyclinique qui forme). Les observations des rares activités pédagogiques proposées aux jeunes médecins en spécialisation montrent que, malgré la rhétorique institutionnelle en faveur d’une « pédiatrie socioculturelle », c’est une médecine très classique qui est valorisée et qui se trouve en tension avec la volonté d’innover. Accueillir les familles (migrantes) dans une perspective non assimilatrice nécessite une réflexion non seulement centrée sur la pratique (les consultations) ou la connaissance de l’Autre, mais aussi sur les processus institutionnels en œuvre. C’est en ce sens que le concept d’accueil interculturel est proposé.
  • Publication
    Restreint
    Working with interpreters in health care : a systematic review and meta-ethnography of qualitative studies
    (Elsevier, 2012-12-13) Laforest, Karine; Brisset, Camille; Leanza, Yvan Raffaele.
    Objective : To identify relational issues involved in working with interpreters in healthcare settings and to make recommendations for future research. Methods : A systematic literature search in French and English was conducted. The matrix method and a meta-ethnographic analysis were used to organize and synthesize the data. Results : Three themes emerged. Interpreters’ roles: Interpreters fill a wide variety of roles. Based on Habermas's concepts, these roles vary between agent of the Lifeworld and agent of the System. This diversity and oscillation are sources of both tension and relational opportunities. Difficulties: The difficulties encountered by practitioners, interpreters and patients are related to issues of trust, control and power. There is a clear need for balance between the three, and institutional recognition of interpreters’ roles is crucial. Communication characteristics: Non-literal translation appears to be a prerequisite for effective and accurate communication. Conclusion : The recognition of community interpreting as a profession would appear to be the next step. Without this recognition, it is unlikely that communication difficulties will be resolved.