Personne : Pérusse, Louis
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Université Laval. Département de kinésiologie
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- PublicationRestreintDifferential methylation in visceral adipose tissue of obese men discordant for metabolic disturbances(American Physiological Society, 2014-03-15) Guénard, Frédéric; Biron, Simon; Biertho, Laurent; Pérusse, Louis; Lescelleur, Odette; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Deshaies, Yves; Marceau, Simon; Tchernof, AndréObesity is associated with an increased risk of Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The severely obese population is heterogeneous regarding CVD risk profile. Our objective was to identify metabolic pathways potentially associated with development of metabolic syndrome (MetS) through an analysis of overrepresented pathways from differentially methylated genes between severely obese men with (MetS+) and without (MetS-) the MetS. Genome-wide quantitative DNA methylation analysis in VAT of severely obese men was carried out using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. Differences in methylation levels between MetS+ (n = 7) and MetS- (n = 7) groups were tested. Overrepresented pathways from the list of differentially methylated genes were identified and visualized with the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis system. Differential methylation analysis between MetS+ and MetS- groups identified 8,578 methylation probes (3,258 annotated genes) with significant differences in methylation levels (false discovery rate-corrected DiffScore ≥ |13| ∼ P ≤ 0.05). Pathway analysis from differentially methylated genes identified 41 overrepresented (P ≤ 0.05) pathways. The most overrepresented pathways were related to structural components of the cell membrane, inflammation and immunity and cell cycle regulation. This study provides potential targets associated with adipose tissue dysfunction and development of the MetS.
- PublicationRestreintThe peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α L162V mutation is associated with reduced adiposity(North American Association for the Study of Obesity, 2012-09-06) Bouchard, Claude; Pérusse, Louis; Bossé, Yohan; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Després, Jean-PierreObjective: To determine the contribution of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) L162V mutation to the variation of several indexes of body fatness obtained from healthy adults who participated in the Quebec Family Study. Research Methods and Procedures: The PPARα L162V mutation was determined by a mismatch polymerase chain reaction method. Adiposity phenotypes were obtained by standardized anthropometric measurements, underwater weighing technique, and computed tomography. Results: For all adiposity phenotypes, subjects carrying the V162 allele had lower values compared with L162 homozygotes (HMZs) [BMI (kg/m2): 27.8 ± 7.6 vs. 26.0 ± 5.6, p < 0.05; percentage body fat: 28.5 ± 10.7 vs. 25.7 ± 10.1, p < 0.05; waist circumference (cm): 89.0 ± 18.1 vs. 85.7 ± 15.8, p = 0.07; total computed tomography abdominal fat areas (cm2): 406 ± 221 vs. 359 ± 192, p = 0.15; means ± SD for L162 HMZs vs. V162 carriers, respectively]. Differences in cross-sectional abdominal adipose tissue areas and waist circumference were abolished after adjustment for total body fat mass. Similar trends were observed when results were analyzed by gender, although associations seemed stronger in women. The odds ratio of having a BMI above 30 kg/m2 reached 1.77 (1.02; 3.07, 95% confidence intervals) for L162 HMZs. This risk could be considered marginal on an individual basis, but because 85% of the subjects are affected by this small risk, the impact on the population is important. Discussion: The PPARα V162 allele is associated with reduced adiposity and has a substantial population-attributable risk.
- PublicationRestreintRelation between a BglII polymorphism in 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase gene and adipose tissue distribution in humans(North American Association for the Study of Obesity, 1994-09-01) Bouchard, Claude; Dionne, France T.; Pérusse, Louis; Dériaz, Olivier; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Chagnon, MoniqueThe aim of this study was to investigate the association between a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) at the 3β‐hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase locus and adipose tissue distribution pheno‐types. A total of 132 unrelated individuals from the Quebec Family Study were followed prospectively for an average period of 11.3 years. The Bgl II polymorphism in exon 4 of the 3β‐HSD gene was detected by PCR. Body mass, body fat, and regional fat distribution indicators were adjusted for age and age2 within each gender. Associations were assessed in unrelated adults with ANOVA across three genotypes. No association was found for the indicators of body mass, body fat, and regional distribution of adipose tissue measured in 1992. In women, the changes (difference between data collected in 1992 and at entry) in the sum of six skinfolds (p=0.04), abdominal skinfold (p=0.01), and abdominal skinfold adjusted (p=0.03) for the sum of six skinfolds at entry were related to the Bgl II polymorphism at the 3β‐HSD locus. These relations were not found in men, but they gained less body mass and body fat over the 11.3‐year period. This suggests that sequence variation at the 3β‐HSD locus or in neighboring genes on chromosome 1 may contribute to individual differences in body fat content and adipose tissue distribution in adult women, particularly in abdominal adipose tissue deposition as they grow older and gain body fat.
