Personne : Turgeon, Sylvie
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Université Laval. Département des sciences des aliments
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- PublicationAccès libreAcceptability of insect ingredients by innovative student chefs : an exploratory study(Amsterdam : Elsevier, 2021-05-08) Dion-Poulin, Alexandra; Turcotte, Mylène; Lee-Blouin, Sophia; Provencher, Véronique; Doyen, Alain; Turgeon, Sylvie; Perreault, VéroniqueBackground: In Western societies, the acceptability of entomophagy is low despite the sustainable and nutritional benefits of insects. It is recognized that insect meals incorporated in into familiar foods increases willingness to eat insects. Chefs can offer positive culinary insect-based experiences to their customers which can then contribute to increasing the acceptability of entomophagy by consumers. However, little is known about chefs' perceptions of the use of insect-based ingredients. Objective: The aim of this study was to explore the reasons why innovative student chefs are willing (or not) to incorporate mealworms meals into their dishes. Methodology: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 7 innovative student chefs at the Institut de tourisme et d'hôtellerie du Québec (ITHQ). Thematic analysis based on a priori Rogers' Diffusion of Innovation Theory was conducted using transcript verbatim. Results: Most participants had a past consumption experience with entomophagy and all of them had a positive attitude toward this practice. The main perceived disadvantages of mealworm meal was the texture (granular and uneven), the odor as well as the low acceptability by consumers. Despite that, student chefs were generally willing to use insect-based ingredients, but they thought that transparency and more opportunities for consumers to try good insect-based dishes are keys to enhancing the acceptability of insect consumption. Conclusion: Understanding perceptions of innovative chefs about the use of insect-based ingredients can help to promote their use in gastronomy and ultimately improve their acceptability by consumers.
- PublicationRestreintPeptides from milk protein hydrolysates to improve the growth of human keratinocytes in culture(Elsevier Applied Science, 2004-07-01) Amiot, Jean; Germain, Lucie; Auger, François A.; Ory-Salam, Christine; Lemay, Martine; Turgeon, SylvieMilk and colostrum are known to contain constituents having growth promoting activities on various human cell lines. Peptides from milk protein hydrolysates have also been shown to have various nutraceutical and biological properties. The aim of this research was to establish conditions for the in vitro hydrolysis of milk proteins and for the separation and identification of peptides that could promote growth of human skin cells in culture. Milk protein hydrolysates were obtained by using trypsin and chymotrypsin with various enzyme to substrate ratios (E/S) and degrees of hydrolysis (DH). Peptides contained in a 6% DH hydrolysate obtained with chymotrypsin were separated by size exclusion chromatography and supplemented in in vitro culture media to measure their efficacy to promote growth of keratinocytes isolated from human skin. The results indicated that growth promoting activity was increased up to 108% for keratinocytes cultured in medium supplemented with 300 μg mL−1 of one peptide fraction. Fifteen peptides isolated from this fraction by RP-HPLC and characterized by Pico-Tag amino acids analysis were shown to have an average molecular weight of 800 Da and to contain high concentrations of hydrophobic and aromatic amino acids.
- PublicationAccès libreEffect of calcium enrichment of Cheddar cheese on its structure, in vitro digestion and lipid bioaccessibility(Oxford : Elsevier Ltd., 2015-09-28) Ayala-Bribiesca, Erik; Lussier, Martine; Chabot, Denise; Turgeon, Sylvie; Britten, MichelThe nutritional role of cheese is usually reduced to its composition, often neglecting the effect that the matrix can have on digestion. The purpose of this study was to establish a link between the characteristics of Cheddar cheeses with different calcium levels and the impact on cheese in vitro digestion. Curds were enriched with CaCl2 during the salting step to produce control, high-calcium, and very high-calcium cheeses. Cheese composition, texture and structure were characterized, and physical disintegration and lipolysis were monitored during in vitro digestion. Cheese hardness increased with higher calcium content. This resulted in a slower disintegration during in vitro digestion. Despite showing faster disintegration, the control cheese had the slowest lipolysis progression. The results suggest that lipolysis depends on calcium content and the matrix modulating the access of enzymes to their substrates. Further studies should provide a better understanding of the calcium–matrix interaction affecting lipid bioaccessibility.
- PublicationAccès libreLow-temperature blanching as a tool to modulate the structure of pectin in blueberry purees(Journal of food science, 2017-08-10) Chevalier, Laura; Rioux, Laurie-Eve; Angers, Paul.; Turgeon, SylvieBlueberry composition was characterized for 6 cultivars. It contains a good amount of dietary fiber (10% to 20%) and pectin (4% to 7%) whose degree of methylation (DM) is sensitive to food processing. A low temperature blanching (LTB: 60 °C/1 h) was applied on blueberry purees to decrease pectin DM, in order to modulate puree properties and functionalities (that is, viscosity and stability), and to enhance pectin affinity toward other components within food matrices. Fiber content, viscosity, pectin solubility, DM, and monosaccharide composition were determined for both pasteurized, and LTB+pasteurized blueberry purees. The results showed that neither the amount of fiber, nor the viscosity were affected by LTB, indicating that this treatment did not result in any significant pectin depolymerization and degradation. LTB caused a decrease both in pectin DM from 58–67% to 45–47% and in the amount of water-soluble pectin fraction, the latter remaining the major fraction of total pectin at 52% to 57%. A LTB is a simple and mild process to produce blueberry purees with mostly soluble and low-methylated pectin in order to extend functionality and opportunities for interactions with other food ingredients.
