Personne : Turgeon, Sylvie
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Université Laval. Département des sciences des aliments
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- PublicationAccès libreSeaweeds : a traditional ingredients for new gastronomic sensation(Boca Raton : CRC Press, 2017-02-08) Rioux, Laurie-Eve; Beaulieu, Lucie; Turgeon, SylvieSeaweeds have a long tradition in Asian cuisine. In Canada and US, seaweed consumption is mostly limited to sushi and other imported Asian dish. However, seaweeds are well recognized for their richness in several nutrients such as fiber, protein and minerals. But what is limiting seaweed and seaweed derived ingredients utilization in home cooking? Finding fresh seaweeds within inland cities is one limiting step but also the seaweed marketing need to propel the image that seaweed are not only nutritive but can bring flavor and texture in cuisine dish. With the rise of TV cooking shows, blogs and online recipes hosted by several renowned chefs, it is now time to bring seaweed in the spotlight. The aim of this review is to look at seaweeds to support a wider use in culinary applications for their nutritional contribution but also from a sensory perspective.
- PublicationAccès libreEffect of calcium on fatty acid bioaccessibility during in vitro digestion of Cheddar-type cheeses prepared with different milk fat fractions(Urbana, Ill. : American Dairy Science Association, 2017-03-18) Ayala-Bribiesca, Erik; Britten, Michel; Turgeon, SylvieCalcium plays an important role in intestinal lipid digestion by increasing the lipolysis rate, but also limits fatty acid bioaccessibility by producing insoluble Ca soaps with long-chain fatty acids at intestinal pH conditions. The aim of this study was to better understand the effect of Ca on the bioaccessibility of milk fat from Cheddar-type cheeses. Three anhydrous milk fats (AMF) with different fatty acid profiles (olein, stearin, or control AMF) were used to prepare Cheddar-type cheeses, which were then enriched or not with Ca using CaCl2 during the salting step. The cheeses were digested in vitro, and their disintegration and lipolysis rates were monitored during the process. At the end of digestion, lipids were extracted under neutral and acidic pH conditions to compare free fatty acids under intestinal conditions in relation to total fatty acids released during the digestion process. The cheeses prepared with the stearin (the AMF with the highest ratio of long-chain fatty acids) were more resistant to disintegration than the other cheeses, owing to the high melting temperature of that AMF. The Ca-enriched cheeses had faster lipolysis rates than the regular Ca cheeses. Chromatographic analysis of the digestion products showed that Ca interacted with long-chain fatty acids, producing Ca soaps, whereas no interaction with shorter fatty acids was detected. Although higher Ca levels resulted in faster lipolysis rates, driven by the depletion of reaction products as Ca soaps, such insoluble compounds are expected to reduce the bioavailability of fatty acids by hindering their absorption. These effects on lipid digestion and absorption are of interest for the design of food matrices for the controlled release of fat-soluble nutrients or bioactive molecules.
- PublicationAccès libreCharacterization of syneresis phenomena in stirred acid milk gel using low frequency nuclear magnetic resonance on hydrogen and image analyses(Oxford : IRL Press, 2020-04-15) Gilbert, Audrey; Rioux, Laurie-Eve; St-Gelais, Daniel; Turgeon, SylvieWater retention is an important quality attribute for yogurt. Classically, stirred yogurt water retention is investigated using induced syneresis measurement (centrifugation), which does not characterize spontaneous syneresis. Low-frequency nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-LF-NMR) is a non-destructive technique to detect spontaneous syneresis. Experimental yogurt from pasteurized skim milk, and commercial stirred yogurts were analyzed with 1H-LF-NMR. After Laplace's transformation of the signal, hydrogen atoms pools were differentiated according to their mobility. Each hydrogen pool stood for a type of water mobility in the matrices characterized by a relaxation time (T2(i)), and a signal intensity (I2(i)). Yogurt water retention was assessed by induced syneresis and their structure was characterized using microscopy. Low frequency 1H-NMR detected four different water mobility groups in the matrices. Among these, there was a signal from bulk water, and another attributed to the separated serum (spontaneous syneresis). In experimental yogurts, spontaneous syneresis was visible, resulting in induced syneresis higher than 50%. Moreover, induced syneresis and spontaneous syneresis detected by 1H-LF-NMR were similar. In commercial yogurts, bulk water mobility reduced with increasing protein content and protein network density. Induced syneresis and bulk-water mobility correlated only in yogurts without gelatin. In the presence of gelatin, the network was more open, probably favoring bulk water mobility. This study shows that 1H-LF-NMR associated with microscopy image analysis efficiently assesses and describes yogurts water retention and spontaneous syneresis.