- PublicationAccès libreComparison of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 gene methylation levels between severely obese subjects with and without the metabolic syndrome(BioMed Central Ltd., 2013-02-04) Pérusse, Louis; Turcot, Valérie; Deshaies, Yves; Hould, Frédéric-Simon; Marceau, Picard; Belisle, Alexandre; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Tchernof, André; Lebel, StéfaneBackground : The dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) enzyme is a novel adipokine potentially involved in the development of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Previous observations demonstrated higher visceral adipose tissue (VAT) DPP4 gene expression in non-diabetic severely obese men with (MetS+) vs. without (MetS−) MetS. DPP4 mRNA abundance in VAT correlated also with CpG site methylation levels (%Meth) localized within and near its exon 2 (CpG94 to CpG102) in non-diabetic severely obese women, regardless of their MetS status. The actual study tested whether DPP4 %Meth levels in VAT are different between MetS− and MetS+ non-diabetic severely obese subjects, whether variable metabolic and plasma lipid profiles are observed between DPP4 %Meth quartiles, and whether correlation exists in DPP4 %Meth levels between VAT and white blood cells (WBCs). Methods : DNA was extracted from the VAT of 26 men (MetS−: n=12, MetS+: n=14) and 79 women (MetS−: n=60; MetS+: n=19), as well as from WBCs in a sub-sample of 17 women (MetS−: n=9; MetS+: n=8). The %Meth levels of CpG94 to CpG102 were assessed by pyrosequencing of sodium bisulfite-treated DNA. ANOVA analyses were used to compare the %Meth of CpGs between MetS− and MetS+ groups, and to compare the metabolic phenotype and plasma lipid levels between methylation quartiles. Pearson correlation coefficient analyses were computed to test the relationship between VAT and WBCs CpG94-102 %Meth levels. Results : No difference was observed in CpG94-102 %Meth levels between MetS− and MetS+ subjects in VAT (P=0.67), but individuals categorized into CpG94-102 %Meth quartiles had variable plasma total-cholesterol concentrations (P=0.04). The %Meth levels of four CpGs in VAT were significantly correlated with those observed in WBCs (r=0.55−0.59, P≤0.03). Conclusions : This study demonstrated that %Meth of CpGs localized within and near the exon 2 of the DPP4 gene in VAT are not associated with MetS status. The actual study also revealed an association between the %Meth of this locus with plasma total-cholesterol in severe obesity, which suggests a link between the DPP4 gene and plasma lipid levels.
- PublicationRestreintLINE-1 methylation in visceral adipose tissue of severely obese individuals is associated with metabolic syndrome status and related phenotypes.(Springer Nature, 2012-07-02) Biron, Simon; Biertho, Laurent; Pérusse, Louis; Lescelleur, Odette; Bélisle, Alexandre; Turcot, Valérie; Marceau, Simon; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Deshaies, Yves; Tchernof, AndréBackground: Epigenetic mechanisms may be involved in the regulation of genes found to be differentially expressed in the visceral adipose tissue (VAT) of severely obese subjects with (MetS+) versus without (MetS-) metabolic syndrome (MetS). Long interspersed nuclear element 1 (LINE-1) elements DNA methylation levels (% meth) in blood, a marker of global DNA methylation, have recently been associated with fasting glucose, blood lipids, heart diseases and stroke. Aim: To test whether LINE-1%meth levels in VAT are associated with MetS phenotypes and whether they can predict MetS risk in severely obese individuals. Methods: DNA was extracted from VAT of 34 men (MetS-: n = 14, MetS+: n = 20) and 152 premenopausal women (MetS-: n = 84; MetS+: n = 68) undergoing biliopancreatic diversion for the treatment of obesity. LINE-1%meth levels were assessed by pyrosequencing of sodium bisulfite-treated DNA. Results: The mean LINE-1%meth in VAT was of 75.8% (SD = 3.0%). Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that LINE-1%meth was negatively associated with fasting glucose levels (β = -0.04; P = 0.03), diastolic blood pressure (β = -0.65; P = 0.03) and MetS status (β = -0.04; P = 0.004) after adjustments for the effects of age, sex, waist circumference (except for MetS status) and smoking. While dividing subjects into quartiles based on their LINE-1%meth (Q1 to Q4: lower %meth to higher %meth levels), greater risk were observed in the first (Q1: odds ratio (OR) = 4.37, P = 0.004) and the second (Q2: OR = 4.76, P = 0.002) quartiles compared to Q4 (1.00) when adjusting for age, sex and smoking. Conclusions: These results suggest that lower global DNA methylation, assessed by LINE-1 repetitive elements methylation analysis, would be associated with a greater risk for MetS in the presence of obesity.
