Personne :
Demers, Claude

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Adresse électronique
Date de naissance
Projets de recherche
Structures organisationnelles
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Université Laval. École d'architecture
Identifiant Canadiana

Résultats de recherche

Voici les éléments 1 - 8 sur 8
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    A photobiological approach to biophilic design in extreme climates
    (Pergamon, 2019-03-20) Parsaee, Mojtaba; Demers, Claude; Potvin, André; Hébert, Marc; Lalonde, Jean-François
    This paper proposes the biophilic design approach as a plausible hypothesis for the challenging conditions related to living and working in extreme cold climates. Biophilic design has recently been developed to overcome the adverse effects of the built environment and to improve human well-being by redefining the human-nature relationship. Yet, biophilic design should be adapted to extreme cold climates in order to meet the biological needs of people in northern territories. This issue becomes more important when considering the availability of natural light due to the strong seasonal photoperiod and its effects on human well-being in such regions. The present paper critically reviews biophilic design patterns and identifies their main shortcomings. These shortcomings include the lack of (1) recommendations applicable to extreme cold climates (2) adaptation to the local photoperiods, and (3) a systemic framework integrated into the design process. The paper draws attention to the image-forming and non-image-forming effects of light as a basis of the human-nature design approach. In this regard, photobiological outcomes have been reviewed. Then, the paper discusses the existing lighting standards and guidelines in North America and how they have mainly been developed to fulfil the image-forming demands for light. Further efforts are needed to revise these standards with respect to the non-image-forming effects of light and the biophilic design requirements. Finally, adaptive building envelopes are presented as a hypothetical solution to optimize the biophilic qualities of buildings and address the biological needs of people living and working in extreme cold climates in northern territories.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Impact of indoor use of wood on the quality of Interior ambiances under overcast and clear skies : case study of the Eugene H. Kruger Building, Québec city
    (Dept. of Wood and Paper Science, College of Natural Resources, North Carolina State University, 2016-01-06) Demers, Claude; Landry, Véronic; Jafarian, Hoda; Blanchet, Pierre
    This paper explores the potential of wood for improving environmental quality in interior spaces. In northern climate cities where overcast skies predominate, interior spaces may appear gloomy or dull, since natural light is white and uniform. Nevertheless it is observed that wooden surfaces tend to create warmer and brighter spaces under overcast sky conditions. The objectives of this research were twofold. The first was evaluating the quality of wooden spaces under two sky conditions in terms of color, brightness and contrast. The second objective was to investigate daylight quantity of wooden spaces under diffuse and clear sky conditions. The method involved on site-surveys using Photolux, a calibrated photoluminance meter. Data consist of calibrated digital images that were processed to analyze the quality of spaces based on brightness, contrast, and color. The Kruger Building, with its internal wooden architectural structure and decorative indoor panels, was chosen as a site study for this research. Conclusions suggest that knowing the effect of different sky conditions on wooden spaces can help architects and other professionals in designing more comfortable and efficient ambiances. More particularly, this research addresses issues related to the quantitative effects of wood on daylighting distribution, visual comfort and luminance diversity
  • Publication
    Effects of interior wood finishes on the lighting ambiance and materiality of architectural spaces
    (Sage, 2017-02-09) Demers, Claude; Landry, Véronic; Jafarian, Hoda; Blanchet, Pierre
    Wood is a material often used by architects to enhance the overall ambience of a space, but few researches have been reported to discuss its actual impact on visual impression and luminous effects. This research studies the influence of wood materiality in relation to creating specific lighting ambiances in architecture. In particular, it focuses on the impact of decorative wood indoor panels on the creation of daylighting diversity in interior space and the potential to improve daylighting quality and energy efficiency. The research uses scaled models for their accuracy in rendering complex daylighting ambiances. The photo-luminance meter enables the comparison between different settings of interior spaces created by a selection of wood type materiality: ratio (percentage), colour (Oak, Cape Cod Grey and Dark Walnut coatings) and gloss concerning illuminance patterns obtained from Ecotect software. The CIE L*a*b* colour space is used to classify luminous ambiances. Results indicate that bright colour Oak favours a deeper daylighting penetration and increases the colour temperature of the space by about 300% when applied on the floor. Cape Cod Grey coating provided a neutral colour balance even under sunlighting. High gloss Dark Walnut located on the ceiling produces the highest luminance values, enlarging the window-lighting pattern. The research underlines the role of wood materiality in achieving luminous diversity and creating visually comfortable interior ambiances.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    A post-occupancy evaluation of the influence of wood on environmental comfort
    (Dept. of Wood and Paper Science, College of Natural Resources, North Carolina State University, 2017-01-01) Watchman, Mélanie; Demers, Claude; Potvin, André
    Emerging research on the impact of interior finishes, more specifically wood, is beginning to shed light on informed design opportunities. As a natural building material with unique features, wood creates warm and pleasant atmospheres and has the potential of enhancing the well-being of occupants. This research attempted to better understand how occupants perceive wood in built environments and whether its indoor use influenced the satisfaction of occupants. The comfort of occupants may have been influenced by factors that were unrelated to the indoor environmental quality, which caused difficulties in comparing interior finishes in existing environments and limited research in this field. An exploratory comparative study, within a post-occupancy evaluation framework, investigated the subjective perception of occupants in relation to physical comfort factors. Thirty-six occupants completed a questionnaire to examine comfort satisfaction in a multifunctional room with extensive wooden interior finishes in comparison with a similar space without wood surfaces. The results indicated that occupants were more satisfied in the extensive wood surfaced room in terms of lighting, noise, and temperature, despite the similar environmental conditions in both spaces. Adjectives often used to describe the wood room included bright, pleasant, modern, and warm. Architects should consider the subjective qualities of wood when designing comfortable buildings.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Wood and comfort : a comparative case study of two multifunctional rooms