- PublicationRestreintCommercial cheeses with different texture have different disintegration and protein/peptide release rates during simulated in vitro digestion(Elsevier, 2016-01-27) Fang, Xixi; Rioux, Laurie-Eve; Labrie, Steve; Turgeon, SylvieSolid food disintegration in the stomach has recently been linked to food texture, which changes during digestion. This phenomenon is likely to affect the kinetics of protein digestion and therefore associated postprandial metabolic responses. Depending upon the variety, the cheese protein and lipid content as well as the texture can be modulated, illustrating complexity. Five commercial cheeses, covering a range of textural properties, were selected and characterised. Cheese particles were submitted to an in vitro digestion model to study cheese disintegration and protein/peptide release. Cheese disintegration was affected by cheese texture and composition. At the end of gastric digestion, elastic cheeses (mozzarella) were less disintegrated when compared with ripened and soft cheeses with high fat content (Camembert, aged Cheddar). The protein digestion was different amongst cheeses according to different disintegration rates. Cheese structural and textural properties, attributed to processing parameters, can be used to modulate gastro-intestinal digestion of cheese proteins.
- PublicationAccès libreLow-temperature blanching as a tool to modulate the structure of pectin in blueberry purees(Journal of food science, 2017-08-10) Chevalier, Laura; Rioux, Laurie-Eve; Angers, Paul.; Turgeon, SylvieBlueberry composition was characterized for 6 cultivars. It contains a good amount of dietary fiber (10% to 20%) and pectin (4% to 7%) whose degree of methylation (DM) is sensitive to food processing. A low temperature blanching (LTB: 60 °C/1 h) was applied on blueberry purees to decrease pectin DM, in order to modulate puree properties and functionalities (that is, viscosity and stability), and to enhance pectin affinity toward other components within food matrices. Fiber content, viscosity, pectin solubility, DM, and monosaccharide composition were determined for both pasteurized, and LTB+pasteurized blueberry purees. The results showed that neither the amount of fiber, nor the viscosity were affected by LTB, indicating that this treatment did not result in any significant pectin depolymerization and degradation. LTB caused a decrease both in pectin DM from 58–67% to 45–47% and in the amount of water-soluble pectin fraction, the latter remaining the major fraction of total pectin at 52% to 57%. A LTB is a simple and mild process to produce blueberry purees with mostly soluble and low-methylated pectin in order to extend functionality and opportunities for interactions with other food ingredients.
- PublicationAccès libreIdentification of texture parameters influencing commercial cheese matrix disintegration and lipid digestion using an in vitro static digestion model(New York, NY : Elsevier Science Pub. Co., 2019-03-26) Guinot, Léa; Rioux, Laurie-Eve; Labrie, Steve; Britten, Michel; Turgeon, SylvieCheese characteristics, such as composition or textural properties, can impact the matrix degradation rate which could modulate the bioaccessibility of fatty acids during digestion. The aim of this study was to identify texture parameters influencing cheese degradation in a gastrointestinal environment. A static in vitro digestion model has been used on nine commercial cheeses: young and aged cheddar, regular and light cream cheese, parmesan, feta, camembert, mozzarella, and sliced processed cheese. At the end of gastric digestion, camembert and mozzarella presented the lowest matrix disintegration whereas aged cheddar, regular and light cream cheeses showed the highest. For all cheeses, the fatty acid release was fast during the first 30 min of duodenal digestion and slowed down afterwards. A partial least square regression revealed that springiness, cohesiveness, and hardness were negatively correlated to the rate of cheese disintegration during gastric digestion. In addition, textural parameters were not correlated with free fatty acid release. By modulating cheese texture, it could be possible to influence matrix disintegration during gastrointestinal digestion which could have an impact on lipids release.
- PublicationAccès libreEffect of calcium enrichment of Cheddar cheese on its structure, in vitro digestion and lipid bioaccessibility(Oxford : Elsevier Ltd., 2015-09-28) Ayala-Bribiesca, Erik; Lussier, Martine; Chabot, Denise; Turgeon, Sylvie; Britten, MichelThe nutritional role of cheese is usually reduced to its composition, often neglecting the effect that the matrix can have on digestion. The purpose of this study was to establish a link between the characteristics of Cheddar cheeses with different calcium levels and the impact on cheese in vitro digestion. Curds were enriched with CaCl2 during the salting step to produce control, high-calcium, and very high-calcium cheeses. Cheese composition, texture and structure were characterized, and physical disintegration and lipolysis were monitored during in vitro digestion. Cheese hardness increased with higher calcium content. This resulted in a slower disintegration during in vitro digestion. Despite showing faster disintegration, the control cheese had the slowest lipolysis progression. The results suggest that lipolysis depends on calcium content and the matrix modulating the access of enzymes to their substrates. Further studies should provide a better understanding of the calcium–matrix interaction affecting lipid bioaccessibility.
