Personne :
Rainville, Pierre

En cours de chargement...
Photo de profil
Adresse électronique
Date de naissance
Projets de recherche
Structures organisationnelles
Nom de famille
Université Laval. Faculté de droit
Identifiant Canadiana

Résultats de recherche

Voici les éléments 1 - 9 sur 9
  • Publication
    The role of gender in the interaction between self-pain and the perception of pain in others
    (Elsevier, 2012-07-01) Jackson, Philip L.; Budell, Lesley; Coll, Michel-Pierre; Rainville, Pierre; Decety, Jean
    While self-pain motivates protective behaviors and self-oriented feelings, the perception of others' pain often motivates concern and prosocial behaviors toward the person suffering. The conflicting consequences of these 2 states raise the question of how pain is perceived in others when one is actually in pain. Two conflicting hypotheses could predict the interaction between these 2 signals: the threat value of pain hypothesis and the shared-representation model of pain empathy. Here, we asked 33 healthy volunteers exposed to acute experimental pain to judge the intensity of the pain felt by models expressing different levels of pain in video clips. Results showed that compared to a control warm stimulus, a stimulus causing self-pain increased the perception of others' pain for clips depicting male pain expressions but decreased the perceived intensity of female high pain expressions in both male and female participants. These results show that one's own pain state influences the perception of pain in others and that the gender of the person observed influences this interaction. Perspective : By documenting the effects of self-pain on pain perception in others, this study provides a better understanding of the shared mechanisms between self-pain and others' pain processing. It could ultimately provide clues as to how the health status of health care professionals could affect their ability to assess their patients' pain.
  • Publication
    To what extent do we share the pain of others? Insight from the neural bases of pain empathy
    (Elsevier Science, 2006-11-01) Jackson, Philip L.; Rainville, Pierre; Decety, Jean
    In the representationalist framework generally adopted in cognitive neuroscience, pain is conceived as a subjective experience triggered by the activation of a mental representation of actual or potential tissue damage (nociception). This representation may involve somatic sensory features, as well as affective-motivational reactions associated with the promotion of protective or recuperative visceromotor and behavioral responses. Mental representation of nociception may provide the primary referent from which a rich associative network can be established to evoke the notion of pain in the absence of a nociceptive stimulus. Here, we adopt the notion of a mental representation of pain as a means to relate the experience of pain in oneself to the perception of pain in others. We review the functional neuroimaging studies supporting the hypothesis that the perception of pain in others relies at least partly on the activation of a mental representation of pain in the Self, and thus on common neural systems. However, we also demonstrate that there are systematic differences in activation sites within painrelated areas that must be considered for a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying pain empathy
  • Publication
    Brain responses to facial expressions of pain : emotional or motor mirroring?
    (Academic Press, 2010-05-25) Budell, Lesley; Jackson, Philip L.; Rainville, Pierre
    The communication of pain requires the perception of pain-related signals and the extraction of their meaning and magnitude to infer the state of the expresser. Here, BOLD responses were measured in healthy volunteers while they evaluated the amount of pain expressed (pain task) or discriminated movements (movement task) in one-second video clips displaying facial expressions of various levels of pain. Regression analysis using subjects' ratings of pain confirmed the parametric response of several regions previously involved in the coding of self-pain, including the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and anterior insula (aINS), as well as areas implicated in action observation, and motor mirroring, such as the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and inferior parietal lobule (IPL). Furthermore, the pain task produced stronger activation in the ventral IFG, as well as in areas of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) associated with social cognition and emotional mirroring, whereas stronger activation during the movement task predominated in the IPL. These results suggest that perception of the pain of another via facial expression recruits limbic regions involved in the coding of self-pain, prefrontal areas underlying social and emotional cognition (i.e. 'mentalizing'), and premotor and parietal areas involved in motor mirroring.
