Personne :
Vallières, Annie

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Université Laval. École de psychologie
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  • Publication
    Accès libre
  • Publication
    Randomized clinical trial of supervised tapering and cognitive behavior therapy to facilitate benzodiazepine discontinuation in older adults with chronic insomnia
    (American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry, 2004-02-01) Radouco-Thomas, Monelly; Morin, Charles M.; Leblanc, Jacynthe; Vallières, Annie; Bastien, Célyne; Guay, Bernard
    OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the effectiveness of a supervised benzodiazepine taper, singly and combined with cognitive behavior therapy, for benzodiazepine discontinuation in older adults with chronic insomnia. METHOD: Seventy-six older adult outpatients (38 women, 38 men; mean age of 62.5 years) with chronic insomnia and prolonged use (mean duration of 19.3 years) of benzodiazepine medication for sleep were randomly assigned for a 10-week intervention consisting of a supervised benzodiazepine withdrawal program (N=25), cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia (N=24), or supervised withdrawal plus cognitive behavior therapy (N=27). Follow-up assessments were conducted at 3 and 12 months. The main outcome measures were benzodiazepine use, sleep parameters, and anxiety and depressive symptoms. RESULTS: All three interventions produced significant reductions in both the quantity (90% reduction) and frequency (80% reduction) of benzodiazepine use, and 63% of the patients were drug-free within an average of 7 weeks. More patients who received medication taper plus cognitive behavior therapy (85%) were benzodiazepine-free after the initial intervention, compared to those who received medication taper alone (48%) and cognitive behavior therapy alone (54%). The patients in the two groups that received cognitive behavior therapy perceived greater subjective sleep improvements than those who received medication taper alone. Polysomnographic data showed an increase in the amount of time spent in stages 3 and 4 sleep and REM sleep and a decrease in total sleep time across all three conditions from baseline to posttreatment. Initial benzodiazepine reductions were well maintained up to the 12-month follow-up, and sleep improvements became more noticeable over this period. No significant withdrawal symptoms or adverse events were associated with benzodiazepine tapering. CONCLUSIONS: A structured, time-limited intervention is effective in assisting chronic users of benzodiazepine medication to discontinue or reduce their use of medication. The addition of cognitive behavior therapy alleviates insomnia, but sleep improvements may become noticeable only after several months of benzodiazepine abstinence.
  • Publication
    Sequential combinations of drug and cognitive behavioral therapy for chronic insomnia : an exploratory study
    (Elsevier, 2005-02-11) Morin, Charles M.; Vallières, Annie; Guay, Bernard
    This study explores the efficacy of sequential treatments involving medication and cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) for primary insomnia. Seventeen participants took part in a multiple baseline design and were assigned to: (a) medication for 5 weeks, followed by combined medication plus CBT for 5 weeks; (b) combined treatment for 5 weeks, followed by CBT alone; or (c) CBT alone. Each treatment sequence produced significant sleep improvements, but at different points in time. For the first sequence, most of the sleep improvement was obtained after the introduction of CBT, while for the other sequence and CBT alone, improvement appeared during the first weeks. These results suggest that sleep improvement seems affected by the way treatments are combined. Also, a sequence beginning with a combined treatment followed by CBT alone seems to produce the best outcome. Additional research should be conducted with larger samples to determine the most effective sequence.
  • Publication
    Sequential treatment for chronic insomnia : a pilot study
    (Taylor & Francis, 2010-06-07) Morin, Charles M.; Vallières, Annie; Bastien, Célyne; Guay, Bernard; LeBlanc, Melanie
    This article explores the efficacy of sequential treatment involving medication and cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) for insomnia. In a multiple baseline across-subjects design, 6 participants with primary chronic insomnia received 1 of the following treatment sequences: (a) concurrent combination of medication and CBT for the 10-week treatment duration (Combined); (b) medication for the first 5 weeks, with introduction of CBT at week 4 and medication withdrawal after the 5th week resulting in treatment overlap during weeks 4 and 5 (Overlapping: Medication → Combined → CBT); and (c) medication alone for the first 5 weeks followed by CBT alone for an additional 5 weeks (Medication→CBT). Each sequence led to significant sleep improvements, but these improvements occurred at different times during the intervention. Participants in the Combined and in the Overlapping sequences improved their sleep during the 1st phase of treatment, whereas those in the Medication→ CBT sequence improved mostly during the 2nd phase of treatment. These preliminary results suggest that a sequential treatment is effective for chronic insomnia. In addition, the results suggest that sleep improvements are more likely to emerge when CBT is introduced, with an Overlapping sequence showing a slight advantage over the other sequences. Additional clinical trials should be conducted with larger samples to replicate these preliminary findings.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Sleep and quality of life in urban poverty : the effect of a slum housing upgrading program
