Personne :
Droit, Arnaud

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Structures organisationnelles
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Université Laval. Département de médecine moléculaire
Identifiant Canadiana

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Voici les éléments 1 - 7 sur 7
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Unravelling the transcriptomic landscape of the major phase II UDP-glucuronosyltransferase drug metabolizing pathway using targeted RNA sequencing
    (Nature, 2015-04-14) Lévesque, Éric; Margaillan, Guillaume; Rouleau, Michèle; Gilbert, Isabelle; Droit, Arnaud; Tourancheau, Alan; Guillemette, Chantal; Villeneuve, Lyne
    A comprehensive view of the human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) transcriptome is a prerequisite to the establishment of an individual's UGT metabolic glucuronidation signature. Here, we uncover the transcriptome landscape of the 10 human UGT gene loci in normal and tumoral metabolic tissues by targeted RNA next-generation sequencing. Alignment on the human hg19 reference genome identifies 234 novel exon-exon junctions. We recover all previously known UGT1 and UGT2 enzyme-coding transcripts and identify over 130 structurally and functionally diverse novel UGT variants. We further expose a revised genomic structure of UGT loci and provide a comprehensive repertoire of transcripts for each UGT gene. Data also uncover a remodelling of the UGT transcriptome occurring in a tissue- and tumor-specific manner. The complex alternative splicing program regulating UGT expression and protein functions is likely critical in determining detoxification capacity of an organ and stress-related responses, with significant impact on drug responses and diseases.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Quantitative profiling of the UGT transcriptome in human drug metabolizing tissues
    (Nature Publishing Group., 2017-04-25) Rouleau, Michèle; Gilbert, Isabelle; Droit, Arnaud; Tourancheau, Alan; Guillemette, Chantal; Guauque-Olarte, Sandra; Villeneuve, Lyne
    Alternative splicing as a mean to control gene expression and diversify function is suspected to considerably influence drug response and clearance. We report the quantitative expression profiles of the human UGT genes including alternatively spliced variants not previously annotated established by deep RNA-sequencing in tissues of pharmacological importance. We reveal a comprehensive quantification of the alternative UGT transcriptome that differ across tissues and among individuals. Alternative transcripts that comprise novel in-frame sequences associated or not with truncations of the 5′- and/or 3′- termini, significantly contribute to the total expression levels of each UGT1 and UGT2 gene averaging 21% in normal tissues, with expression of UGT2 variants surpassing those of UGT1. Quantitative data expose preferential tissue expression patterns and remodeling in favor of alternative variants upon tumorigenesis. These complex alternative splicing programs have the strong potential to contribute to interindividual variability in drug metabolism in addition to diversify the UGT proteome.
  • Publication
    RNA expression profile of calcified bicuspid, tricuspid, and normal human aortic valves by RNA sequencing
    (American Physiological Society, 2016-10-01) Gaudreault, Nathalie; Tremblay-Marchand, Joël; Kalavrouziotis, Dimitri; Droit, Arnaud; Guauque-Olarte, Sandra; Bossé, Yohan; Seidman, Jonathan G.; Pibarot, Philippe; Body, Simon C.; Dagenais, François.; Mathieu, Patrick
    The molecular mechanisms leading to premature development of aortic valve stenosis (AS) in individuals with a bicuspid aortic valve are unknown. The objective of this study was to identify genes differentially expressed between calcified bicuspid aortic valves (BAVc) and tricuspid valves with (TAVc) and without (TAVn) AS using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). We collected 10 human BAVc and nine TAVc from men who underwent primary aortic valve replacement. Eight TAVn were obtained from men who underwent heart transplantation. mRNA levels were measured by RNA-Seq and compared between valve groups. Two genes were upregulated, and none were downregulated in BAVc compared with TAVc, suggesting a similar gene expression response to AS in individuals with bicuspid and tricuspid valves. There were 462 genes upregulated and 282 downregulated in BAVc compared with TAVn. In TAVc compared with TAVn, 329 genes were up- and 170 were downregulated. A total of 273 upregulated and 147 downregulated genes were concordantly altered between BAVc vs. TAVn and TAVc vs. TAVn, which represent 56 and 84% of significant genes in the first and second comparisons, respectively. This indicates that extra genes and pathways were altered in BAVc. Shared pathways between calcified (BAVc and TAVc) and normal (TAVn) aortic valves were also more extensively altered in BAVc. The top pathway enriched for genes differentially expressed in calcified compared with normal valves was fibrosis, which support the remodeling process as a therapeutic target. These findings are relevant to understand the molecular basis of AS in patients with bicuspid and tricuspid valves.