Personne : Turgeon, Sylvie
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Université Laval. Département des sciences des aliments
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- PublicationAccès librePostprandial lipemia and fecal fat excretion in rats is affected by the calcium content and type of milk fat present in Cheddar-type cheeses(New York, NY : Elsevier Science, 2018-03-21) Ayala-Bribiesca, Erik; Turgeon, Sylvie; Pilon, Geneviève; Britten, Michel; Marette, AndréThe aim of this study was to better understand the effect of calcium on the bioavailability of milk lipids from a cheese matrix using a rat model. Cheddar-type cheeses were manufactured with one of three types of anhydrous milk fat, control, olein or stearin, and salted with or without CaCl₂. The cheeses were fed to rats and postprandial lipemia was monitored. Feces were analyzed to quantify fatty acids excreted as calcium soaps. Higher calcium concentration in cheese caused a higher and faster triacylglycerol peak in blood, except for cheeses containing stearin. Furthermore, calcium soaps were more abundant in feces when the ingested cheese had been enriched with calcium and when the cheese was prepared with stearin. Increased lipid excretion was attributable to the affinity of saturated long-chain fatty acids for calcium. Results showed that lipid bioaccessibility can be regulated by calcium present in Cheddar cheese. This study highlights the nutritional interaction between calcium and lipids present in the dairy matrix and confirms its physiological repercussions on fatty acid bioavailability.
- PublicationAccès libreSeaweeds : a traditional ingredients for new gastronomic sensation(Boca Raton : CRC Press, 2017-02-08) Rioux, Laurie-Eve; Beaulieu, Lucie; Turgeon, SylvieSeaweeds have a long tradition in Asian cuisine. In Canada and US, seaweed consumption is mostly limited to sushi and other imported Asian dish. However, seaweeds are well recognized for their richness in several nutrients such as fiber, protein and minerals. But what is limiting seaweed and seaweed derived ingredients utilization in home cooking? Finding fresh seaweeds within inland cities is one limiting step but also the seaweed marketing need to propel the image that seaweed are not only nutritive but can bring flavor and texture in cuisine dish. With the rise of TV cooking shows, blogs and online recipes hosted by several renowned chefs, it is now time to bring seaweed in the spotlight. The aim of this review is to look at seaweeds to support a wider use in culinary applications for their nutritional contribution but also from a sensory perspective.
- PublicationAccès libreEffect of calcium on fatty acid bioaccessibility during in vitro digestion of Cheddar-type cheeses prepared with different milk fat fractions(Urbana, Ill. : American Dairy Science Association, 2017-03-18) Ayala-Bribiesca, Erik; Britten, Michel; Turgeon, SylvieCalcium plays an important role in intestinal lipid digestion by increasing the lipolysis rate, but also limits fatty acid bioaccessibility by producing insoluble Ca soaps with long-chain fatty acids at intestinal pH conditions. The aim of this study was to better understand the effect of Ca on the bioaccessibility of milk fat from Cheddar-type cheeses. Three anhydrous milk fats (AMF) with different fatty acid profiles (olein, stearin, or control AMF) were used to prepare Cheddar-type cheeses, which were then enriched or not with Ca using CaCl2 during the salting step. The cheeses were digested in vitro, and their disintegration and lipolysis rates were monitored during the process. At the end of digestion, lipids were extracted under neutral and acidic pH conditions to compare free fatty acids under intestinal conditions in relation to total fatty acids released during the digestion process. The cheeses prepared with the stearin (the AMF with the highest ratio of long-chain fatty acids) were more resistant to disintegration than the other cheeses, owing to the high melting temperature of that AMF. The Ca-enriched cheeses had faster lipolysis rates than the regular Ca cheeses. Chromatographic analysis of the digestion products showed that Ca interacted with long-chain fatty acids, producing Ca soaps, whereas no interaction with shorter fatty acids was detected. Although higher Ca levels resulted in faster lipolysis rates, driven by the depletion of reaction products as Ca soaps, such insoluble compounds are expected to reduce the bioavailability of fatty acids by hindering their absorption. These effects on lipid digestion and absorption are of interest for the design of food matrices for the controlled release of fat-soluble nutrients or bioactive molecules.