    (American Sleep Disorders Association and Sleep Research Society, 2013-11-01) Simonelli, Guido; Vallières, Annie; Leanza, Yvan; Boilard, Alexandra; Hyland, Martin; Augustinavicius, Jura; Cardinali, Daniel P.; Pérez-Chada, Daniel; Vigo, Daniel Eduardo
    Study Objectives : To evaluate the effect of a housing transition on sleep quality and quality of life in slum dwellers, participating in a slum housing upgrading program. Design : Observational before-and-after study with a convergent-parallel mixed method design. Setting : Five slums located in the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Participants : A total of 150 slum dwellers benefited by a housing program of the nonprofit organization TECHO (spanish word for “roof”). Interventions : Participants moved from their very low-quality house to a basic prefabricated 18 m2 modular house provided by TECHO. Measurements and Results : The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and World Health Organization Quality of Life brief scale (WHOQOL-BREF) were administered before and after housing upgrading. Data about housing conditions, income, education, sleeping conditions, and cardiovascular risk were also collected. Semistructured interviews were used to expand and nuance quantitative data obtained from a poorly educated sample. Results showed that sleep quality significantly increased after the housing program (z = -6.57, P < 0.001). Overall quality of life (z = -6.85, P < 0.001), physical health domain (z = -4.35, P < 0.001), psychological well-being domain (z = -3.72, P < 0.001) and environmental domain (z = -7.10, P < 0.001) of WHOQOL-BREF were also improved. Interviews demonstrated the importance of serenity for improving quality of life. Conclusions : A minimal improvement in the quality of basic housing can significantly increase sleep quality and quality of life among slum dwellers. Understanding sleep and daily life conditions in informal urban settlements could help to define what kind of low-cost intervention may improve sleep quality, quality of life, and reduce existent sleep disparity.
  • Publication
    Speed and trajectory of changes of insomnia symptoms during acute treatment with cognitive–behavioral therapy, singly and combined with medication
    (Elsevier Science, 2014-03-31) Mérette, Chantal; Morin, Charles M.; Savard, Josée; Vallières, Annie; Guay, Bernard; Beaulieu-Bonneau, Simon.; Ivers, Hans
    Objectives : To examine the speed and trajectory of changes in sleep/wake parameters during short-term treatment of insomnia with cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT) alone versus CBT combined with medication; and to explore the relationship between early treatment response and post-treatment recovery status. Methods : Participants were 160 adults with insomnia (mean age, 50.3 years; 97 women, 63 men) who underwent a six-week course of CBT, singly or combined with 10 mg zolpidem nightly. The main dependent variables were sleep onset latency, wake after sleep onset, total sleep time, sleep efficiency, and sleep quality, derived from sleep diaries completed daily by patients throughout the course of treatment. Results : Participants treated with CBT plus medication exhibited faster sleep improvements as evidenced by the first week of treatment compared to those receiving CBT alone. Optimal sleep improvement was reached on average after only one week for the combined treatment compared to two to three weeks for CBT alone. Early treatment response did not reliably predict post-treatment recovery status. Conclusions : Adding medication to CBT produces faster sleep improvement than CBT alone. However, the magnitude of early treatment response is not predictive of final response after the six-week therapy. Additional research is needed to examine mechanisms involved in this early treatment augmentation effect and its impact on long-term outcome.
  • Publication
    Temporal relationship between dysfunctional beliefs, self-efficacy and panic apprehension in the treatment of panic disorder with agoraphobia
    (Elsevier Ltd., 2006-12-08) Simard, Sébastien; Vallières, Annie; Ivers, Hans; Gauthier, Janel G.; Nouwen, Arie; Bouchard, Stéphane; Fournier, Thomas
    The aim of this study is to assess if changes in dysfunctional beliefs and self-efficacy precede changes in panic apprehension in the treatment of panic disorder with agoraphobia. Subjects participated in a larger study comparing the effectiveness of cognitive restructuring and exposure. Four variables were measured: (a) the strength of each subject's main belief toward the consequence of a panic attack; (b) perceived self-efficacy to control a panic attack in the presence of panicogenic body sensations; (c) perceived self-efficacy to control a panic attack in the presence of panicogenic thoughts; and (d) the level of panic apprehension of a panic attack. Variables were recorded daily on a “0” to “100” scale using category partitioning. Multivariate time series analysis and “causality testing” showed that, for all participants, cognitive changes preceded changes in the level of panic apprehension. Important individual differences were observed in the contribution of each variable to the prediction of change in panic apprehension. Changes in apprehension were preceded by changes in belief in three cases, by changes in self-efficacy in six cases, and by changes in both belief and self-efficacy in the remaining three cases. This pattern was observed in participants in the exposure condition as well as those in the cognitive restructuring condition. These results provide more empirical support to the hypothesis that cognitive changes precede improvement. They also underlie the importance of individual differences in the process of change. Finally, this study does not support the hypothesis that exposure and cognitive restructuring operate through different mechanisms, namely a behavioral one and a cognitive one.
