Personne :
Grondin, Simon

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Grondin
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Simon
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Université Laval. École de psychologie
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Voici les éléments 1 - 10 sur 22
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Validation française de l’Échelle de la personnalité temporelle

2015-10-02, Grondin, Simon, Bisson, Nicolas, Francis-Smythe, Jan

Certains auteurs ont développé un intérêt pour la compréhension des aptitudes associées à la gestion du temps. Ainsi, plusieurs définitions théoriques ont été proposées afin de mieux cerner ce concept et une multitude de questionnaires a été développée afin de le mesurer. La présente étude visait à valider la traduction française d’un de ces outils, soit le Time Personality Indicator (TPI). Des analyses exploratoires et confirmatoires ont été effectuées sur l’ensemble des données recueillies auprès de 1 267 étudiants et employés de l’Université Laval ayant complété la version française du TPI ainsi que d’autres mesures de la personnalité. Les résultats ont révélé qu’une solution à huit facteurs permet de mieux décrire les données de l’échantillon. La discussion présente les raisons pour lesquelles la version française du TPI est valide, identifie certaines limites de la présente étude et souligne l’utilité de cet outil pour la recherche sur la gestion du temps.

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Sex effect in the temporal perception of faces expressing anger and shame

2015-09-01, Grondin, Simon, Labonté, Katherine, Bienvenue, Philippe, Laflamme, Vincent, Roy, Mei-Li

The aim of the present study was to investigate sex-related variations in the perception of the duration of emotional stimuli (human faces). Twenty male and 20 female participants estimated the duration of angry, ashamed and neutral faces marking 0.4 to 1.6 s intervals. Female faces were used in one session, and male faces in the other. Compared to the angry faces condition, intervals were underestimated when ashamed faces were shown. However, the intervals in neither conditions were significantly overestimated or underestimated compared to the neutral condition. Even more critical is the fact that there was an underestimation by male participants of the duration of male faces compared to female faces; and female participants overestimated the duration in the anger condition, compared with the shame condition, only when male faces were presented. Moreover, the emotional effects on the participants’ performance were correlated to inter-individual differences in empathic abilities. The findings are discussed in terms of sex differences, of social context, and of how attention is solicited and arousal generated by emotions.

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Prior task experience affects temporal prediction and estimation

2015-07-06, Tobin, Simon, Grondin, Simon

It has been shown that prior experience with a task improves temporal prediction, even when the amount of prior experience with the task is often limited. The present study targeted the role of extensive training on temporal prediction. Expert and intermediate runners had to predict the time of a 5 km running competition. Furthermore, after the race's completion, participants had to estimate their running time so that it could be compared with the predicted time. Results show that expert runners were more accurate than intermediate runners for both predicting and estimating their running time. Furthermore, only expert runners had an estimation that was more accurate than their initial prediction. The results confirm the role of prior task experience in both temporal prediction and estimation. -- KEYWORDS : estimation; expert performance; prediction; running; task experience; timing and time perception

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Different methods for reproducing time, different results

2014-01-28, Grondin, Simon, Stablum, Franca, Mioni, Giovanna, McClintock, Shawn M.

One of the most widely used tasks for investigating psychological time, time reproduction, requires from participants the reproduction of the duration of a previously presented stimulus. Although prior studies have investigated the effects of different cognitive processes on time reproduction performance, no studies have looked into the effects of different reproduction methods on these performances. In the present study, participants were randomly assigned to one of three reproduction methods, which included (a) just pressing at the end of the interval, (b) pressing to start and stop the interval, and (c) maintaining continuous pressing during the interval. The study revealed that the three reproduction methods were not equivalent, with the method involving keypresses to start and stop the reproduction showing the highest accuracy, and the method of continuous press generating less variability.

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Stevens’s law for time : a direct comparison of prospective and retrospective judgments.

2015-04-23, Grondin, Simon, Laflamme, Vincent

Participants are aware that they have to perform a temporal task in a prospective timing condition but not in a retrospective timing condition. In the present study, a direct comparison of temporal estimates under each paradigm is proposed via a strategy where each participant is restricted to only 1 response. Participants were assigned to either a prospective or retrospective testing condition and asked to reproduce and then estimate verbally 1 of 6 intervals lasting .5 to 16 s. The analyses based on Stevens’s power law were restricted to intervals lasting 2 to 16 s. With a verbal estimate method, the results indicate that the exponent is higher in retrospective than in prospective conditions (1.20 vs. 1.10 for females and 1.31 vs. 1.02 for males, respectively). For the interval reproduction task, the exponent based on Eisler’s (1975) model was slightly higher for males (1.13) than for females (1.08) in prospective timing, but slightly higher for females (1.10) than for males (1.04) in retrospective timing. The results based on inferential statistics and the 6 intervals reveal that, with the verbal estimate method, females make significantly larger relative verbal estimates than males and, at 16 s, intervals were judged as longer in the retrospective than in the prospective condition; with the reproduction method, the perceived duration is about the same in each paradigm and there is no significant sex effect. Overall, the data do not confirm that temporal intervals are perceived as longer in the prospective than in the retrospective conditions.