- PublicationRestreintCommercial cheeses with different texture have different disintegration and protein/peptide release rates during simulated in vitro digestion(Elsevier, 2016-01-27) Fang, Xixi; Rioux, Laurie-Eve; Labrie, Steve; Turgeon, SylvieSolid food disintegration in the stomach has recently been linked to food texture, which changes during digestion. This phenomenon is likely to affect the kinetics of protein digestion and therefore associated postprandial metabolic responses. Depending upon the variety, the cheese protein and lipid content as well as the texture can be modulated, illustrating complexity. Five commercial cheeses, covering a range of textural properties, were selected and characterised. Cheese particles were submitted to an in vitro digestion model to study cheese disintegration and protein/peptide release. Cheese disintegration was affected by cheese texture and composition. At the end of gastric digestion, elastic cheeses (mozzarella) were less disintegrated when compared with ripened and soft cheeses with high fat content (Camembert, aged Cheddar). The protein digestion was different amongst cheeses according to different disintegration rates. Cheese structural and textural properties, attributed to processing parameters, can be used to modulate gastro-intestinal digestion of cheese proteins.
- PublicationAccès libreFormation and functional properties of protein–polysaccharide electrostatic hydrogels in comparison to protein or polysaccharide hydrogels(New York, NY : Elsevier Science Pub. Co., 2017-02-16) Le, Xuan Thang; Rioux, Laurie-Eve; Turgeon, SylvieProtein and polysaccharide mixed systems have been actively studied for at least 50 years as they can be assembled into functional particles or gels. This article reviews the properties of electrostatic gels, a recently discovered particular case of associative protein–polysaccharide mixtures formed through associative electrostatic interaction under appropriate solution conditions (coupled gel). This review highlights the factors influencing gel formation such as protein–polysaccharide ratio, biopolymer structural characteristics, final pH, ionic strength and total solid concentration. For the first time, the functional properties of protein–polysaccharide coupled gels are presented and discussed in relationship to individual protein and polysaccharide hydrogels. One of their outstanding characteristics is their gel water retention. Up to 600 g of water per g of biopolymer may be retained in the electrostatic gel network compared to a protein gel (3–9 g of water per g of protein). Potential applications of the gels are proposed to enable the food and non-food industries to develop new functional products with desirable attributes or new interesting materials to incorporate bioactive molecules.
- PublicationAccès libreIdentification of texture parameters influencing commercial cheese matrix disintegration and lipid digestion using an in vitro static digestion model(New York, NY : Elsevier Science Pub. Co., 2019-03-26) Guinot, Léa; Rioux, Laurie-Eve; Labrie, Steve; Britten, Michel; Turgeon, SylvieCheese characteristics, such as composition or textural properties, can impact the matrix degradation rate which could modulate the bioaccessibility of fatty acids during digestion. The aim of this study was to identify texture parameters influencing cheese degradation in a gastrointestinal environment. A static in vitro digestion model has been used on nine commercial cheeses: young and aged cheddar, regular and light cream cheese, parmesan, feta, camembert, mozzarella, and sliced processed cheese. At the end of gastric digestion, camembert and mozzarella presented the lowest matrix disintegration whereas aged cheddar, regular and light cream cheeses showed the highest. For all cheeses, the fatty acid release was fast during the first 30 min of duodenal digestion and slowed down afterwards. A partial least square regression revealed that springiness, cohesiveness, and hardness were negatively correlated to the rate of cheese disintegration during gastric digestion. In addition, textural parameters were not correlated with free fatty acid release. By modulating cheese texture, it could be possible to influence matrix disintegration during gastrointestinal digestion which could have an impact on lipids release.
- PublicationAccès libreImpact of starch and exopolysaccharide-producing lactic acid bacteria on the properties of set and stirred yoghurts(New York (N.Y.) : Elsevier, 2016-01-21) Gentès, Marie-Claude; Turgeon, Sylvie; St-Gelais, DanielThe impact of exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing lactic acid bacteria with well-known structures and starch (0.75%) on the rheological properties (apparent viscosity and elastic modulus) and physical properties (syneresis) of set and stirred yoghurts was studied. Three EPS-producing strains with different structural characteristics were studied: Streptococcus thermophilus ST1 (anionic, stiff and linear EPS), Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus LB1 (neutral, stiff and ramified EPS) and Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus LB2 (neutral, flexible and highly ramified EPS). The presence of linear, stiff, and anionic EPS from ST1 increased the elastic modulus in all yoghurt conditions, possibly owing to electrostatic interactions with caseins. Higher viscosity values were obtained with stiff and linear or slightly branched EPS from the ST1 and LB1 for all yoghurt conditions. Starch addition increased the values of the rheological and physical properties of all stirred yoghurts, probably due to the repulsion between proteins and polysaccharides favouring thermodynamic incompatibility.
