Personne :
Pérusse, Louis

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Université Laval. Département de kinésiologie
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Voici les éléments 1 - 10 sur 101
  • Publication
    Effect of implementation intentions to change behaviour : moderation by intention stability
    (Sage Publications, Inc., 2010-02-01) Bélanger-Gravel, Ariane; Pérusse, Louis; Godin, Gaston; Amireault, Steve; Gallani, Maria Cecilia; Vohl, Marie-Claude
    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of implementation intentions on leisure-time physical activity, taking into account the stability of intention. At baseline (T0), 349 participants completed a psychosocial questionnaire and were randomly assigned to implementation intention or control condition. Three months after baseline assessment (T1), participants in the experimental group were asked to plan where, when, and how they would exercise. Leisure-time physical activity was assessed 3 mo. later (i.e., at 6-mo. follow-up; T2). The intervention had no significant effect on physical activity at 6-mo. follow-up. However, a significant interaction of group and intention stability was observed, with the effect of the intervention on behaviour statistically significant only among those with unstable intention. Intention stability thus moderated the effect of the intervention, i.e., the intervention was more successful among individuals who needed support to change (unstable intenders).
  • Publication
    Long-term adiposity changes are related to a glucocorticoid receptor polymorphism in young females
    (Oxford Academic, 2003-07-01) Drapeau, Vicky; Bouchard, Claude; Pérusse, Louis; Tremblay, Angelo; Bouchard, Luigi; Després, Jean-Pierre
    Male and female preadolescents and adolescents who participated in phase 1 of the Québec Family Study, and who were retested about 12 yr later, were recruited and subdivided on the basis of a genetic variant within the intron 2 of the glucocorticoid receptor (GRL IVS2-BclI). The increase in sc adiposity over the 12-yr follow-up period in the 4.5/2.3 genotype female subgroup was more than twice that observed in the 4.5/4.5 and the 2.3/2.3 genotype subgroups (P < 0.01). The statistical significance of this difference was essentially unchanged after adjusting for changes, over time, in percent dietary energy as fat, alcohol consumption, and participation in vigorous physical activity. In male subjects, the same trend was found, but it did not reach statistical significance. In conclusion, this study suggests that a significant interaction effect exists between variation in the glucocorticoid receptor gene and body fat gain in female subjects experiencing the transition between adolescence and adulthood. Further research will, however, be necessary to characterize the lifestyle factors promoting fat accumulation, over time, among genetically susceptible individuals.
  • Publication
    LINE-1 methylation in visceral adipose tissue of severely obese individuals is associated with metabolic syndrome status and related phenotypes.
    (Springer Nature, 2012-07-02) Biron, Simon; Biertho, Laurent; Pérusse, Louis; Lescelleur, Odette; Bélisle, Alexandre; Turcot, Valérie; Marceau, Simon; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Deshaies, Yves; Tchernof, André
    Background: Epigenetic mechanisms may be involved in the regulation of genes found to be differentially expressed in the visceral adipose tissue (VAT) of severely obese subjects with (MetS+) versus without (MetS-) metabolic syndrome (MetS). Long interspersed nuclear element 1 (LINE-1) elements DNA methylation levels (% meth) in blood, a marker of global DNA methylation, have recently been associated with fasting glucose, blood lipids, heart diseases and stroke. Aim: To test whether LINE-1%meth levels in VAT are associated with MetS phenotypes and whether they can predict MetS risk in severely obese individuals. Methods: DNA was extracted from VAT of 34 men (MetS-: n = 14, MetS+: n = 20) and 152 premenopausal women (MetS-: n = 84; MetS+: n = 68) undergoing biliopancreatic diversion for the treatment of obesity. LINE-1%meth levels were assessed by pyrosequencing of sodium bisulfite-treated DNA. Results: The mean LINE-1%meth in VAT was of 75.8% (SD = 3.0%). Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that LINE-1%meth was negatively associated with fasting glucose levels (β = -0.04; P = 0.03), diastolic blood pressure (β = -0.65; P = 0.03) and MetS status (β = -0.04; P = 0.004) after adjustments for the effects of age, sex, waist circumference (except for MetS status) and smoking. While dividing subjects into quartiles based on their LINE-1%meth (Q1 to Q4: lower %meth to higher %meth levels), greater risk were observed in the first (Q1: odds ratio (OR) = 4.37, P = 0.004) and the second (Q2: OR = 4.76, P = 0.002) quartiles compared to Q4 (1.00) when adjusting for age, sex and smoking. Conclusions: These results suggest that lower global DNA methylation, assessed by LINE-1 repetitive elements methylation analysis, would be associated with a greater risk for MetS in the presence of obesity.
