Personne : Beaulieu, Jean Martin
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Université Laval. Département de psychiatrie et de neurosciences
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- PublicationAccès libreStriatal neurons expressing D1 and D2 receptors are morphologically distinct and differently affected by dopamine denervation in mice(Nature Publishing Group, 2017-01-27) Gagnon, Dave; De Koninck, Yves; Beaulieu, Jean Martin; Sánchez, Maria Gabriela; Parent, Martin; Petryszyn, Sarah; Parent, André; Bories, CyrilThe loss of nigrostriatal dopamine neurons in Parkinson’s disease induces a reduction in the number of dendritic spines on medium spiny neurons (MSNs) of the striatum expressing D1 or D2 dopamine receptor. Consequences on MSNs expressing both receptors (D1/D2 MSNs) are currently unknown. We looked for changes induced by dopamine denervation in the density, regional distribution and morphological features of D1/D2 MSNs, by comparing 6-OHDA-lesioned double BAC transgenic mice (Drd1a-tdTomato/Drd2-EGFP) to sham-lesioned animals. D1/D2 MSNs are uniformly distributed throughout the dorsal striatum (1.9% of MSNs). In contrast, they are heterogeneously distributed and more numerous in the ventral striatum (14.6% in the shell and 7.3% in the core). Compared to D1 and D2 MSNs, D1/D2 MSNs are endowed with a smaller cell body and a less profusely arborized dendritic tree with less dendritic spines. The dendritic spine density of D1/D2 MSNs, but also of D1 and D2 MSNs, is significantly reduced in 6-OHDA-lesioned mice. In contrast to D1 and D2 MSNs, the extent of dendritic arborization of D1/D2 MSNs appears unaltered in 6-OHDA-lesioned mice. Our data indicate that D1/D2 MSNs in the mouse striatum form a distinct neuronal population that is affected differently by dopamine deafferentation that characterizes Parkinson’s disease.
- PublicationAccès libreThe interaction of GSK3B and FXR1 genotypes may influence the mania and depression dimensions in mood disorders(Elsevier, 2017-02-16) Beaulieu, Jean Martin; Chagnon, Yvon C.; Paccalet, Thomas; Bureau, Alexandre; Maziade, MichelBackground: Previous evidence in healthy subjects suggested that functional polymorphisms GSK3B rs12630592 and FXR1 rs496250 interact in regulating mood and emotional processing. We attempted to replicate this interaction primarily on manic and depressive dimensions in mood disorder patients, and secondarily on schizophrenia patients, diagnosis itself and age of onset. Methods : Symptom dimensions were derived from the Comprehensive Assessment of Symptoms and History 82 items rated lifetime in acute episodes and stabilized interepisode intervals in 384 patients from the Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder Eastern Quebec Kindred Study. Linear mixed effect models of symptom dimensions included rs12630592-rs496250 main and interaction fixed effects (obtained from TaqMan genotypes), and a polygenic random effect. The distribution of lifetime best-estimate DSM-IV diagnosis of 855 kindred members was studied versus genotype under a polytomous logistic model. Results : In mood disorder patients, the level of mania (in both acute and stabilized periods) and depression in stabilized periods was positively associated with GSK3B rs12630592 T only in FXR1 rs496250 A-allele carriers (Bonferroni-corrected interaction p=0.024, 0.052 and 0.017 respectively). The two polymorphisms explained 11% of mania variance and 5% of interepisode depression variance. The association was observed neither in schizophrenia patients nor with the psychotic dimension in mood disorder patients. Interaction with the diagnosis distribution (p=0.03) was driven by the decreasing prevalence of recurrent major depression with rs12630592 T also only in carriers of rs496250 A. Limitations : Sample size was limited, but power was sufficient to detect the tested interaction effect in this replication sample. Conclusions : We replicate in affective patients an interaction between the FXR1 rs496250 and GSK3B rs12630592 polymorphisms in regulating mood dimensions.
- PublicationRestreintDistribution and morphological characteristics of striatal interneurons expressing calretinin in mice : a comparison with human and nonhuman primates(2014-06-21) Beaulieu, Jean Martin; Parent, Martin; Petryszyn, Sarah; Parent, AndréStriatal interneurons display a morphological and chemical heterogeneity that has been particularly well characterized in rats, monkeys and humans. By comparison much less is known of striatal interneurons in mice, although these animals are now widely used as transgenic models of various neurodegenerative diseases. The present immunohistochemical study aimed at characterizing striatal interneurons expressing calretinin (CR) in mice compared to those in squirrel monkeys and humans. The mouse striatum contains both small (9-12 μm) and medium-sized (15-20 μm) CR+ cells. The small cells are intensely stained with a single, slightly varicose and moderately arborized process. They occur throughout the striatum (77±9 cells/mm(3)), but prevail in the area of the subventricular zone and subcallosal streak, with statistically significant anteroposterior and dorsoventral decreasing gradients. The medium-sized cells are less intensely immunoreactive and possess 2-3 long, slightly varicose and poorly branched dendrites. They are rather uniformly scattered throughout the striatum and three times more numerous (224±31 cells/mm(3)) than the smaller CR+ cells. Double immunostaining experiments with choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) as a cholinergic marker in normal and Drd1a-tdTomato/Drd2-EGFP double transgenic mice reveal that none of the small or medium-sized CR+ cells express ChAT or D1 and D2 dopamine receptors. In contrast, the striatum in human and nonhuman primates harbors small and medium-sized CR+/ChAT- cells, as well as large CR+/ChAT+ interneurons that are absent in mice. Such a difference between rodents and primates must be taken into consideration if one hopes to better understand the striatal function in normal and pathological conditions.
- PublicationRestreintA dense cluster of D1+ cells in the mouse nucleus accumbens(2017-01-01) Gagnon, Dave; Beaulieu, Jean Martin; Sánchez, Maria Gabriela; Parent, Martin; Petryszyn, Sarah; Parent, AndréThe striatum is known to be largely composed of intermingled medium-sized projection neurons expressing either the D1 or the D2 dopamine receptors. In the present study, we took advantage of the double BAC Drd1a-TdTomato/Drd2-GFP (D1 /D2 ) transgenic mice to reveal the presence of a peculiar cluster of densely-packed D1 + cells located in the shell compartment of the nucleus accumbens. This spherical cluster has a diameter of 110 µm and is exclusively composed by D1 + cells, which are all immunoreactive for the neuronal nuclear marker (NeuN). However, in contrast to other D1 + or D2 + striatal cells, those that form the accumbens cluster are devoid of calbindin (CB) and DARPP-32, two faithful markers for striatal projection neurons. Using GAD-GFP transgenic mice, we confirm the GABAergic nature of the D1 + clustered neurons. Intracellular injections from fixed brain slices indicate that these neurons are endowed with distinctive morphological features, including a small (5-6 µm), round cell body giving rise to a single primary dendrite that branches into two secondary processes. Single-neuronal injections combined to electron microscopy reveal the existence of GAP junctions linking these D1 + cells. Based on their location, morphological characteristics and neurochemical phenotype, we conclude that the D1 + accumbens cluster form a highly compact group of small neurons distinct from the larger and more diffusely distributed D1 + or D2 + striatal projection neurons that surround it. This remarkable nucleus might play a crucial role in the limbic function of the murine striatum.