Personne : Laroche, Gaétan
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Characterization of argon dielectric barrier discharges applied to ethyl lactate plasma polymerization
2017-11-03, Laroche, Gaétan, Desjardins, Edouard, Naudé, Nicolas, Meichelboeck, Maximilian, Laurent, Morgane, Stafford, Luc, Gherardi, Nicolas
The influence of the input voltage frequency (35 and 150 kHz), interelectrode gap (1 and 2 mm) and precursor concentration (250, 350, and 450 ppm) on the electron temperature (Te), number density of metastable Ar atoms (n(Arm)), and discharge current density (proportional to the electron density ne) is studied in an argon-ethyl lactate dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). An argon-ammonia Penning mixture is also considered as reference. These results are correlated to the chemistry (XPS, IR) and topography (AFM) of the ethyl-lactate-based plasma polymer coatings. Low Te values from 0.3 to 0.5 eV were obtained for all discharges. This observation, in addition to resemblances with the Ar–NH3 mixture, suggested that the ionization kinetics of ethyl lactate-based discharges is driven by Penning reactions. Among the investigated parameters, the dissipated power obtained through changes of the excitation frequency had the largest impact on both the coatings properties and the discharge behavior.
A fluorophore-tagged RGD peptide to control endothelial cell adhesion to micropatterned surfaces
2013-10-31, Hoesli, Corinne A., Duchesne, Carl, Juneau, Pierre-Marc, Laroche, Gaétan, Chevallier, Pascale
The long-term patency rates of vascular grafts and stents are limited by the lack of surface endothelialisation of the implanted materials. We have previously reported that GRGDS and WQPPRARI peptide micropatterns increase the endothelialisation of prosthetic materials in vitro. To investigate the mechanisms by which the peptide micropatterns affect endothelial cell adhesion and proliferation, a TAMRA fluorophore-tagged RGD peptide was designed. Live cell imaging revealed that the micropatterned surfaces led to directional cell spreading dependent on the location of the RGD-TAMRA spots. Focal adhesions formed within 3 h on the micropatterned surfaces near RGD-TAMRA spot edges, as expected for cell regions experiencing high tension. Similar levels of focal adhesion kinase phosphorylation were observed after 3 h on the micropatterned surfaces and on surfaces treated with RGD-TAMRA alone, suggesting that partial RGD surface coverage is sufficient to elicit integrin signaling. Lastly, endothelial cell expansion was achieved in serum-free conditions on gelatin-coated, RGD-TAMRA treated or micropatterned surfaces. These results show that these peptide micropatterns mainly impacted cell adhesion kinetics rather than cell proliferation. This insight will be useful for the optimization of micropatterning strategies to improve vascular biomaterials.
Single or mixed tethered peptides to promote hMSC differentiation toward osteoblastic lineage
2018-11-27, Padiolleau, Laurence, Chanseau, Christel, Laroche, Gaétan, Durrieu, Stephanie, Chevallier, Pascale, Durrieu, Marie-Christine
The commitment and differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are guided by bioactive molecules within the extracellular matrix. Among the various approaches to design biomaterials, the functionalization of biomaterial surfaces with peptides from the sequence of proteins from the extracellular matrix is quite common. The purpose of this functionalization is to recruit hMSCs and promote their differentiation into the appropriate lineage. The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of RGD and FHRRIKA peptides and peptide sequences taken from bone morphogenic protein (BMP-2) and histone H4 (osteogenic growth peptide; OGP) either tethered alone or as a mixture on the surface of a model material and to also examine the level of hMSC osteogenic commitment without using a differentiation medium. Grafting of the different peptides was assessed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), while their surface density was quantified by fluorescence microscopy, and their surface properties were assessed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and contact angle (CA). The osteogenic commitment of hMSCs cultured on the different surfaces was characterized by immunohistochemistry using Runx-2 as an earlier osteogenic marker and OPN, a late osteogenic marker, and by RT-qPCR through the expression of ColI-a1, Runx-2, and ALP. Biological results show that the osteogenic commitment of the hMSCs was increased on surfaces tethered with a mixture of peptides. Results indicate that tethered peptides in the range of pmol mm–2 were indeed effective in inducing a cellular response after 2 weeks of cell culture without using an osteogenic media. These findings contribute to the research efforts to design biomimetic materials able to induce a response in human stem cells through tethered bioactive molecules for bone tissue engineering.
