Personne : Roy, Marc-André
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Université Laval. Département de psychiatrie et de neurosciences
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- PublicationAccès libreThe influence of visual perspective on the somatosensory steady-state response during pain observation(Frontiers Research Foundation, 2013-12-09) Canizales, Dora Linsey; Jackson, Philip L.; Voisin, Julien; Michon, Pierre-Emmanuel; Roy, Marc-AndréThe observation and evaluation of other's pain activate part of the neuronal network involved in the actual experience of pain, including those regions subserving the sensori-discriminative dimension of pain. This was largely interpreted as evidence showing that part of the painful experience can be shared vicariously. Here, we investigated the effect of the visual perspective from which other people’s pain is seen on the cortical response to continuous 25 Hz non-painful somatosensory stimulation (somatosensory steady-state response: SSSR). Based on the shared representation framework, we expected first-person visual perspective (1PP) to yield more changes in cortical activity than third-person visual perspective (3PP) during pain observation. Twenty healthy adults were instructed to rate a series of pseudo-dynamic pictures depicting hands in either painful or non-painful scenarios, presented either in 1PP (0°-45° angle) or 3PP (180° angle), while changes in brain activity was measured with a 128-electode EEG system. The ratings demonstrated that the same scenarios were rated on average as more painful when observed from the 1PP than from the 3PP. As expected from previous works, the SSSR response was decreased after stimulus onset over the left caudal part of the parieto-central cortex, contralateral to the stimulation side. Moreover, the difference between the SSSR was of greater amplitude when the painful situations were presented from the 1PP compared to the 3PP. Together, these results suggest that a visuospatial congruence between the viewer and the observed scenarios is associated with both a higher subjective evaluation of pain and an increased modulation in the somatosensory representation of observed pain. These findings are discussed with regards to the potential role of visual perspective in pain communication and empathy.
- PublicationRestreintCognitive structure from childhood to adulthood in kindreds densely affected by schizophrenia and bipolar disorder(Elsevier Ltd., 2015-07-23) Mérette, Chantal; Jomphe, Valérie; Moreau, Isabel; Gilbert, Elsa; Paccalet, Thomas; Roy, Marc-André; Rouleau, Nancie; Cellard, Caroline; Maziade, MichelThe developmental aspects of cognitive structures from childhood until adulthood and across different levels of risk for psychopathology have been little studied. The aim of the current study was to explore the cognitive factorial structure in subsamples from highly familial and densely affected kindreds of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder – i.e. affected adult members, non-affected adult members and high-risk youth. The same neuropsychological battery was administered in a sample of 480 participants: schizophrenia and bipolar patients (n=51), young high-risk offspring (n=61), non-affected adult relatives of patients (n=96), and controls (n=272). Exploratory Factorial Analysis was performed in the control sample and yielded a 5-factor solution: verbal comprehension, processing speed/working memory, visual learning and memory, verbal learning and memory, reasoning and problem solving. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the hierarchical 5-factor solution was well suited for the young high-risk offspring, the non-affected adult relatives of patient and the patients. A hierarchical model with a “g” factor was a good fit for all subsamples. These results suggest that cognitive impairments may aggregate in highly familial individuals.
- PublicationRestreintCognitive restructuring in the treatment of psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia : a critical analysis(Association for Advancement of Behavior Therapy, 2006-03-02) Vallières, Annie; Roy, Marc-André; Bouchard, Stéphane; Maziade, MichelThis article reviews the 15 empirical studies that have used cognitive restructuring in the treatment of schizophrenia, more specifically for psychotic symptoms (delusions and hallucinations). Three elements are considered before investigating its effectiveness: (a) if subjects are reliably diagnosed with schizophrenia with chronic course and severe impairment; (b) if psychotic symptoms are adequately measured; and (c) if designs are methodologically sound. Our investigation revealed that schizophrenia is not reliably diagnosed and severity is low to moderate. Assessment of psychotic symptoms is satisfactory, but assessment of generalization to other areas is limited. Only five studies possess reliable design and are performed with schizophrenia subjects. These studies suggest that cognitive restructuring is effective to reduce or eliminate hallucinations or delusions in schizophrenia patients.
- PublicationAccès libreA multimodal attempt to follow-up linkage regions using RNA expression, SNPs and CpG methylation in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder kindreds(European Society of Human Genetics, 2019-11-06) Croteau, Jordie; Chagnon, Yvon C.; Paccalet, Thomas; Roy, Marc-André; Fournier, Alain; Bureau, Alexandre; Maziade, MichelThe complexity of schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) has slowed down progress in understanding their genetic roots. Alternative genomic approaches are needed to bypass these difficulties. We attempted a multimodal approach to follow-up on reported linkage findings in SZ and BD from the Eastern Quebec kindreds in chromosomes 3q21, 4p34, 6p22, 8p21, 8p11, 13q11-q14, 15q13, 16p12, and 18q21. First, in 498 subjects, we measured RNA expression (47 K Illumina chips) in SZ and BD patients that we compared with their non-affected relatives (NARs) to identify, for each chromosomal region, genes showing the most significant differences in expression. Second, we performed SNP genotyping (700 K Illumina chips) and cis-eQTN analysis. Third, we measured DNA methylation on genes with RNA expression differences or eQTNs. We found a significant overexpression of the gene ITGB5 at 3q25 in SZ and BD after multiple testing p value adjustment. SPCS3 gene at 4q34, and FZD3 gene at 8p21, contained significant eQTNs after multiple testing corrections, while ITGB5 provided suggestive results. Methylation in associated genes did not explain the expression differences between patients and NARs. Our multimodal approach involving RNA expression, dense SNP genotyping and eQTN analyses, restricted to chromosomal regions having shown linkage, lowered the multiple testing burden and allowed for a deeper examination of candidate genes in SZ or BD.
