Personne : Maldague, X.
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Université Laval. Département de génie électrique et de génie informatique
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- PublicationAccès libreComparative study of microlaser excitation thermography and microultrasonic excitation thermography for submillimeter porosity in carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites(Society of Photo-optical Instrumentation Engineers, 2016-09-30) Zhang, Hai; Maldague, X.; Hassler, Ulf; Ibarra Castanedo, Clemente; Robitaille, François; Genest, Marc; Fernandes, Henrique; Joncas, SimonStitching is used to reduce incomplete infusion of T-joint core (dry-core) and reinforce T-joint structure. However, it may cause new types of flaws, especially submillimeter flaws. Thermographic approaches including microvibrothermography, microlaser line thermography, and microlaser spot thermography on the basis of pulsed and lock-in techniques were proposed. These techniques are used to detect the submillimeter porosities in a stitched T-joint carbon fiber reinforced polymer composite specimen. X-ray microcomputed tomography was used to validate the thermographic results. Finally an experimental comparison of microlaser excitation thermography and microultrasonic excitation thermography was conducted
- PublicationAccès librePulsed micro-laser line thermography on submillimeter porosity in carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites : experimental and numerical analyses for the capability of detection(Optical Society of America, 2016-08-08) Fleuret, Julien; Zhang, Hai; Maldague, X.; Hassler, Ulf; Ibarra Castanedo, Clemente; Robitaille, François; Djupkep Dizeu, Frank Billy; Genest, Marc; Fernandes, Henrique; Joncas, SimonIn this article, pulsed micro-laser line thermography (pulsed micro-LLT) was used to detect the submillimeter porosities in a 3D preformed carbon fiber reinforced polymer composite specimen. X-ray microcomputed tomography was used to verify the thermographic results. Then, finite element analysis was performed on the corresponding models on the basis of the experimental results. The same infrared image processing techniques were used for the experimental and simulation results for comparative purposes. Finally, a comparison of experimental and simulation postprocessing results was conducted. In addition, an analysis of probability of detection was performed to evaluate the detection capability of pulsed micro-LLT on submillimeter porosity.
- PublicationAccès libreAn experimental and analytical study of micro-laser line thermography on micro-sized flaws in stitched carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites(Elsevier, 2016-04-01) Sheng, Yunlong; Yu, Ling Yao; Hassler, Ulf; Zhang, Hai; Maldague, X.; Robitaille, François; Genest, Marc; Joncas, Simon; Fernandes, Henrique; Holub, WolfgangStitching is used to reduce incomplete infusion of T-joint core (dry-core) and reinforce T-joint structure. However, it might cause new types of flaws, especially micro-sized flaws. In this paper, a new micro-laser line thermography (micro-LLT) is presented. X-ray micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) was used to validate the infrared results. The micro-LLT and micro-CT inspection are compared. Then, a finite element analysis (FEA) is performed. The geometrical model needed for finite element discretization was developed from micro-CT measurements. The model is validated for the experimental results. Finally a comparison of the experiments and simulation is conducted. The infrared experimental phenomenon and results are explained based on the FEA results
- PublicationAccès libreComparative study on submillimeter flaws in stitched T-joint carbon fiber reinforced polymer by infrared thermography, microcomputed tomography, ultrasonic c-scan and microscopic inspection(Society of Photo-optical Instrumentation Engineers., 2015-10-15) Zhang, Hai; Hassler, Ulf; Maldague, X.; Ibarra Castanedo, Clemente; Robitaille, François; Genest, Marc; Fernandes, Henrique; Joncas, SimonStitching is used to reduce dry-core (incomplete infusion of T-joint core) and reinforce T-joint structure. However, it may cause new types of flaws, especially submillimeter flaws. Microscopic inspection, ultrasonic c-scan, pulsed thermography, vibrothermography, and laser spot thermography are used to investigate the internal flaws in a stitched T-joint carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) matrix composites. Then, a new microlaser line thermography is proposed. Microcomputed tomography (microCT) is used to validate the infrared results. A comparison between microlaser line thermography and microCT is performed. It was concluded that microlaser line thermography can detect the internal submillimeter defects. However, the depth and size of the defects can affect the detection results. The microporosities with a diameter of less than 54 μm are not detected in the microlaser line thermography results. Microlaser line thermography can detect the microporosity (a diameter of 0.162 mm) from a depth of 90 μm. However, it cannot detect the internal microporosity (a diameter of 0.216 mm) from a depth of 0.18 mm. The potential causes are given. Finally, a comparative study is conducted.