Interplay of geometric cues and RGD/BMP-2 crosstalk in directing stem cell fate
2017-08-21, Bilem, Ibrahim, Laroche, Gaétan, Plawinski, Laurent, Chevallier, Pascale, Sone, E. (Eli), Durrieu, Marie-Christine
Within the native microenvironment, extracellular matrix (ECM) components are thought to display a complex and heterogeneous distribution, spanning several length scales. Herein, the objective is to mimic, in vitro, the hierarchical organization of proteins and growth factors as well as their crosstalk. Photolithography technique was used to adjacently pattern geometrically defined regions of RGD and BMP-2 mimetic peptides onto glass substrates. These ECM-derived ligands are known to jointly regulate mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) osteogenic differentiation. By manipulating the spatial distribution of dually grafted peptides, the extent of human MSCs osteogenic differentiation was significantly affected, depending on the shape of peptide micropatterns. Our data highlight the existence of a strong interplay between geometric cues and biochemical signals. Such in vitro systems provide a valuable tool to investigate mechanisms by which multiple ECM cues overlap to regulate stem cell fate, thereby contributing to the design of bioinspired biomaterials for bone tissue engineering applications.
Rapid nucleation of iron oxide nanoclusters in aqueous solution by plasma electrochemistry
2015-06-18, Turgeon, Stéphane, Fortin, Marc-André, Laroche, Gaétan, Sarra-Bournet, Christian, Lagueux, Jean, Létourneau, Mathieu, Chevallier, Pascale, Laprise-Pelletier, Myriam, Bouchard, Mathieu
Progresses in cold atmospheric plasma technologies have made possible the synthesis of nanoparticles in aqueous solutions using plasma electrochemistry principles. In this contribution, a reactor based on microhollow cathodes and operating at atmospheric pressure was developed to synthesize iron-based nanoclusters (nanoparticles). Argon plasma discharges are generated at the tip of the microhollow cathodes, which are placed near the surface of an aqueous solution containing iron salts (FeCl₂ and FeCl₃) and surfactants (biocompatible dextran). Upon reaction at the plasma−liquid interface, reduction processes occur and lead to the nucleation of ultrasmall iron-based nanoclusters (IONCs). The purified IONCs were investigated by XPS and FTIR, which confirmed that the nucleated clusters contain a highly hydrated form of iron oxide, close to the stoichiometric constituents of α-FeOOH (goethite) or Fe₅O₃(OH)₉ (ferrihydrite). Relaxivity values of r₁ = 0.40 mM−¹ s−¹ and r₂/r₁ = 1.35 were measured (at 1.41 T); these are intermediate values between the relaxometric properties of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles used in medicine (USPIO) and those of ferritin, an endogenous contrast agent. Plasma-synthesized IONCs were injected into the mouse model and provided positive vascular signal enhancement in T₁-w. MRI for a period of 10−20 min. Indications of rapid and strong elimination through the urinary and gastrointestinal tracts were also found. This study is the first to report on the development of a compact reactor suitable for the synthesis of MRI iron-based contrast media solutions, on site and upon demand.
Atmospheric pressure cold plasma versus wet-chemical surface treatments for carboxyl functionalization of polylactic acid : a first step toward the immobilization of bioactive molecules
2020-02-08, Laroche, Gaétan, Rodríguez Durán, Iván, Vanslambrouck, Stéphanie, Chevallier, Pascale
The use of polylactic acid (PLA) has attracted growing interest, particularly in recent years, for biomedical applications because of its mechanical properties, biocompatibility, and biodegradability. Despite this, features such as surface hydrophobicity and the absence of suitable functional groups for covalent immobilization of bioactive molecules, make it challenging to endow PLA-based medical devices with additional features and thus broaden their range of applicability. In the present study, we demonstrate the suitability of atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharges operating in the Townsend regime as a promising alternative to other surface treatments, such as diazonium and alkali hydrolytic treatments, for carboxyl functionalization of PLA. Chemical changes in PLA surfaces are evaluated by contact angle measurements and by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy while physical changes are investigated by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The amount of carboxyl groups generated on PLA surfaces is assessed by toluidine blue O assay and substantiated by grafting, through carboxyl groups, a fluorescent probe containing amino functionalities. All of the surface treatments have proven to be very effective in generating carboxylic groups on the PLA surface. Nevertheless, plasma treatment is shown to not degrade the PLA surface, in sharp contrast with diazonium and alkali hydrolytic treatments.
Synthesis, characterization, and functionalization of ZnO nanoparticles by N-(trimethoxysilylpropyl) ethylenediamine triacetic acid (TMSEDTA) : investigation of the interactions between Phloroglucinol and ZnO@TMSEDTA
2016-05-14, Barrak, Haythem, Laroche, Gaétan, Saied, Taieb, Chevallier, Pascale, M’nif, Adel, Hamzaoui, Ahmed Hichem
The use of semiconductor oxides, such as chemical or biological sensors, requires their functionalization with appropriate molecules displaying specific interaction with the substance to be detected. Generally, the support materials used are TiO₂ or SiO₂. In the present work, zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs), known for its reactivity and high specific area, were used. The synthesis of nanoscale ZnO was advantageously performed by precipitation at low temperature (60 °C). To our knowledge, it was the first time that this material was synthesized at such a low temperature, therefore lowering production cost. Moreover, the surface functionalization of ZnO was performed with N-(trimethoxysilylpropyl) ethylenediamine triacetic acid (TMSEDTA) in ethanol. This allowed shortening the functionalization reaction duration as compared to previously published literaturein the field. The samples obtained were analyzed by XRD, TEM, DLS, FTIR, TGA and XPS, which all concur with the successful synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles as well as the efficiency of TMSEDTA grafting on ZnO. Then, the interactions of this functionalized material, ZnO@TMSEDTA, with the Phloroglucinol (drug) were evaluated by using cyclic voltammetry measurements in solution. The cyclic voltammograms showed an intense cathodic peak which was correlated to the initial concentration of free Phloroglucinol. This cathodic peak was degraded upon addition of ZnO@TMSEDTA particles due to the drug interactions with free available carboxylic groups on the functionalized NPs. Based on a calibration curve, the drug concentration uptake can be therefore quantified. Thus, these results establish a big step to develop a Phloroglucinol sensor.