- PublicationRestreintContribution of genetic and metabolic syndrome to omental adipose tissue PAI-1 gene mRNA and plasma levels in obesity(Springer Nature, 2010-02-02) Pérusse, Louis; Mauriege, Pascale; Lebel, Stéfane; Hould, Frédéric-Simon; Marceau, Picard; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Bouchard, Luigi; Bergeron, JeanBackground Plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) has already been associated with atherosclerosis; myocardial infarction; and cardiovascular disease risk factors such as obesity, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia. However, factors regulating PAI-1 adipose tissue (AT) gene expression and plasma levels are not yet well defined. Aim This study aims to assess the contribution of PAI-1 omental AT mRNA levels and genetic and metabolic factors to variation in plasma PAI-1 concentrations. Methods Ninety-one non-diabetic premenopausal severely obese women (body mass index, BMI >35 kg/m2) undergoing bariatric surgery were phenotyped (fasting plasma glucose, lipid-lipoprotein, and PAI-1 levels) and genotyped for four PAI-1 polymorphisms. Omental AT PAI-1 mRNA levels were determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Stepwise regression analysis was used to identify independent PAI-1 AT mRNA and plasma level predictors. Results Among the variables included to the stepwise regression analysis, plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol (r = 0.38; p = 0.0004) and total cholesterol (r = 0.16; p = 0.0541) levels were the only two (out of 12) independent variables retained as predictive of PAI-1 omental AT mRNA levels, whereas BMI (r = 0.35; p = 0.0039), plasma HDL-cholesterol concentrations (r = −0.31; p = 0.0375), PAI-1 omental AT mRNA levels (r = 0.19; p = 0.0532) and PAI-1-844G/A (p = 0.0023), and rs6092 (p.A15T; p = 0.0358) polymorphisms contributed independently to plasma PAI-1 concentrations. Taken together, these variables explained 17.8% and 31.0% of the variability in PAI-1 AT mRNA and plasma levels, respectively. Conclusion These results suggest that PAI-1 polymorphisms contribute significantly to PAI-1 plasma levels but do not support the notion that omental AT is one of its major source.
- PublicationAccès libreCommon sequence variants in CD163 gene are associated with plasma triglyceride and total cholesterol levels in severely obese individuals(Longdom Publishing SL, 2014-11-27) Guénard, Frédéric; Marianne, Cormier; Biron, Simon; Deshaies, Yves; Biertho, Laurent; Pérusse, Louis; Lescelleur, Odette; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Marceau, SimonObjective: The CD163 glycoprotein is a member of the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich superfamily acting as an inflammatory modulator inducing anti-inflammatory pathways. Previous findings from our group identified this gene as being differentially expressed in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) of severely obese men with vs. without the metabolic syndrome. The current study aimed to test the association between CD163 gene polymorphisms and obesity-related metabolic complications. Methods: Sequencing of the CD163 gene region was conducted in 25 severely obese individuals. Eleven tagging SNPs (tSNP) were selected and tested for association with obesity-related complications in nearly 1900 severely obese individuals. To further explore potential mechanisms underlying associations identified, the impact of tSNPs on methylation levels of 3 CpG sites (two promoter and one intronic) and gene expression levels were tested in a subset of 14 individuals. Results: Rare allele carriers for rs7980201 demonstrated lower fasting total cholesterol (total-C) levels (p=0.01) while rs4883263 rare allele carriers had increased total-C (p=0.04) and triglyceride (TG) levels (p=0.01). An association identified between rs7980201 SNP and methylation level of a promoter CpG site (p=0.04) suggested an impact on CD163 gene methylation in VAT, but such association was not reflected at gene expression level. Conclusion: The current study reports association of CD136 gene variations with fasting total-C and TG levels and suggests that CD163 SNPs could contribute to the inter-individual variability observed in obesity-related metabolic complications.