- PublicationAccès libreQuantitative PCR reveals the frequency and distribution of 3 indigenous yeast species across a range of specialty cheeses(American Dairy Science Association, 2022-09-14) Lamarche, Andréanne; Lessard, Marie-Hélène; Viel, Catherine; Turgeon, Sylvie; St-Gelais, Daniel; Labrie, SteveIndigenous microorganisms are important components of the complex ecosystem of many dairy foods including cheeses, and they are potential contributors to the development of a specific cheese's sensory properties. Among these indigenous microorganisms are the yeasts Cyberlindnera jadinii, Pichia kudriavzevii, and Kazachstania servazzii, which were previously detected using traditional microbiological methods in both raw milk and some artisanal specialty cheeses produced in the province of Québec, Canada. However, their levels across different cheese varieties are unknown. A highly specific and sensitive real-time quantitative PCR assay was developed to quantitate these yeast species in a variety of specialty cheeses (bloomy-rind, washed-rind, and natural-rind cheeses from raw, thermized, and pasteurized milks). The specificity of the quantitative PCR assay was validated, and it showed no cross-amplification with 11 other fungal microorganisms usually found in bloomy-rind and washed-rind cheeses. Cyberlindnera jadinii and P. kudriavzevii were found in the majority of the cheeses analyzed (25 of 29 and 24 of 29 cheeses, respectively) in concentrations up to 104 to 108 gene copies/g in the cheese cores, which are considered oxygen-poor environments, and 101 to 104 gene copies/cm2 in the rind. However, their high abundance was not observed in the same samples. Whereas C. jadinii was present and dominant in all core and rind samples, P. kudriavzevii was mostly present in cheese cores. In contrast, K. servazzii was present in the rinds of only 2 cheeses, in concentrations ranging from 101 to 103 gene copies/cm2, and in 1 cheese core at 105 gene copies/g. Thus, in the ecosystems of specialty cheeses, indigenous yeasts are highly frequent but variable, with certain species selectively present in specific varieties. These results shed light on some indigenous yeasts that establish during the ripening of specialty cheeses.
- PublicationAccès libreHow do smoothing conditions and storage time change syneresis, rheological and microstructural properties of nonfat stirred acid milk gel?(Barking, Essex, England : Elsevier Applied Science, 2020-07-16) Guénard Lampron, Valérie; Bosc, Véronique; St-Gelais, Daniel; Villeneuve, Sébastien; Turgeon, SylvieNonfat acid milk gel, acidified by GDL, was used to simulate microbial fermentation of milk to produce stirred yoghurt. Acid milk gel preparation at laboratory scale included stirring, pumping, smoothing and cooling operations. Two filters (pre-smoothed, 1 mm; smoothed, 500 μm), three smoothing temperatures (13, 22 and 35 °C) and two storage times (1 and 22 days) were studied. Syneresis, microgels size and smoothness of microgels were analysed for pre-smoothed and smoothed gels; viscosity, storage modulus, firmness and total pore area were only analysed for smoothed gel. After 1 and 22 days of storage, pre-smoothed gels developed lower syneresis and smaller microgels than smoothed gels at 22 °C. For smoothed gels, regardless of the smoothing temperature, syneresis, firmness, microgels size and smoothness increased during storage, while total pore area decreased and viscosity remained stable. Viscosity was lower when smoothing was performed at 35 °C and was correlated to rougher microgels.
- PublicationRestreintPeptides from milk protein hydrolysates to improve the growth of human keratinocytes in culture(Elsevier Applied Science, 2004-07-01) Amiot, Jean; Germain, Lucie; Auger, François A.; Ory-Salam, Christine; Lemay, Martine; Turgeon, SylvieMilk and colostrum are known to contain constituents having growth promoting activities on various human cell lines. Peptides from milk protein hydrolysates have also been shown to have various nutraceutical and biological properties. The aim of this research was to establish conditions for the in vitro hydrolysis of milk proteins and for the separation and identification of peptides that could promote growth of human skin cells in culture. Milk protein hydrolysates were obtained by using trypsin and chymotrypsin with various enzyme to substrate ratios (E/S) and degrees of hydrolysis (DH). Peptides contained in a 6% DH hydrolysate obtained with chymotrypsin were separated by size exclusion chromatography and supplemented in in vitro culture media to measure their efficacy to promote growth of keratinocytes isolated from human skin. The results indicated that growth promoting activity was increased up to 108% for keratinocytes cultured in medium supplemented with 300 μg mL−1 of one peptide fraction. Fifteen peptides isolated from this fraction by RP-HPLC and characterized by Pico-Tag amino acids analysis were shown to have an average molecular weight of 800 Da and to contain high concentrations of hydrophobic and aromatic amino acids.