    (Dept. of Wood and Paper Science, College of Natural Resources, North Carolina State University, 2017-01-01) Watchman, Mélanie; Demers, Claude; Potvin, André
    Many environmental advantages of wood in buildings have been thoroughly documented; however, this material’s effects on occupants are not well known or fully comprehended. This research aims to study comfort parameters in a multifunctional room characterised by extensive wood surfaces in comparison with a similar room with more conventional surfaces at Laval University, Quebec, Canada. The objectives of this research focus on determining the thermal, visual, and acoustical similarities and differences between two rooms using on-site surveys. Analysis of instrumental measurements and images of each room’s indoor environment under overcast skies determined the colour and texture of the surfaces. Quantitative and qualitative analyses revealed that both rooms share similar thermal and acoustic comfort parameters, but have contrasting visual characteristics. The colour, knots, and grain of the wood contributed to producing visually warm experiences resulting in a yellowish room, whereas a mix and match of artificial finishes generates a colder, bluish ambiance in the other room. The conclusion suggests that architects and designers should consider the indoor use of wood for its unique visual ambiances that enhance comfort levels.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Biophilic, photobiological and energy-efficient design framework of adaptive building façades for Northern Canada
    (Sage, 2020-02-12) Parsaee, Mojtaba; Demers, Claude; Potvin, André; Hébert, Marc; Lalonde, Jean-François
    This paper develops an integrated design framework of adaptive building façades (ABFs) to respond to photobiological and thermal needs of occupants, biophilic factors, energy requirements and climatic features in Northern Canada, i.e. near and above 50°N. The paper discusses the importance of biophilic and photobiological factors and ABFs to improve occupants’ health and human-nature relations and deal with the extreme climate in Northern Canada where non-adapted buildings that could negatively affect occupants’ wellbeing. The paper shows that existing ABFs must be further developed for northern applications in terms of (i) the physical structure and configuration of components (ii) the design of solar shading/louver panels to address photobiological and biophilic requirements (iii) the development of lighting adaptation scenarios to respond to biophilic and photobiological needs, local photoperiods and energy issues, and (iv) the overall biophilic quality for accessibility to natural patterns. The ABFs’ framework was developed in three phases including (1) process environmental data (2) produce adaptation scenarios, and (3) operate adaptation scenarios. The research discussed major issues of all phases that must be further studied, especially the development of hourly/daily/seasonally lighting adaptation scenarios. The paper develops a holistic parametric methodology to integrate and optimize major design variables of ABF’s components.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Human-centric lighting performance of shading panels in architecture: a benchmarking study with lab scale physical models under real skies
    (Association for Applied Solar Energy, 2020-05-07) Parsaee, Mojtaba; Demers, Claude; Potvin, André; Hébert, Marc; Lalonde, Jean-François; Inanici, Mehlika
    This study investigates shading panels’ (SPs) impacts on daylighting features in a lab scale model in terms of parameters representing potential human eyes’ biological responses identified as image forming (IF) and non-image forming (NIF). IF responses enable vision and NIF responses regulate internal body clocks known as circadian clocks. Human-centric lighting evaluates photopic units, representing IF responses, and melanopic units representing NIF responses, combined with correlated color temperature (CCT) of light for potential biological effects. SPs’ impacts on such parameters of daylighting have not yet been studied. Previous research mostly studied panels’ impacts on visual comfort and glare related to IF responses. This research explores the impact of SPs’ color, reflectance, orientation, and openness on photopic and melanopic units and CCT of daylighting inside a 1:50 physical scale model of a space. Approximately prototypes of SPs were evaluated. An experimental setup was designed under outdoor daylighting conditions to capture high dynamic range (HDR) images inside the model. HDR images were post processed to calculate and render the distribution of photopic and melanopic units, melanopic/photopic (M/P) ratios and CCTs in the captured viewpoint of the model. Results reveal the behavior of SPs’ color, reflectance, orientation, and openness in modifying daylighting parameters related to biological responses. Bluish panels, in particular, increase daylighting melanopic units and CCTs whereas reddish panels increase photopic units and reduce CCTs. The research results were discussed to provide an outline for future developments of panels to adapt daylighting to occupants' IF and NIF responses.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Lighting in the third dimension : laser scanning as an architectural survey and representation method
    (Earthscan, 2020-04-07) Demers, Claude; Rodrigue, Myriam; Parsaee, Mojtaba
    This paper proposes tridimensional (3D) laser scanning to architects and lighting designers as a lighting enquiry and visualization method for existing built environments. The method constitutes a complement to existing lighting methods by responding to limitations of photometric measurements, computer simulation and HDR imagery in surveying and visualizing light in actual buildings. The research explores advantages and limitations of 3D laser scanning in a case study addressing a vast, geometrically complex and fragmented naturally and artificially lit space. Lighting patterns and geometry of the case study are captured with a 3D laser scanner through a series of four scans. A single 3D model of the entire space is produced from the aligned and fused scans. Lighting distribution patterns are showcased in relation to the materiality, geometry and position of windows, walls, lighting fixtures and day lighting sources. The point cloud model of the case study is also generated into a video format representing the entire building as well as different viewpoints. The study shows that the proposed method provides powerful visualization results due to the unlimited number of images that can be generated from a point cloud and facilitates understanding of existing lighting conditions in spaces.