- PublicationAccès libreDUSP1 gene polymorphisms are associated with obesity-related metabolic complications among severely obese patients and impact on gene methylation and expression(Hindawi Publishing Corporation, 2013-08-06) Guénard, Frédéric; Pérusse, Louis; Bouchard, Luigi; Hould, Frédéric-Simon; Marceau, Picard; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Deshaies, Yves; Lebel, Stéfane; Tchernof, AndréThe DUSP1 gene encodes a member of the dual-specificity phosphatase family previously identified as being differentially expressed in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) of severely obese men with versus without the metabolic syndrome. Objective. To test the association between DUSP1 polymorphisms, obesity-related metabolic complications, gene methylation, and expression levels in VAT. Methods. The DUSP1 locus and promoter region were sequenced in 25 individuals. SNPs were tested for association with obesity-related complications in a cohort of more than 1900 severely obese individuals. The impact of SNPs on methylation levels of 36 CpG sites and correlations between DNA methylation and gene expression levels in VAT were computed in a subset of 14 samples. Results. Heterozygotes for rs881150 had lower HDL-cholesterol levels (HDL-C; P = 0.01), and homozygotes for the minor allele of rs13184134 and rs7702178 had increased fasting glucose levels (P = 0.04 and 0.01, resp.). rs881150 was associated with methylation levels of CpG sites located ~1250 bp upstream the transcription start site. Methylation levels of 4 CpG sites were inversely correlated with DUSP1 gene expression. Conclusion. These results suggest that DUSP1 polymorphisms modulate plasma glucose and HDL-C levels in obese patients possibly through alterations of DNA methylation and gene expression levels.
- PublicationRestreintAbdominal visceral fat is associated with a BclI restriction fragment length polymorphism at the glucocorticoid receptor gene locus(North American Association for the Study of Obesity, 1997-05-01) Buemann, Benjamin; Bouchard, Claude; Dionne, France T.; Chagnon, Monique; Chagnon, Yvon C.; Pérusse, Louis; Nadeau, André; Gagnon, Jacques; Tremblay, Angelo; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Després, Jean-PierreSeveral investigations have suggested that body fat distribution is influenced by nonpathologic variations in the responsiveness to Cortisol. Genetic variations in the glucocorticoid receptor (GRL) could therefore potentially have an impact on the level of abdominal fat. A restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) has previously been detected with the BelI restriction enzyme in the GRL gene identifying two alleles with fragment lengths of 4.5 and 2.3 kb. This study investigates whether abdominal fat areas measured by computerized tomography (CT) are associated with this polymorphism in 152 middle-aged men and women. The less frequent 4.5-kb allele was found to be associated with a higher abdominal visceral fat (A VF) area independently of total body fat mass (4.5/4.5 vs. 2.3/2.3 kb genotype; men: 190.7 ± 30.1 vs. 150.7 ± 33.3 cm2, p=0.04; women: 132.7 ± 37.3 vs. 101.3 ± 34.5 cm2, p=0.06). However, the association with AVF was seen only in subjects of the lower tertile of the percent body fat level. In these subjects, the polymorphism was found to account for 41% (p=0.003) and 35% (p=0.007), in men and women, respectively, of the total variance in AVF area. The consistent association between the GRL polymorphism detected with BelI and AVF area suggests that this gene or a locus in linkage disequilibrium with the BelI restriction site may contribute to the accumulation of AVF.
- PublicationAccès libreThe rare allele of DGKZ SNP rs10838599 is associated with variability in HDL-cholesterol levels among severely obese patients(Open Access Text Pvt. Ltd, 2016-05-12) Guénard, Frédéric; Pérusse, Louis; Hould, Frédéric-Simon; Deshaies, Yves; Marceau, Picard; Bégin, Stéphanie; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Lebel, Stéfane; Tchernof, AndréIntroduction: Diacylglycerol kinase-zeta, one of the ten isoforms of DGKs expressed in mammals is an important enzyme of lipid metabolism. It catalyzes the interconversion of diacylglycerol and phosphatidic acid, two major second messengers. Its gene DGKZ has been previously identified as being overexpressed and undermethylated in visceral adipose tissue of patients with (MetS+) versus without (MetS-) the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between DGKZ gene polymorphisms (SNPs) and phenotypes related to MetS (BMI, waist girth, CRP, fasting glucose, lipid profile (triglycerides, total-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C)), resting systolic and diastolic blood pressures). Methods: The study sample included 1752 severely obese participants who underwent bariatric surgery. Associations between the five selected tSNPs of DGKZ and features of the MetS were tested. The effects of these SNPs on DGKZ methylation and expression levels were tested in subgroups of 32 and 14 obese subjects, respectively. Correlations between methylation and expression levels were also computed. Results: Homozygotes for the rare allele of rs10838599 displayed higher plasma HDL-C concentrations compared to the other genotype groups (p=0.03). For gene methylation, only a trend with the cg05412031 CpG site (p=0.09) was found for the single significantly phenotype-associated SNP. There was no significant correlation between DGKZ methylation at cg05412031 and expression levels. Conclusion: These results suggest that DGKZ SNP rs10838599 modulates plasma HDL-C levels thereby its gene contributes to the inter-individual variability observed in the cardiometabolic risk profile of patients with severe obesity.