  • Publication
    The multilevel organization of vicarious pain responses : effects of pain cues and empathy traits on spinal nociception and acute pain
    (Elsevier Science, 2011-07-01) Jackson, Philip L.; Martel, Marc O.; Rainville, Pierre; Roy, Mathieu; Vachon-Presseau, Etienne; Caron, Étienne
    The shared-representation model of empathy suggests that vicarious pain processes rely partly on the activation of brain systems underlying self-pain in the observer. Here, we tested the hypothesis that self-pain may be facilitated by the vicarious priming of neural systems underlying pain perception. Pictures illustrating painful agents applied to the hand or the foot (sensory information), or painful facial expressions (emotional information) were shown to 43 participants to test the effects of vicarious pain on the nociceptive flexion reflex (NFR) of the lower limb and pain intensity and unpleasantness produced by transcutaneous electrical stimulation applied over the sural nerve. Results confirmed the expected priming effects of vicarious pain on spinal and perceptual processes. However, for comparable pain intensity and arousal evoked by the pain pictures, the facilitation of the NFR and the self-pain unpleasantness measurements was more robust in response to pictures depicting pain sensory compared to emotional information. Furthermore, the facilitation of the NFR by pain pictures was positively correlated with the empathy trait of the observer. In contrast, the change in perceived shock-pain intensity was negatively correlated with empathic traits. This dissociation implies that low-level vicarious priming processes underlying pain facilitation may be downregulated at higher pain-processing stages in individuals reporting higher levels of empathy. We speculate that this process contributes to reducing self–other assimilation and is necessary to adopt higher-order empathic responses and altruistic behaviors.
  • Publication
    A biopsychosocial formulation of pain communication
    (American Psychological Association, 2011-11-01) Hadjistavropoulos, Thomas; Jackson, Philip L.; Craig, Kenneth D.; Rainville, Pierre; Duck, Steve; Cano, Annmarie; Goubert, Liesbet; Mogil, Jeffrey Steven; Sullivan, Michael J. L.; Williams, Amanda C. de C.; Vervoort, Tine; Fitzgerald, Theresa Dever
    We present a detailed framework for understanding the numerous and complicated interactions among psychological and social determinants of pain through examination of the process of pain communication. The focus is on an improved understanding of immediate dyadic transactions during painful events in the context of broader social phenomena. Fine-grain consideration of social transactions during pain leads to an appreciation of sociobehavioral events affecting both suffering persons as well as caregivers. Our examination considers knowledge from a variety of perspectives, including clinical health psychology, social and developmental processes, evolutionary psychology, communication studies, and behavioral neuroscience.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Dispositional empathy modulates vicarious effects of dynamic pain expressions on spinal nociception, facial responses and acute pain
    (Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, 2012-01-17) Mailhot, Jean-Philippe; Jackson, Philip L.; Rainville, Pierre; Vachon-Presseau, Etienne
    Pain communication is thought to promote automatic vicarious self‐protective responses as well as empathic concern towards others’ suffering. This duality was recently highlighted in a study showing that highly empathic individuals display increased vicarious facilitation of low‐level pain processing (nociceptive flexion reflex, NFR) combined with an unexpected reduced facilitation of self‐pain perception (pain ratings) while viewing static pictures evoking pain in others. The present study sought to test further the moderating effects of dispositional empathy on vicarious responses induced by viewing dynamic pain expressions. Twenty‐four healthy volunteers viewed 1‐s videos showing different levels of pain expression before noxious electric shocks were delivered to the sural nerve. Viewing stronger pain expressions generally increased shock–pain unpleasantness ratings, the amplitude of the NFR, and facial responses (corrugator muscle) to the noxious stimulation. However, self‐pain ratings (intensity and unpleasantness) increased less or were reduced following clips of pain expression in individuals scoring higher on the Empathy Quotient. These results suggest that vicarious processes facilitate low‐level defensive responses, while the experience of self‐pain and the associated negative affect may be partly tuned‐down by higher‐order empathic processes.
  • Publication
    The two slides of pain communication : effects of pain expressiveness on vicarious brain responses revealed in chronic back pain patients
    (Elsevier, 2013-10-30) Jackson, Philip L.; Roy, Mathieu; Martel, Marc-Olivier; Rainville, Pierre; Albouy, Geneviève; Vachon-Presseau, Etienne; Sullivan, Michael J. L.