  • Publication
    Validation of the Insomnia Severity Index as an outcome measure for insomnia research
    (Elsevier Science, 2001-06-25) Morin, Charles M.; Vallières, Annie; Bastien, Célyne
    Background : Insomnia is a prevalent health complaint that is often difficult to evaluate reliably. There is an important need for brief and valid assessment tools to assist practitioners in the clinical evaluation of insomnia complaints. Objective : This paper reports on the clinical validation of the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) as a brief screening measure of insomnia and as an outcome measure in treatment research. The psychometric properties (internal consistency, concurrent validity, factor structure) of the ISI were evaluated in two samples of insomnia patients. Methods : The first study examined the internal consistency and concurrent validity of the ISI in 145 patients evaluated for insomnia at a sleep disorders clinic. Data from the ISI were compared to those of a sleep diary measure. In the second study, the concurrent validity of the ISI was evaluated in a sample of 78 older patients who participated in a randomized-controlled trial of behavioral and pharmacological therapies for insomnia. Change scores on the ISI over time were compared with those obtained from sleep diaries and polysomnography. Comparisons were also made between ISI scores obtained from patients, significant others, and clinicians. Results : The results of Study 1 showed that the ISI has adequate internal consistency and is a reliable self-report measure to evaluate perceived sleep difficulties. The results from Study 2 also indicated that the ISI is a valid and sensitive measure to detect changes in perceived sleep difficulties with treatment. In addition, there is a close convergence between scores obtained from the ISI patient's version and those from the clinician's and significant other's versions. Conclusions : The present findings indicate that the ISI is a reliable and valid instrument to quantify perceived insomnia severity. The ISI is likely to be a clinically useful tool as a screening device or as an outcome measure in insomnia treatment research.
  • Publication
    Variability and predictability in sleep patterns of chronic insomniacs
    (Published on behalf of the European Sleep Research Society by Blackwell Scientific Publications, 2005-12-02) Morin, Charles M.; Vallières, Annie; Bastien, Célyne; Beaulieu-Bonneau, Simon.; Ivers, Hans
    Sleep of chronic insomniacs is often characterized by extensive night-to-night variability. To date, no study has examined this variability with long series of daily sleep data. The present study examined night-to-night variability with a sample of 106 participants meeting DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for persistent primary insomnia. Participants completed daily sleep diaries for an average of 31 days (range: 18–56). Sleep efficiency, sleep onset latency and wake after sleep onset were derived from this measure. Despite evidence of extensive night variability, results showed that sleep patterns could be classified in three clusters. The first one was characterized by a high probability of having poor sleep, the second one by a low and decreasing probability, and the third one by a constant median probability of having a poor sleep, which is an unpredictable sleep pattern. In the first cluster, poor sleep was expected each night for patients with a predominance mixed insomnia including the three insomnia subtypes. In the second cluster, patients presented moderate insomnia, sleep-onset latency below the threshold level and a predominance of sleep-maintenance insomnia. In the third pattern, poor nights seemed unpredictable for patients with moderate to severe insomnia associated with the lowest proportion of sleep-maintenance insomnia. Overall, sleep was predictable for about two-thirds of individuals, whereas it was unpredictable for about one-third. These findings confirm the presence of extensive variability in the sleep of chronic insomniacs and that poor sleep may be predictable for some of them. Additional research is needed to characterize those sleep patterns in terms of clinical features and temporal course.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    A preliminary evaluation of the physiological mechanisms of action for sleep restriction therapy
    (Hindawi Publishing Corporation, 2013-09-16) Vallières, Annie; Ceklic, Tijana; Bastien, Célyne; Espie, Colin A.
    Our objective was to investigate the physiological mechanisms involved in the sleep restriction treatment of insomnia. A multiple baseline across subjects design was used. Sleep of five participants suffering from insomnia was assessed throughout the experimentation by sleep diaries and actigraphy. Ten nights of polysomnography were conducted over five occasions. The first two-night assessment served to screen for sleep disorders and to establish a baseline for dependent measures. Three assessments were undertaken across the treatment interval, with the fifth and last one coming at follow-up. Daily cortisol assays were obtained. Sleep restriction therapy was applied in-lab for the first two nights of treatment and was subsequently supervised weekly. Interrupted time series analyses were computed on sleep diary data and showed a significantly decreased wake time, increased sleep efficiency, and decreased total sleep time. Sleepiness at night seems positively related to sleep variables, polysomnography data suggest objective changes mainly for stage 2, and power spectral analysis shows a decrease in beta-1 and -2 powers for the second night of treatment. Cortisol levels seem to be lower during treatment. These preliminary results confirm part of the proposed physiological mechanisms and suggest that sleep restriction contributes to a rapid decrease in hyperarousal insomnia.