- PublicationAccès libreAutomated assessment and tracking of human body thermal variations using unsupervised clustering(The Optical Society of America, 2016-11-17) Fleuret, Julien; Zhang, Hai; Maldague, X.; Yousefi, Bardia; Watt, Raymond; Klein, MatthieuThe presented approach addresses a review of the overheating that occurs during radiological examinations, such as magnetic resonance imaging, and a series of thermal experiments to determine a thermally suitable fabric material that should be used for radiological gowns. Moreover, an automatic system for detecting and tracking of the thermal fluctuation is presented. It applies hue-saturated-value-based kernelled k-means clustering, which initializes and controls the points that lie on the region-of-interest (ROI) boundary. Afterward, a particle filter tracks the targeted ROI during the video sequence independently of previous locations of overheating spots. The proposed approach was tested during experiments and under conditions very similar to those used during real radiology exams. Six subjects have voluntarily participated in these experiments. To simulate the hot spots occurring during radiology, a controllable heat source was utilized near the subject’s body. The results indicate promising accuracy for the proposed approach to track hot spots. Some approximations were used regarding the transmittance of the atmosphere, and emissivity of the fabric could be neglected because of the independence of the proposed approach for these parameters. The approach can track the heating spots continuously and correctly, even for moving subjects, and provides considerable robustness against motion artifact, which occurs during most medical radiology procedures.
- PublicationAccès libreUnsupervised automatic tracking of thermal changes in human body(Optical Society of America, 2015-09-30) Jo, Marcelo Sung Ma; Labrie-Larrivée, Félix; Fleuret, Julien; Maldague, X.; Fréchet, Simon; Ghaffari, Seyed Alireza; Yousefi, Bardia; Watt, RaymondAn automated system for detecting and tracking of the thermal fluctuation in human body is addressed. It applies HSV based k-means clustering which initialized and controlled the points which lie on the ROI boundary. Afterward a particle filter tracked the targeted ROI in the thermal video stream. There were six subjects have voluntarily participated on these experiments. For simulating the hot spots occur during the some medical tests a controllable heater utilized close to the subjects body. The results indicated promising accuracy of the proposed approach for tracking the hot spots. However, there were some approximations (e.g. the transmittance of the atmosphere and emissivity of the fabric) which can be neglected because of independency of the proposed approach for these parameters. The approach can track the heating spots efficiently considering the movement in the subjects which provided a confidence of considerable robustness against motion-artifact usually occurs in the medical tests.
- PublicationAccès libreHolographic interferometry (HI), infrared Vision and X-Ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy for the assessment of painted wooden statues : a new integrated approach(Springer, 2013-09-03) Maldague, X.; Ibarra Castanedo, Clemente; Ridolfi, Stefano; Sfarra, Stefano; Cerichelli, Giorgio; Ambrosini, Dario; Paoletti, DomenicaWood has been routinely employed in decorative arts, as well as in sculptures and paintings (support) during the Middle Ages, because of its unique aesthetic virtues. It may safely be assumed that wood, as a material for monumental sculpture, was much more commonly employed in the mediaeval period than existing examples would seem to indicate (Bulletin of the metropolitan Museum of Art, 2013). Wood is easily obtainable; it could be carved and put in place with less difficulty than stone, it is chemically stable when dry, and its surface offers a compatible substrate for paint application. However, the use of wood is not without pitfalls, and requires an understanding of its anisotropic and hygroscopic nature. It is also dimensionally unstable and subject to deterioration by fungi and insects. Moisture-related dimensional changes are certainly among the most challenging problems in painting conservation. With the purpose of preventing important damages, the use of non-or microdestructive testing (NDT) techniques is undoubtedly of paramount interest for painted wooden statues of great value. This work has a threefold purpose: (1) to validate the effectiveness of an integrated approach using near-infrared (NIR) reflectography, square pulse thermography (SPT), and holographic interferometry (HI) techniques for discovering old repairs and/or inclusions of foreign materials in a wooden structure, (2) to confirm and approximately date the restoration carried out by x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) (that is assembled with a scanning electron microscopy—SEM) techniques, and (3) to combine into a multidisciplinary approach two quantitative NDT results coming from optical and thermographic methods. The subject of the present study was a statue named “Virgin with her Child” (XIV century), whose origins are mysterious and not properly documented.