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Complexity of the microRNA transcriptome of cow milk and milk-derived extracellular vesicles isolated via differential ultracentrifugation
    (American Dairy Science Association, 2019-10-31) Joly Beauparlant, Charles; Benmoussa, Abderrahim; Provost, Patrick; Droit, Arnaud; Laugier, Jonathan; Lambert, Marine
    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small gene-regulatory noncoding RNA that are highly enriched in cow milk. They are encapsulated in different extracellular vesicle (EV) subsets that protect them from the extracellular milieu and the harsh conditions of the gastrointestinal tract during digestion. Here, we isolated pellets enriched in 4 different EV subsets, via differential ultracentrifugation of commercial cow milk: 12,000 × g (P12K), 35,000 × g (P35K), 70,000 × g (P70K), and 100,000 × g (P100K). Small RNA sequencing (sRNA-Seq) analyses revealed an unprecedented level of diversity in the complete miRNA repertoire and features of unfractionated cow milk and derived EV subsets. Although 5 miRNA sequences represented more than 50% of all miRNAs, milk EV exhibited heterogeneous content of miRNAs and isomeric variants (termed isomiR): P100K EV were enriched in reference miRNA sequences, and P12K and P35K EV in related isomiR. Incubation of milk EV with human cultured HeLa cells led to cellular enrichment in miRNA miR-223, which was concomitant with decreased expression of a reporter gene placed under the control of miR-223, thereby demonstrating the functionality of miR-223. These results suggest that cow milk EV may transfer their miRNAs to human cells and regulate recipient cell gene expression programming in a manner as complex as that of their miRNA transcriptome. The biological activity and relevance of the different milk EV subsets and bioactive mediators, including small noncoding RNA, in health and disease, warrants further investigation.
  • Publication
    Calcium signaling pathway genes RUNX2 and CACNA1C are associated with calcific aortic valve disease
    (American Heart Association, 2015-11-09) Gaudreault, Nathalie; Messika-Zeitoun, David; Arsenault, Benoit; Tremblay-Marchand, Joël; Droit, Arnaud; Lavoie-Charland, Émilie; Guauque-Olarte, Sandra; Bossé, Yohan; Lamontagne, Maxime; Dubé, Marie-Pierre; Pibarot, Philippe; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Mathieu, Patrick; Body, Simon C.; Seidman, Jonathan G.; Boileau, Catherine
    BACKGROUND—: Calcific aortic valve stenosis (AS) is a life-threatening disease with no medical therapy. The genetic architecture of AS remains elusive. This study combines genome-wide association studies, gene expression, and expression quantitative trait loci mapping in human valve tissues to identify susceptibility genes of AS. METHODS AND RESULTS—: A meta-analysis was performed combining the results of 2 genome-wide association studies in 474 and 486 cases from Quebec City (Canada) and Paris (France), respectively. Corresponding controls consisted of 2988 and 1864 individuals with European ancestry from the database of genotypes and phenotypes. mRNA expression levels were evaluated in 9 calcified and 8 normal aortic valves by RNA sequencing. The results were integrated with valve expression quantitative trait loci data obtained from 22 AS patients. Twenty-five single-nucleotide polymorphisms had P<5×10 in the genome-wide association studies meta-analysis. The calcium signaling pathway was the top gene set enriched for genes mapped to moderately AS-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Genes in this pathway were found differentially expressed in valves with and without AS. Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms located in RUNX2 (runt-related transcription factor 2), encoding an osteogenic transcription factor, demonstrated some association with AS (genome-wide association studies P=5.33×10). The mRNA expression levels of RUNX2 were upregulated in calcified valves and associated with eQTL-SNPs. CACNA1C encoding a subunit of a voltage-dependent calcium channel was upregulated in calcified valves. The eQTL-SNP with the most significant association with AS located in CACNA1C was associated with higher expression of the gene. CONCLUSIONS—: This integrative genomic study confirmed the role of RUNX2 as a potential driver of AS and identified a new AS susceptibility gene, CACNA1C, belonging to the calcium signaling pathway.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Implementing a web-based introductory bioinformatics course for non-bioinformaticians that incorporates practical exercises