  • Publication
    A variant in the LRRFIP1 gene is associated with adiposity and inflammation
    (NAASO the Obesity Society, 2013-03-16) Bouchard, Claude; Plourde, Mélanie.; Bellis, Claire; Marette, André.; Carless, Melanie; Pérusse, Louis; Dyer, Thomas; Dolley, Guillaume; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Després, Jean-Pierre; Blangero, John
    Inflammation is an important factor linking abdominal obesity with insulin resistance and related cardiometabolic risk. A genome-wide association study of adiposity-related traits performed in the Quebec Family Study (QFS) revealed that a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the LRRFIP1 gene (rs11680012) was associated with abdominal adiposity (P = 4.6 × 10–6). Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between polymorphisms in LRRFIP1 gene and adiposity (BMI, fat mass (FM), waist circumference (WC), and computed tomography-derived areas of total, subcutaneous and visceral abdominal adipose tissue) and markers of inflammation (C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6)). Design and Methods: Using Sequenom, 16 tag SNPs in the LRRFIP1 gene, capturing 78% of the genetic variation, were genotyped in 926 participants of the QFS. Results: Eight SNPs (rs7575941, rs3769053, rs11689421, rs3820808, rs11680012, rs3806505, rs6739130, and rs11686141) showed evidence of association with at least two adiposity phenotypes and plasma levels of one marker of inflammation. The strongest evidence of association was observed with rs11680012, which explained 1.8–3.4% of the variance in areas of abdominal adiposity and 2.0% of the variation in CRP levels. Carriers of the rare allele of rs11680012 had ∼30% more abdominal adiposity (P values between 2.7 × 10–4 and 3.8 × 10–6) and 75% higher CRP levels (P = 1.6 × 10–4) than the common allele in age and sex adjusted data. Rs11680012 is a G/C SNP converting an arginine into a threonine and this amino acid substitution may potentially alter exonic splicing. Conclusion: This gene may therefore represent a potential interesting target to investigate in further functional studies on adiposity and inflammation.
  • Publication
    Evidence of a quantitative trait locus for energy and macronutrient intake on chromosome 3q27.3 in the Quebec Family Study
    (American Society for Clinical Nutrition, 2008-10-01) Choquette, Anne.; Bouchard, Claude; Chagnon, Yvon C.; Pérusse, Louis; Tremblay, Angelo; Lemieux, Simone; Vohl, Marie-Claude
    Background: Little is known about the genes influencing dietary energy and nutrient intakes, despite evidence that these intakes are influenced by genetic factors. Objective: We aimed to identify, by using a genome-wide linkage analysis, chromosomal regions harboring genes that affect energy and macronutrient intakes. Design: Energy, carbohydrate, lipid, and protein intakes were assessed in 836 subjects from 217 families by using a 3-d dietary record. A total of 443 markers were genotyped and tested for linkage; age- and sex-adjusted energy and macronutrient intakes were expressed in grams and as percentages of total energy intake. Regression-based (Haseman-Elston) and variance-component (MERLIN) methods were applied to test for linkage with dietary data. A maximum of 454 sibpairs from 217 nuclear families were available for analysis. Results: The genome scan provided suggestive evidence (P 0.0023) for the presence of 6 quantitative trait linkages influencing total caloric and macronutrient intakes in the Québec Family Study. Of these, multiple linkages were found on chromosome 3q27.3, in a region harboring the adiponectin gene, at marker D3S1262 for energy [logarithm of odds (LOD): 2.24], carbohydrate (LOD: 2.00), and lipid (LOD: 1.65) intakes. The peak linkages for carbohydrate, lipid, and proteinintakes were found on chromosomes 1p32.2 (LOD: 2.39), 1p35.2 (LOD: 2.41), and 10p15.3 (LOD: 2.72), respectively. The linkage results remained significant after adjustment for body mass index, which suggested that the genes underlying these quantitative trait linkages influence dietary intake independent of body size. Conclusion: The linkage on chromosome 3q27.3 with energy, lipid, and carbohydrate intakes suggests that this region of the genome may harbor genes that influence energy and macronutrient intakes in humans.