- PublicationAccès libreMentalizing in first-episode psychosis(Elsevier, 2012-02-27) Achim, Amélie M.; Jackson, Philip L.; Roy, Marc-André; Ouellet, RosalieMentalizing deficits have often been observed in people with schizophrenia and a few recent studies suggest that such deficits are also present in patients with first episode psychosis (FEP). It is not clear, however, whether these mentalizing deficits in FEP can be accounted for by underlying processes such as social cue recognition, social knowledge and general reasoning. In this study, we assessed mentalizing abilities in 31 people with FEP and 31 matched controls using a novel, comprehensive mentalizing task validated through the present study. We also assessed social cue recognition, social knowledge and non-social (or general) reasoning performance in the same participants in order to determine if the mentalizing deficits in FEP can be at least partly explained by performance in these three underlying processes. Overall, the mentalizing task revealed the greatest impairment in FEP, an impairment that remained significant even after controlling for social cue recognition, social knowledge and non-social reasoning performance. Interestingly, non-social reasoning and social knowledge were both shown to contribute to mentalizing performance. In addition, social cognition measures were linked to social functioning in the FEP group, with the strongest correlation observed with mentalizing performance. Taken together, these results show that mentalizing is an aspect of social cognition that is particularly affected in FEP and might contribute to functional impairments in these patients. These deficits could be a prime target for cognitive remediation in FEP, and our results suggest that this could be done either directly or through improvement of related social and non-social cognitive skills such as social knowledge and general reasoning.
- PublicationAccès libreImpact of social anxiety on social cognition and functioning in patients with recent-onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders(Elsevier, 2013-02-12) Achim, Amélie M.; Jackson, Philip L.; Lavoie, Marie-Audrey; Roy, Marc-André; Ouellet, Rosalie; Vallières, ChantaleSchizophrenia patients display important rates of comorbid social anxiety disorder (SAD) but few studies have directly examined how SAD affects the presentation of schizophrenia, notably social cognition deficits and functioning. Aims : To compare social cognition performance of schizophrenia patients who meet the diagnostic criteria for a comorbid SAD (SZ +) relative to patients without such comorbidity (SZ −) and to determine if the impact of social cognition performance on functioning is moderated by that comorbidity. Method : Social cognition performance (emotion recognition, social knowledge, and mentalizing), a control non-social reasoning task, as well as clinical symptoms and functioning were assessed in 26 patients with comorbid SAD (SZ +), 29 SZ − and 84 healthy controls. Results : Patient groups significantly differed from each other on social knowledge performance, but not in levels of symptoms or overall functioning. Relative to healthy controls, SZ + were impaired uniquely on mentalizing, whereas SZ − showed a more encompassing social cognition deficit that included mentalizing, social knowledge and non-social reasoning impairments. Mentalizing was the best predictor of functioning across both patient groups. Importantly, non-social reasoning negatively influenced mentalizing and in turn functioning only in the SZ − group. Conclusions : The overall pattern of results indicates common mentalizing deficits in SZ + and SZ −; however, these deficits appear linked to different underlying deficits and different pathways to functional impact in the two patient subgroups. This study highlights some distinctive characteristics of schizophrenia patients with comorbid SAD and signals a need for further investigations into the sources of the mentalizing and functioning impairments in SZ + patients.
- PublicationAccès libreAssessment of empathy in first-episode psychosis and meta-analytic comparison with previous studies in schizophrenia(Elsevier, 2010-12-04) Achim, Amélie M.; Jackson, Philip L.; Roy, Marc-André; Ouellet, RosalieEmpathy is a multidimensional construct that relies on affective and cognitive component processes. A few studies have reported impairments of both cognitive and affective empathy components in patients with schizophrenia. It is, however, not known whether these difficulties are already present at psychosis onset. The affective and cognitive components of empathy were thus assessed in 31 patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP) and 31 matched healthy controls using the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI). Our results were then compared to previous studies of empathy in patients with more chronic schizophrenia via a meta-analysis. In addition, we also assessed the relationship between empathy ratings, Mentalizing performance and clinical symptoms. Contrary to what has been reported in people with more chronic schizophrenia, the IRI ratings did not significantly differ between FEP and controls in our study, though a trend was observed for the Personal distress scale. For the Perspective taking scale, our meta-analysis revealed a significantly lower effect size in this study with FEP patients relative to previous schizophrenia studies. In the FEP group, the IRI ratings were not related to positive, negative or general psychopathology symptoms, but a significant relationship emerged between the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale and Perspective taking (negative correlation). In addition, a significant positive correlation was observed between the Empathic concern subscale and our theory of mind task. This study supports the idea that the cognitive component of empathy is less affected in patients with first-episode psychosis relative to patients with more chronic schizophrenia, and the impairments reported in previous reports with more chronic populations should be interpreted in light of a possible deterioration of this cognitive skill. The findings also provide some insight into the relationship between empathy and clinical symptoms such as social anxiety.