- PublicationAccès librePostprandial lipemia and fecal fat excretion in rats is affected by the calcium content and type of milk fat present in Cheddar-type cheeses(New York, NY : Elsevier Science, 2018-03-21) Ayala-Bribiesca, Erik; Turgeon, Sylvie; Pilon, Geneviève; Marette, André; Britten, MichelThe aim of this study was to better understand the effect of calcium on the bioavailability of milk lipids from a cheese matrix using a rat model. Cheddar-type cheeses were manufactured with one of three types of anhydrous milk fat, control, olein or stearin, and salted with or without CaCl₂. The cheeses were fed to rats and postprandial lipemia was monitored. Feces were analyzed to quantify fatty acids excreted as calcium soaps. Higher calcium concentration in cheese caused a higher and faster triacylglycerol peak in blood, except for cheeses containing stearin. Furthermore, calcium soaps were more abundant in feces when the ingested cheese had been enriched with calcium and when the cheese was prepared with stearin. Increased lipid excretion was attributable to the affinity of saturated long-chain fatty acids for calcium. Results showed that lipid bioaccessibility can be regulated by calcium present in Cheddar cheese. This study highlights the nutritional interaction between calcium and lipids present in the dairy matrix and confirms its physiological repercussions on fatty acid bioavailability.
- PublicationAccès libreCharacterization of syneresis phenomena in stirred acid milk gel using low frequency nuclear magnetic resonance on hydrogen and image analyses(Oxford : IRL Press, 2020-04-15) Gilbert, Audrey; Rioux, Laurie-Eve; St-Gelais, Daniel; Turgeon, SylvieWater retention is an important quality attribute for yogurt. Classically, stirred yogurt water retention is investigated using induced syneresis measurement (centrifugation), which does not characterize spontaneous syneresis. Low-frequency nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-LF-NMR) is a non-destructive technique to detect spontaneous syneresis. Experimental yogurt from pasteurized skim milk, and commercial stirred yogurts were analyzed with 1H-LF-NMR. After Laplace's transformation of the signal, hydrogen atoms pools were differentiated according to their mobility. Each hydrogen pool stood for a type of water mobility in the matrices characterized by a relaxation time (T2(i)), and a signal intensity (I2(i)). Yogurt water retention was assessed by induced syneresis and their structure was characterized using microscopy. Low frequency 1H-NMR detected four different water mobility groups in the matrices. Among these, there was a signal from bulk water, and another attributed to the separated serum (spontaneous syneresis). In experimental yogurts, spontaneous syneresis was visible, resulting in induced syneresis higher than 50%. Moreover, induced syneresis and spontaneous syneresis detected by 1H-LF-NMR were similar. In commercial yogurts, bulk water mobility reduced with increasing protein content and protein network density. Induced syneresis and bulk-water mobility correlated only in yogurts without gelatin. In the presence of gelatin, the network was more open, probably favoring bulk water mobility. This study shows that 1H-LF-NMR associated with microscopy image analysis efficiently assesses and describes yogurts water retention and spontaneous syneresis.
- PublicationAccès libreEffect of calcium on fatty acid bioaccessibility during in vitro digestion of Cheddar-type cheeses prepared with different milk fat fractions(Urbana, Ill. : American Dairy Science Association, 2017-03-18) Ayala-Bribiesca, Erik; Britten, Michel; Turgeon, SylvieCalcium plays an important role in intestinal lipid digestion by increasing the lipolysis rate, but also limits fatty acid bioaccessibility by producing insoluble Ca soaps with long-chain fatty acids at intestinal pH conditions. The aim of this study was to better understand the effect of Ca on the bioaccessibility of milk fat from Cheddar-type cheeses. Three anhydrous milk fats (AMF) with different fatty acid profiles (olein, stearin, or control AMF) were used to prepare Cheddar-type cheeses, which were then enriched or not with Ca using CaCl2 during the salting step. The cheeses were digested in vitro, and their disintegration and lipolysis rates were monitored during the process. At the end of digestion, lipids were extracted under neutral and acidic pH conditions to compare free fatty acids under intestinal conditions in relation to total fatty acids released during the digestion process. The cheeses prepared with the stearin (the AMF with the highest ratio of long-chain fatty acids) were more resistant to disintegration than the other cheeses, owing to the high melting temperature of that AMF. The Ca-enriched cheeses had faster lipolysis rates than the regular Ca cheeses. Chromatographic analysis of the digestion products showed that Ca interacted with long-chain fatty acids, producing Ca soaps, whereas no interaction with shorter fatty acids was detected. Although higher Ca levels resulted in faster lipolysis rates, driven by the depletion of reaction products as Ca soaps, such insoluble compounds are expected to reduce the bioavailability of fatty acids by hindering their absorption. These effects on lipid digestion and absorption are of interest for the design of food matrices for the controlled release of fat-soluble nutrients or bioactive molecules.
- PublicationAccès libreStudying stirred yogurt microstructure and its correlation to physical properties : a review([Oxford] : Elsevier Ltd., 2021-06-19) Gilbert, Audrey; Turgeon, SylvieMicrostructure is an important part of the understanding and the control of food properties as rheological properties, water holding and sensory properties. Stirred yogurt microstructure is being under study for decades. Observations at several length scales have been used to probe the structure. Some methods using optical techniques were recently introduced to provide a quick microstructure assessment of stirred yogurt. This review aims to provide a description of stirred yogurt microstructure and a short overview of the main techniques to characterize stirred yogurt microstructure allowing to highlight their complementarity. In general, stirred yogurt microstructure is described as a suspension of interconnected microgels into a continuous serum phase. While the relationship between yogurt microstructure and its physical and sensory properties has been discussed in numerous reviews, models or studies the impact of microgels sizes on rheological properties, water holding capacity, and creaminess, has not always been confirmed. Even if, other features such as microgels aggregation, shape, and compaction have shown to be involved in sensory or physical properties of stirred yogurt gel, a challenge remains for the characterization of microstructural characteristics of microgels without destructuring the network.