  • Publication
    Plasminogen-activator inhibitor-1 polymorphisms are associated with obesity and fat distribution in the Québec Family Study : evidence of interactions with menopause
    (Raven Press, 2005-01-01) Bouchard, Claude; Pérusse, Louis; Mauriege, Pascale; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Bouchard, Luigi
    Objective: Obesity is associated with increased plasma levels of plasminogen-activator inhibitor1 (PAI1), the major fibrinolysis inhibitor. PAI1 levels are also increased at menopause, a condition that is associated with fat mass gain, especially in the abdominal area. Design: We hypothesized that genetic variations within PAI1 gene are related to the amount of body fat and its regional distribution. We genotyped 666 subjects of the Que´bec Family Study for five PAI1 gene polymorphisms. Stratified analyses were performed with analysis of covariance in men (n = 280) and women (n = 386) separately. Results: PAI1-675 4G/5G polymorphism was strongly associated with body mass index (P # 0.01) and fat mass (P # 0.05) in women. The PAI1-675 4G/5G promoter polymorphism and the c.43G.A (p.A15T, rs6092) variant within the exon 1 were associated with abdominal visceral fat but only in postmenopausal women (P # 0.05). More specifically, homozygotes for the 2675 5G and the 43A alleles had about 50% more visceral fat compared to carriers of the 2675 4G allele as well as carriers of the 43G allele. No association was observed in men. Conclusion: Taken together, these results suggest that the PAI1 gene is associated with obesity and may modulate the changes in adipose tissue distribution generally observed at menopause.
  • Publication
    Associations between USF1 gene variants and cardiovascular risk factors in the Quebec Family Study
    (Munksgaard, 2007-01-22) Choquette, Anne.; Bouchard, Claude; Pérusse, Louis; Houde, Alain; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Bouchard, Luigi
    Cardiovascular (CVD) risk factors are under the influence of environmental and genetic factors. Human upstream transcription factor 1 gene (USF1) encodes for a transcription factor, which modulates the expression of genes involved in lipid and carbohydrate metabolic pathways. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that USF1 gene variants are associated with CVD risk factors in the Quebec Family Study (QFS). USF1 has been sequenced in 20 QFS subjects with high plasma apolipoprotein B100 (APOB) levels (>1.14 g/l) and small, dense low‐density lipoprotein (LDL) particles (≥250.7 Å and ≤255.9 Å), as well as in five subjects with larger LDL particles. Ten variants were identified in non‐coding regions of USF1. Two of these polymorphisms (intron 7 c.561–100 G>A, and exon 11 c.*187 C>T) as well as the c.‐56 A>G polymorphism, were genotyped and analyzed in 760 subjects from QFS. Association studies showed that women with c.561‐100 A/A and c.*187 T/T genotypes had more favorable adiposity indices (<0.04). In summary, significant associations between relatively common USF1 genetic variants and CVD risk factors were observed in French Canadians.
  • Publication
    Prediction of daily fruit and vegetable consumption among overweight and obese individuals
    (ScienceDirect, 2010-02-06) Pérusse, Louis; Godin, Gaston; Bélanger-Gravel, Ariane; Amireault, Steve; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Guillaumie, Laurence
    The purpose of this study is twofold: to identify the determinants of daily fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption and the moderators of the intention–behaviour relationship. A sample of 225 overweight or obese adults completed a TPB questionnaire. F&V behaviour was assessed at baseline and three months later. Statistical analyses revealed that past behaviour, perceived behavioural control (PBC) and age were significant predictors of daily F&V consumption. In addition, intention was found to interact with anticipated regret. Interventions should encourage the development of habit and PBC. However, the age and level of anticipated regret of the targeted population should be considered when designing interventions.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Omega-3 fatty acids status in human subjects estimated using a food frequency questionnaire and plasma phospholipids levels
    (BioMed Central, 2012-07-09) Garneau, Véronique; Paradis, Ann-Marie; Pérusse, Louis; Rudkowska, Iwona; Godin, Gaston; Julien, Pierre; Vohl, Marie-Claude
