Personne : Genest, Hervé
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Centre Hospitalier Affilié Universitaire de Québec, Université Laval
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- PublicationRestreintProspective study on the treatment of lower-extremity chronic venous and mixed ulcers using tissue-engineered skin substitute made by the self-assembly approach(Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2013-09-01) Beaudoin-Cloutier, Chanel; Germain, Lucie; Larouche, Danielle; Labbé, Raymond; Rochon, Marie-Hélène; Roy, Michel A.; Genest, Hervé; Soucy, Jacques; Dubé, Nathalie; Auger, François A.; Ospina, Carlos E.; Arsenault, Frédéric; Rodrigue, Bertrand; Boa, Olivier; Moulin, VéroniqueBACKGROUND: Despite present optimal standard treatment of lower-extremity ulceration, a high incidence of recurrence and treatment failure is observed. The objective of this project was to evaluate the effect of a self-assembled skin substitute (SASS) made by tissue engineering as a temporary cutaneous dressing in the treatment of hard-to-heal chronic ulcers. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The prospective uncontrolled case study includes patients suffering from venous or mixed ulcers lasting more than 6 months and unresponsive to compression therapy, with an Ankle Brachial Index greater than 0.5. Compression therapy was combined with the weekly application of SASS, produced from the patient’s own skin cells, until healing. A weekly follow-up recorded wound size, skin aspect, pain, drainage, and percentage of wound healing. Photographs were also taken to assess ulcer evolution. RESULTS: Fourteen ulcers present on 5 patients were treated. A mean of 6.7 SASS depositions by ulcer was required for healing. Two ulcers developed a minor wound infection, which was treated with oral antibiotics; another 2 ulcers recurred, and 1 healed with a second course of treatment, whereas 1 ulcer had a small recurrence treated with local wound care. CONCLUSION: The authors’ study suggests that the SASS used as a biological dressing is a promising treatment for hard-to-heal chronic venous and mixed ulcers that are unresponsive to compression therapy.
- PublicationRestreintConsiderations in the choice of a skin donor site for harvesting keratinocytes containing a high proportion of stem cells for culture in vitro(Butterworth-Heinemann, 2010-12-03) Germain, Lucie; Larouche, Danielle; Paquet, Claudie; Fugère, Claudia.; Genest, Hervé; Auger, François A.; Gauvin, Robert; Têtu, Félix-Andre; Bouchard, Maurice; Roy, Aphonse; Fradette, Julie; Lavoie, Amélie; Beauparlant, Annie.The treatment of severely burned patients has benefited from the grafting of skin substitutes obtained by expansion of epithelial cells in culture. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the anatomic site chosen for harvesting skin had an impact on the quality of the derived cell cultures. Considering that hair follicles contain epithelial stem cells, we compared hairy skin sites featuring different densities and sizes of hair follicles for their capacity to generate high quality keratinocyte cultures. Three anatomic sites from adult subjects were compared: scalp, chest skin and p-auricular (comprising pre-auricular and post-auricular) skin. Keratin (K) 19 was used as a marker to evaluate the proportion of stem cells. Keratinocytes were isolated using the two-step thermolysin and trypsin cell extraction method, and cultured in vitro. The proportion of K19-positive cells harvested from p-auricular skin was about twice that of the scalp. This K19-positive cell content also remained higher during the first subcultures. In contrast to these in vitro results, the number of K19-positive cells estimated in situ on skin sections was about double in scalp as in p-auricular skin. Chest skin had the lowest number of K19-positive cells. These results indicate that in addition to the choice of an adult anatomic site featuring a high number of stem cells in situ, the quality of the cultures greatly depends on the ability to extract stem cells from the skin biopsy
- PublicationAccès libreShedding of microparticles by myofibroblasts as mediator of cellular cross-talk during normal wound healing(Liss, 2010-06-07) Messier, Hugo; Genest, Hervé; Moulin, Véronique; Martinez, Maria Carmen; Mayrand, Dominique; Lopez-Vallé, Carlos AntonioInteractions between cells are a crucial mechanism to correctly heal a wounded tissue. Myofibroblasts have a central role during healing but their means to communicate with other cells is unknown. Microparticles (MP) have demonstrated a potential role as mediators of cellular interactions during various diseases. We have analyzed the production of MP by normal (Wmyo) and pathological (hypertrophic scar, Hmyo) myofibroblasts and human dermal fibroblasts (Fb) when treated with serum or plasma as examples of body fluids. We have shown that the presence of these body fluids induced a very significant increase in MP production by Wmyo while no MP production was denoted for Hmyo and Fb. These effects were at least due to thermally sensitive protein(s) with a molecular mass >30 kDa. Furthermore, the increase in MP production was not linked to an increase in apoptotic Wmyo. MP characterization showed that VEGF and FGF2 were present in MP and that endothelial and (myo)fibroblast cell growth can be stimulated by MP treatment. We postulated that MP production by myofibroblasts could modulate mesenchymal cell growth and angiogenesis during normal healing.
- PublicationRestreintAngiogenic properties of myofibroblasts isolated from normal human skin wounds(Rapid Science Publishers, 2012-02-18) Langlois, Amélie; Roy, Michel; Larochelle, Sébastien; Genest, Hervé; Moulin, Véronique; Laforce-Lavoie, Audrey; Mayrand, DominiqueDuring wound healing, angiogenesis plays a crucial role in inducing adequate perfusion of the new tissue, thereby allowing its survival. This angiogenic process contributes to the formation of granulation tissue, alongside myofibroblasts. Myofibroblasts are cells specialized in wound contraction and synthesis of new extracellular matrix. Fibroblasts, considered by some to be at the origin of myofibroblasts, have already been shown to promote neovascularization. Thus, we hypothesized that myofibroblasts play a key role during angiogenic development in wound healing. We isolated myofibroblasts from normal human skin wounds and dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMVEC) and fibroblasts from skin. Using an in vitro fibrin-based model, we compared the proangiogenic activity of wound myofibroblasts to that of fibroblasts in the presence of HDMVEC. By immunostaining with collagen IV antibodies, we observed the formation of a capillary network significantly more developed when HDMVEC were cultured with myofibroblasts compared to the network formed in the presence of fibroblasts. The differences between these cell types did not result from a differential secretion of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor or basic Fibroblast Growth Factor. However, in the presence of myofibroblasts, a significant decrease in matrix metalloproteinase activity was observed. This finding was correlated with a significant increase in Tissue Inhibitor of MetalloProteinase (TIMP)-1 and TIMP-3. Furthermore, inhibition of TIMP-1 secretion using shRNA significantly decreased myofibroblasts induced angiogenesis. These results led to the hypothesis that normal wound myofibroblasts contribute to the vascular network development during wound healing. Our data emphasize the critical role of wound myofibroblasts during healing.