- PublicationAccès libreLow-temperature blanching as a tool to modulate the structure of pectin in blueberry purees(Journal of food science, 2017-08-10) Chevalier, Laura; Rioux, Laurie-Eve; Angers, Paul.; Turgeon, SylvieBlueberry composition was characterized for 6 cultivars. It contains a good amount of dietary fiber (10% to 20%) and pectin (4% to 7%) whose degree of methylation (DM) is sensitive to food processing. A low temperature blanching (LTB: 60 °C/1 h) was applied on blueberry purees to decrease pectin DM, in order to modulate puree properties and functionalities (that is, viscosity and stability), and to enhance pectin affinity toward other components within food matrices. Fiber content, viscosity, pectin solubility, DM, and monosaccharide composition were determined for both pasteurized, and LTB+pasteurized blueberry purees. The results showed that neither the amount of fiber, nor the viscosity were affected by LTB, indicating that this treatment did not result in any significant pectin depolymerization and degradation. LTB caused a decrease both in pectin DM from 58–67% to 45–47% and in the amount of water-soluble pectin fraction, the latter remaining the major fraction of total pectin at 52% to 57%. A LTB is a simple and mild process to produce blueberry purees with mostly soluble and low-methylated pectin in order to extend functionality and opportunities for interactions with other food ingredients.
- PublicationAccès libreDisintegration and nutrients release from cheese with different textural properties during in vitro digestion(New York : Elsevier, 2016-09-12) Fang, Xixi; Rioux, Laurie-Eve; Labrie, Steve; Turgeon, SylvieRecent results showed that solid food disintegration in the stomach may be affected by food texture which was demonstrated to change during digestion. Cheese is complex as, depending on the variety, its composition and texture can be modulated. Cheddar, light Cheddar, Mozzarella and light Mozzarella cheese particles were digested in vitro. Cheese disintegration and nutrients release were studied throughout the oral, gastric and duodenal digestion steps in presence or absence of enzymes. Cheese disintegration was significantly affected by the enzymatic treatment (with or without enzymes). The addition of enzymes allowed to reach 72% of cheese disintegration at the end of the duodenal digestion while it has attained 30% when no enzymes were added. Cheddar cheese disintegration was the highest among cheeses. This phenomenon was related to its initial higher fat content which resulted in a higher fat release during digestion. The disintegration at the end of each digestion step was also correlated to cheese composition (proteolysis and fat) and to textural parameters (hardness, resilience, adhesiveness and chewiness). Light Cheddar and Mozzarella exhibited similar disintegration and nutrients release at the end of the digestion due to a relatively small fat reduction (6%) which had limited effect on cheese texture. This study provides quantitative evidence regarding the impact of cheese textural changes during digestion on cheese disintegration and macronutrients release which may further affect nutrients anabolic response and some physiological functions.
- PublicationAccès libreEffect of calcium enrichment of Cheddar cheese on its structure, in vitro digestion and lipid bioaccessibility(Oxford : Elsevier Ltd., 2015-09-28) Ayala-Bribiesca, Erik; Lussier, Martine; Chabot, Denise; Turgeon, Sylvie; Britten, MichelThe nutritional role of cheese is usually reduced to its composition, often neglecting the effect that the matrix can have on digestion. The purpose of this study was to establish a link between the characteristics of Cheddar cheeses with different calcium levels and the impact on cheese in vitro digestion. Curds were enriched with CaCl2 during the salting step to produce control, high-calcium, and very high-calcium cheeses. Cheese composition, texture and structure were characterized, and physical disintegration and lipolysis were monitored during in vitro digestion. Cheese hardness increased with higher calcium content. This resulted in a slower disintegration during in vitro digestion. Despite showing faster disintegration, the control cheese had the slowest lipolysis progression. The results suggest that lipolysis depends on calcium content and the matrix modulating the access of enzymes to their substrates. Further studies should provide a better understanding of the calcium–matrix interaction affecting lipid bioaccessibility.