    The dominant socioaffective model of empathy has emphasized the overlap between brain mechanisms involved in the encoding and the decoding of internal states. The role of dispositional empathy has been extensively studied in this research, but several other individual factors fundamental to communication processes have been largely ignored. We studied the effects of dispositional expressiveness in chronic back pain patients to determine if the decoding of communicative and noncommunicative information signaling pain in others would be enhanced in individuals displaying a spontaneous propensity to consistently express more pain during a behavioral-observational naturalistic standardized lifting task performed on 2 separate occasions. Blood oxygenation level-dependent signal change was measured in response to pictures showing facial pain expressions and hands/feet in pain-evoking situations in chronic back pain patients and healthy controls. Vicarious brain responses to others' pain were comparable between groups. However, more expressive patients rated others' pain higher and showed stronger vicarious pain responses in the right ventral part of the inferior frontal gyrus, the right insula, and the midbrain. Activity in the right insula correlated positively with both the patients' expressiveness (encoding) and the intensity of the pain perceived in the images (decoding), suggesting that this structure linked the dispositional expressiveness with vicarious pain perception. Importantly, these effects were independent from dispositional empathy and were found with both communicative (facial expression) and noncommunicative (hand and foot) cues. These results suggest that dispositional expressiveness is a self-related factor that facilitates vicarious pain processing and might reflect individual tendencies to rely on social coping strategies. Perspective: This article shows that pain expressivity in chronic pain patients increased the vicarious brain responses and the sensibility to others' pain. These results may help provide empirical support for better defining models of pain communication in chronic pain patients.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    A meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies on pain empathy : investigating the role of emotional information and observer’s perspective
    (Oxford University Press, 2019-08-08) Jackson, Philip L.; Khatibi, Ali; Jauniaux, Josiane; Rainville, Pierre
    Empathy relies on brain systems that support the interaction between an observer’s mental state and cues about the others’ experience. Beyond the core brain areas typically activated in pain empathy studies (insular and anterior cingulate cortices), the diversity of paradigms used may reveal secondary networks that subserve other more specific processes. A coordinate-based meta-analysis of fMRI experiments on pain empathy was conducted to obtain activation likelihood estimates along three factors and seven conditions: visual cues (body parts, facial expressions), visuospatial (first-person, thirdperson), and cognitive (self-, stimuli-, other-oriented tasks) perspectives. The core network was found across cues and perspectives, and common activation was observed in higher-order visual areas. Body-parts distinctly activated areas related with sensorimotor processing (superior and inferior parietal lobules, anterior insula) while facial expression distinctly involved the inferior frontal gyrus. Self- compared to other-perspective produced distinct activations in the left insula while stimulus- versus other-perspective produced distinctive responses in the inferior frontal and parietal lobules, precentral gyrus, and cerebellum. Pain empathy relies on a core network which is modulated by several secondary networks. The involvement of the latter seems to depend on the visual cues available and the observer’s mental state that can be influenced by specific instructions.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Neural processing of sensory and emotional-communicative information associated with the perception of vicarious pain
    (Elsevier, 2012-06-23) Jackson, Philip L.; Rainville, Pierre; Martel, Marc-Olivier; Roy, Mathieu; Albouy, Geneviève; Vachon-Presseau, Etienne; Chen, Jen-I; Budell, Lesley; Sullivan, Michael J. L.
    The specific neural processes underlying vicarious pain perception are not fully understood. In this functional imaging study, 20 participants viewed pain-evoking or neutral images displaying either sensory or emotionalcommunicative information. The pain images displayed nociceptive agents applied to the hand or the foot (sensory information) or facial expressions of pain (emotional-communicative information) and were matched with their neutral counterparts. Combining pain-evoking and neutral images showed that body limbs elicited greater activity in sensory motor regions, whereas midline frontal and parietal cortices and the amygdala responded more strongly to faces. The pain-evoking images elicited greater activity than their neutral counterparts in the bilateral inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), the left inferior parietal lobule (IPL) and the bilateral extrastriate body area. However, greater pain-related activity was observed in the rostral IPL when images depicted a hand or foot compared to a facial expression of pain, suggesting a more specific involvement in the coding of somatomotor information. Posterior probability maps enabling Bayesian inferences further showed that the anterior IFG (BA 45 and 47) was the only region showing no intrinsic probability of activation by the neutral images, consistent with a role in the extraction of the meaning of pain-related visual cues. Finally, inter-individual empathy traits correlated with responses in the supracallosal mid/anterior cingulate cortex and the anterior insula when pain-evoking images of body limbs or facial expressions were presented, suggesting that these regions regulated the observer's affective-motivational response independent from the channels from which vicarious pain is perceived.