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Foreperiod and range effects on time interval categorization

2015-05-29, Grondin, Simon, Zakay, Dan, Gamache, Pierre., Laflamme, Vincent

One factor influencing the perceived duration of a brief interval is the length of the period preceding it, namely the foreperiod (FP). When multiple FPs are varied randomly within a testing session, longer FPs result in longer perceived duration. The purpose of this study was to identify what characteristics modulate this effect. In a task where participants were asked to categorize the duration of target intervals with respect to a 100-ms standard, the FPs were distributed over a 150-, 300-, or 900-ms range with the midpoint (1000 ms) of these distributions being kept constant. The results indicate that the effect of the length of variable FPs on perceived duration was much stronger in the 900-ms range condition. More specifically, this effect is due to the differences between the shortest FPs. The results also reveal that, overall, there are more short responses in the 300-ms condition than in the other range conditions. Moreover, the data reveal that the narrower the distribution, the better the discrimination. One interpretation of the main result (range effect) is that a wider distribution leads to an increased prior uncertainty towards the foreperiod length.

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Trimestre de naissance et participation au hockey et au volleyball

1984-08-01, Grondin, Simon, Deshaies, Paul, Nault, Louis-Philippe

La maturation de l'enfant et de l'adolescent aux plans biologique, moteur, intellectuel, psychologique et social est un processus continu. Le passage de quelques mois peut être suivi de changements importants à différents niveaux. De ce fait, le présent système des catégories d'âge selon une date fixe d'entrée en vigueur pour chaque catégorie dans le sport amateur au Québec peut entraîner une discrimination entre les jeunes participants. La présente étude avant pour but d'examiner s'il y a, en hockey et en volleyball au Québec, une surreprésentation des joueurs nés au premier trimestre et une sousreprésentation des joueurs du quatrième trimestre dans diverses catégories comparativement à la répartition des naissances dans la population . Menée auprès de 3,826 joueurs de hockey et de 1,391 joueurs de volleyball, l'étude a révélé qu'en hockey, la répartition du nombre de joueurs par trimestre est différente de la répartition des naissances dans la population. On ne retrouve généralement pas ces écarts au volleyball. Cependant, il existe des façons d'équilibrer les chances de participer des jeunes sportifs, et ce, même en se servant d'un système de catégories basé sur l'âge chronologique: le présent article suggère des solutions dans ce sens.

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The long and short of mental time travel—self-projection over time-scales large and small.

2015-05-20, Broadway, James M., Grondin, Simon, Zedelius, Claire M., Schooler, Jonathan W.

This Research Topic is about time-experience broadly construed, as it manifests at perceptual and conceptual time-scales (milliseconds-to-seconds vs. longer times, respectively). Authors representing a broad spectrum of psychology and neuroscience have contributed, introducing novel theories, empirical findings, and methodological innovations. In this Editorial we give a thematic overview of the exciting and diverse contents of this Research Topic. (Abbreviations: O, Opinion; H&T, Hypothesis and Theory; OR, Original Research; P, Perspective; MR, Mini-Review; GC, General Commentary; M, Methods). -- Keywords : time perception, consciousness, mental time travel, oscillatory activity, memory, attention, rhythm perception, internal clock

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Faster is briefer : the symbolic meaning of speed influences time perception

2015-03-05, Grondin, Simon, Zakay, Dan, Mioni, Giovanna

The present study investigates how the symbolic meaning of the stimuli presented for marking time intervals affects perceived duration. Participants were engaged in a time bisection task in which they were first trained with two standard durations, 400 ms and 1600 ms, and then asked to judge if the following temporal intervals were closer to the short or to the long standard. Stimuli were images of vehicles representing speed, with a motorbike representing fastness and a bicycle representing slowness. Results showed that presenting images with different speed meanings affects time perception: an image representing a fast object, the motorbike, leads to shorter perceived time than presenting an image representing a slower object, the bicycle. This finding is attributed to an impact on the memory mechanism involved in the processing of temporal information. Keywords : Symbolic meaning of speed. Time perception. Bisection task.

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Effect on perceived duration and sensitivity to time when observing disgusted faces and disgusting mutilation pictures

2014-05-09, Grondin, Simon, Gontier, Émilie, Laflamme, Vincent

The aim of this study was to compare the effect on interval discrimination of the presentation of disgusting mutilation images and the presentation of faces expressing disgust. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants had to say whether the second of two images was presented for a shorter or a longer duration than the first (intervals = 400 ms vs. 482 ms). Although the overall probability of responding “long” was not exactly the same in these two experiments, participants reported that duration was longer more often when disgusting mutilation images were presented than when neutral or disgusted faces were presented. In Experiment 3, in which a single-stimulus method was employed, mutilation images were once again reported to be presented for a longer duration than neutral or disgusted faces. The investigation also reveals that discrimination levels are not higher when mutilation images are presented. It is argued that the effect of mutilation images on perceived duration is not due to attention; it is rather attributed to the increased arousal caused by these images. -- Keywords : Temporal processing, Emotion, Time perception.