Correlation between the plasma characteristics and the surface chemistry of plasma-treated polymers through partial least squares analysis
2013-12-06, Turgeon, Stéphane, Duchesne, Carl, Ghasemzadeh-Barvarz, Massoud, Laroche, Gaétan, Mavadat, Maryam
We investigated the effect of various plasma parameters (relative density of atomic N and H, plasma temperature, and vibrational temperature) and process conditions (pressure and H2/(N2 + H2) ratio) on the chemical composition of modified poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE). The plasma parameters were measured by means of near-infrared (NIR) and UV-visible emission spectroscopy with and without actinometry. The process conditions of the N2-H2 microwave discharges were set at various pressures ranging from 100 to 2000 mTorr and H2/(N2+H2) gas mixture ratios between 0 and 0.4. The surface chemical composition of the modified polymers was determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). A mathematical model was constructed using the partial least-squares regression algorithm to correlate the plasma information (process condition and plasma parameters as determined by emission spectroscopy) with the modified surface characteristics. To construct the model, a set of data input variables containing process conditions and plasma parameters were generated, as well as a response matrix containing the surface composition of the polymer. This model was used to predict the composition of PTFE surfaces subjected to N2-H2 plasma treatment. Contrary to what is generally accepted in the literature, the present data demonstrate that hydrogen is not directly involved in the defluorination of the surface but rather produces atomic nitrogen and/or NH radicals that are shown to be at the origin of fluorine atom removal from the polymer surface. The results show that process conditions alone do not suffice in predicting the surface chemical composition and that the plasma characteristics, which cannot be easily correlated with these conditions, should be considered. Process optimization and control would benefit from plasma diagnostics, particularly infrared emission spectroscopy.
Evaluation of an air spinning process to produce tailored biosynthetic nanofiber scaffolds
2013-11-14, Abadie, Pierre, Laroche, Gaétan, Dieval, Florence, Sabbatier, Gad, Durand, Bernard
We optimised the working parameters of an innovative air spinning device to produce nanofibrous polymer scaffolds for tissue engineering applications. Scanning electron microscopy was performed on the fibre scaffolds which were then used to identify various scaffold morphologies based on the ratio of surface occupied by the polymer fibres on that covered by the entire polymer scaffold assembly. Scaffolds were then produced with the spinning experimental parameters, resulting in 90% of fibres in the overall polymer construct, and were subsequently used to perform a multiple linear regression analysis to highlight the relationship between nanofibre diameter and the air spinning parameters. Polymer solution concentration was deemed as the most significant parameter to control fibre diameter during the spinning process, despite interactions between experimental parameters. Based on these findings, viscosity measurements were performed to clarify the effect of the polymer solution property on scaffold morphology.
A new approach for synthesizing plasmonic polymer nanocomposite thin films by combining a gold salt aerosol and an atmospheric pressure low-temperature plasma
2021-02-05, Nadal, Elie, Milaniak, Natalia, Laroche, Gaétan, Glenat, Hervé, Massines, Françoise
The proof of the concept of a new, onestep and safe by design process to synthesize metal-polymer nanocomposites thin films on a large surface is presented. It is based on the injection of an aerosol of a solution of metal (gold) salts dissolved in a polymerizable solvent (isopropanol) into an argon atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge. The main novelty of this method resides in the fact that the nanoparticles are formed in situ, inside the plasma reactor, in the gas phase. Consequently, the nanoparticle synthesis and deposition are concomitant with the solvent polymerization used to produce the matrix, which makes it possible to obtain homogeneous layers of non-agglomerated nanoparticles (NPs) with high NPs density. By toggling between low and high-frequency discharges, gold/polymer nanocomposites with different morphologies and optical properties are synthesized. The effect of the concentration of gold in the aerosol and the gas residence time in the plasma as well as the ratio of high and low-frequency discharge and their repetition rate are presented. The thin films are systematically characterized by AFM and UV–visible spectroscopy to analyze their morphologies along with their plasmonic resonances.