    (Elsevier Science, 2017-09-13) Bourbonnais, Yves; Droit, Arnaud; Deveau, Hélène; Lagüe, Patrick; Brouard, Jean-Simon.; Lemieux, Claude; Guertin, Michel; Gagné, Stéphane; Vincent, Antony; Rathier, Louis; Charette, Steve
    A recent scientific discipline, bioinformatics, defined as using informatics for the study of biological problems, is now a requirement for the study of biological sciences. Bioinformatics has become such a powerful and popular discipline that several academic institutions have created programs in this field, allowing students to become specialized. However, biology students who are not involved in a bioinformatics program also need a solid toolbox of bioinformatics software and skills. Therefore, we have developed a completely online bioinformatics course for non-bioinformaticians, entitled “BIF-1901 Introduction à la bio-informatique et à ses outils (Introduction to bioinformatics and bioinformatics tools),” given by the Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology, and Bioinformatics of Université Laval (Quebec City, Canada). This course requires neither a bioinformatics background nor specific skills in informatics. The underlying main goal was to produce a completely online up-to-date bioinformatics course, including practical exercises, with an intuitive pedagogical framework. The course, BIF-1901, was conceived to cover the three fundamental aspects of bioinformatics: (1) informatics, (2) biological sequence analysis, and (3) structural bioinformatics. This article discusses the content of the modules, the evaluations, the pedagogical framework, and the challenges inherent to a multidisciplinary, fully online course. © 2017 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2017.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    De l'identification à la caractérisation des complexes protéiques : développement d'une plateforme bioinformatique d'analyse
    (2007) Droit, Arnaud; Poirier, Guy
    Un des défis de l’ère post-génomique est de déterminer la fonction des protéines et plus précisément d’établir une cartographie protéomique de la cellule. Ainsi le défi de la génomique fonctionnelle et plus précisément de la protéomique est de comprendre les événements qui ont lieu au cours de la maturation des protéines. Plusieurs approches ont été décrites pour comprendre la fonction des protéines dont les interactions protéiques. Traditionnellement, les études des interactions protéiques étaient basées sur des approches ciblées ou sur des hypothèses d’interactions. Récemment, le développement des analyses à haut débit a généré une quantité impressionnante d’information. Face à l’accumulation des données, une approche uniquement expérimentale n’apparaît plus suffisante. Par conséquent, la création de méthodes bioinformatiques développant des procédures de prospection de données couplées avec des approches expérimentales permettra de prédire les interacteurs in silico. C’est dans cette optique que le laboratoire a développé son projet de recherche sur la famille des poly (ADP-ribose) polymérases (PARPs). La poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation est une modification post-traductionnelle qui consiste en l’ajout d’une chaîne d’ADP-ribose sur des protéines cibles.L’objectif principal de notre étude est de caractériser par des expériences d’immunoprécipitation le rôle dynamique de la poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation. L’identification des interacteurs des PARPs s’effectuera par spectrométrie de masse. Cette technique va générer d’importantes quantités de données et nécessitera une plate-forme d’analyse et de grandes capacités de calcul informatique. Dans ce contexte général, l’objectif de ce travail de thèse était de développer la plateforme bioinformatique d’analyse, d’implémenter les outils d’identifications des protéines, d’établir un contrôle de qualité des méthodes d’identification (spécificité/sensibilité) et enfin d’explorer le contenu des bases de connaissances. A l’aide du système mis en place au sein de la plateforme de protéomique, nous avons identifié de nouvaux interacteurs de la famille des PARPs comme par exemple RFC1, 2, 3, 4, 5.