    Background Intakes of omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids (FA) are associated with several health benefits. The aim of this study was to verify whether intakes of n-3 FA estimated from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) correlate with n-3 FA levels measured in plasma phospholipids (PL). Methods The study sample consisted of 200 French-Canadians men and women aged between 18 to 55 years. Dietary data were collected using a validated FFQ. Fasting blood samples were collected and the plasma PL FA profile was measured by gas chromatography. Results Low intakes of n-3 long-chain FA together with low percentages of n-3 long-chain FA in plasma PL were found in French-Canadian population. Daily intakes of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were similar between men and women. Yet, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and total n-3 FA intakes were significantly higher in men compared to women (ALA: 2.28 g and 1.69 g, p < 0.0001, total n-3 FA: 2.57 g and 1.99 g, p < 0.0001; respectively). In plasma PL, DPA and DHA percentages were significantly different between men and women (DPA: 1.03% and 0.88%, p < 0.0001, DHA: 3.00% and 3.43%, p = 0.0005; respectively). Moreover, DHA (men: r = 0.52, p < 0.0001; women: r = 0.57, p < 0.0001) and total n-3 FA (men: r = 0.47, p < 0.0001; women: r = 0.52, p < 0.0001) intakes were positively correlated to their respective plasma PL FA levels. In women, EPA (r = 0.44, p < 0.0001) and DPA (r = 0.23, p = 0.02) intakes were also correlated respectively with EPA and DPA plasma PL FA percentages. Conclusion Estimated n-3 long-chain FA intake among this young and well-educated French-Canadian population is lower than the recommendations. Further, FFQ data is comparable to plasma PL results to estimate DHA and total n-3 FA status in healthy individuals as well as to evaluate the EPA and DPA status in women. Overall, this FFQ could be used as a simple, low-cost tool in future studies to rank n-3 FA status of individuals.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Methylation quantitative trait loci within the TOMM20 gene are associated with metabolic syndrome-related lipid alterations in severely obese subjects
    (BioMed Central Ltd., 2016-07-29) Toro Martin, Juan de; Guénard, Frédéric; Pérusse, Louis; Hould, Frédéric-Simon; Marceau, Picard; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Deshaies, Yves; Lebel, Stéfane; Tchernof, André
    Background : The TOMM20 gene was previously identified as differentially expressed and methylated between severely obese subjects with and without metabolic syndrome (MS). Since metabolic complications do not affect all obese patients to the same extent, the aim of this study was to identify methylation quantitative trait loci (meQTL) potentially associated with MS-related complications within the TOMM20 locus. Methods : Methylation profiling, SNP genotyping and meQTL association tests (general linear models) were performed in a population of 48 severely obese subjects. Genotyping was extended to a larger population of 1720 severely obese subjects with or without MS, where genotype- and diplotype-based association tests were assessed by logistic regression. In silico analyses were performed using TRAP. Results : Four SNPs were identified as significant meQTLs for the differentially methylated site cg16490124. Individuals carrying rare alleles of rs4567344 (A > G) (P = 4.9 × 10−2) and rs11301 (T > C) (P = 5.9 × 10−3) showed decreased methylation levels at this site, whereas those carrying rare alleles of rs4551650 (T > C) (P = 3.5 × 10−15) and rs17523127 (C > G) (P = 3.5 × 10−15) exhibited a significant increase in methylation. rs4567344 and rs11301 were associated with increased susceptibility to exhibit high plasma triglycerides (TG ≥ 1.69 mmol/L), while rare alleles of rs4551650 and rs17523127 were significantly more represented in the low plasma total-C group (total-C ≤ 6.2 mmol/L). Haplotype reconstruction with the four meQTLs (rs4567344, rs11301, rs4551650, rs17523127) led to the identification of ten different diplotypes, with H1/H2 (GCGG/ACGG) exhibiting a nearly absence of methylation at cg16490124, and showing the highest risk of elevated plasma TG levels [OR = 2.03 (1.59–3.59)], a novel association with elevated LDL-cholesterol [OR = 1.86 (1.06–3.27)] and the complete inversion of the protective effect on total-C levels [OR = 2.03 (1.59–3.59)], especially in men. In silico analyses revealed that rs17523127 overlapped the CpG site cg16490124 and encompassed the core binding sites of the transcription factors Egr 1, 2 and 3, located within the TOMM20 promoter region. Conclusion : This study demonstrates that TOMM20 SNPs associated with MS-related lipid alterations are meQTLs potentially exerting their action through a CpG methylation-dependent effect. The strength of the diplotype-based associations may denote a novel meQTL additive action and point to this locus as particularly relevant in the inter-individual variability observed in the metabolic profiles of obese subjects.