- PublicationAccès libreHow to reveal subsurface defects in Kevlar® composite materials after an impact loading using infrared vision and optical NDT techniques?(Elsevier, 2013-03-07) Talmy, Étienne; Maldague, X.; Ibarra Castanedo, Clemente; Paoletti, Domenica; Bendada, Abdelhakim; Genest, Marc; Rott, Sébastien; Sfarra, StefanoAn integrated system between infrared vision and optical non-destructive testing techniques can be considered a viable, robust and reliable approach for both aerospace manufacturing and in-service inspections. In this paper, infrared vision is applied in different spectral bands on two impacted panels made of aramid–phenolic composite by applying two different methods, respectively: (1) near and short-wave infrared reflectography and transmittography, and (2) mid-wave active infrared thermography. Furthermore, optical methods, namely digital speckle photography and holographic interferometry, are used as well to highlight the damages due to the impacts on the samples. Some techniques provide more straightforward detection capabilities than others for different defect types.
- PublicationAccès libreSurface and subsurface defects detection in impacted composite materials made by natural fibers, using nondestructive testing methods(Scientific & Academic Publishing, 2014-01-01) Avdelidis, Nicolas P.; Maldague, X.; Ibarra Castanedo, Clemente; Santulli, Carlo; Bendada, Abdelhakim; Theodorakeas, Panagiotis; Sfarra, Stefano; Paoletti, Domenica; Koui, MariaIn the present study, infrared vision and optical nondestructive testing (NDT) techniques were applied for the evaluation of emerging defects after artificially impacting composite materials reinforced with natural fibers. The samples were manufactured using wool felts and jute fibers inserted in an epoxy matrix. Infrared vision was applied by means of pulsed thermography (PT) and square pulsed thermography (SPT), evaluating two different thermal stimulation procedures; while the algorithms referred to as principal component thermography (PCT) and pulsed phase thermography (PPT) were used in order to enhance the information retrieval from the respective thermographic inspections. For comparison purposes, near-infrared reflectography (NIRR) and transmittography (NIRT), as well as laser speckle imaging techniques were also included. Additionally, ultraviolet (UV) imaging technique was used on the laminates both as complementary approach and as reference for future inspections. Two particular zones highlighted by the latter technique were characterized using an XRF spectrophotometer revealing a reverse concentration of the Al, Si and Cl elements. The results produced from the above comparative study confirmed the synergy of the applied techniques and further indicated that the methodology followed in the present research work can be considered as an innovative approach for the characterization of eco-friendly laminates after an impact loading.
- PublicationAccès libreEvaluation of defects in panel paintings using infrared, optical and ultrasonic techniques(British Institute of Non-Destructive Testing, 2012-01-01) Avdelidis, Nicolas P.; Theodorakeas, Panagiotis; Maldague, X.; Ibarra Castanedo, Clemente; Bendada, Abdelhakim; Paoletti, Alfonso; Sfarra, Stefano; Paoletti, Domenica; Hrissagis, Kostas; Koui, MariaThe increasing deterioration of panel paintings can be due to physical processes that take place during exhibition or transit, or as a result of temperature and humidity fluctuations within a building, church or museum. In response to environmental alterations, a panel painting can expand or contract and a new equilibrium state is eventually reached. These adjustments though, are usually accompanied by a change in shape in order to accommodate to the new conditions. In this work, a holographic method for detecting detached regions and micro-cracks is described. Some of these defects are confirmed by Thermographic Signal Reconstruction (TSR) technique. In addition, Pulsed Phase Thermography (PPT) and Principal Component Thermography (PCT) allow to identify with greater contrast two artificial defects in Mylar which are crucial to understand the topic of interest: the discrimination between defect materials. Finally, traditional contact ultrasounds applications, are widely applied for the evaluation of the wood quality in several characterization procedures. Inspecting the specimen from the front side, the natural and artificial defects of the specimen are confirmed. Experimental results derived by the application of the integrated methods on an Italian panel painting reproduction, called The Angel specimen, are presented. The main advantages that these techniques can offer to the conservation and restoration of artworks are emphasized.