Personne :
Savard, Josée

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Savard
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Josée
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Université Laval. École de psychologie
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ncf10590175
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Voici les éléments 1 - 10 sur 37
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    La dépression chez les personnes vivant avec le VIH/sida
    (1996) Savard, Josée; Gauthier, Janel G.
    Dans un premier temps, la thèse visait à développer et à valider empiriquement une version canadienne-française du "Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale", l'Échelle hospitalière d'anxiété et de dépression (ÉHAD), auprès de personnes vivant avec le VIH/sida. Les résultats démontrent que l'ÉHAD possède d'excellentes propriétés psychométriques. Le deuxième objectif de la thèse consistait à vérifier la capacité de la sous-échelle de dépression de l'ÉHAD (ÉHAD-D) à dépister les troubles dépressifs chez les personnes séropositives au VIH. Les résultats des analyses ROC ("Receiver Operating Characteristic") suggèrent que l'ÉHAD-D est un excellent outil de dépistage des troubles dépressifs chez cette population. Un dernier objectif de la thèse consistait à vérifier l'efficacité d'un traitement combinant le fluoxétine à la thérapie cognitive pour le traitement de personnes séropositives au VIH souffrant de dépression majeure. Les résultats des analyses de séries chronologiques suggèrent que le traitement combiné serait plus efficace que le fluoxétine administré seul.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    The role of thermal self-regulation in the biofeedback treatment of migraine headache : a controlled study
    (1990) Savard, Josée; Gauthier, Janel G.
    Le but de l'étude était d'évaluer le rôle de Pautorégulatlon de la température dans le traitement de la migraine par la rétroaction biologique thermique en la comparant à une procédure tout aussi crédible mais qui ne provoquerait aucun effet significatif sur la température des mains. Vingt-quatre femmes migraineuses ont été assignées à l'une ou l'autre des deux conditions suivantes: la rétroaction biologique thermique ou le TENS (ou stimulation électrique transcutanée). Cette dernière était appliquée de façon à maximiser les attentes thérapeutiques et à minimiser les effets sur la température des mains. La manipulation expérimentale s'est avérée un succès. Cependant, aucune des différences observées entre les groupes au niveau des effets thérapeutiques n'était significative. Il en est de même des corrélations qui furent effectuées entre les changements de température au niveau de la main et l'amélioration thérapeutique. Ainsi, l'hypothèse selon laquelle l'efficacité de la rétroaction biologique serait médiée par l'autorégulation de la température n'est pas supportée dans cette étude.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Monthly fluctuations of insomnia symptoms in a population-based sample
    (Associated Professional Sleep Societies, 2014-02-01) Mérette, Chantal; Morin, Charles M.; Bélanger, Lynda; Savard, Josée; Jarrin, Denise C.; LeBlanc, Mélanie; Ivers, Hans
    Study Objectives: To document the monthly changes in sleep/insomnia status over a 12-month period; to determine the optimal time intervals to reliably capture new incident cases and recurrent episodes of insomnia and the likelihood of its persistence over time. Design: Participants were 100 adults (mean age = 49.9 years; 66% women) randomly selected from a larger population-based sample enrolled in a longitudinal study of the natural history of insomnia. They completed 12 monthly telephone interviews assessing insomnia, use of sleep aids, stressful life events, and physical and mental health problems in the previous month. A total of 1,125 interviews of a potential 1,200 were completed. Based on data collected at each assessment, participants were classified into one of three subgroups: good sleepers, insomnia symptoms, and insomnia syndrome. Results: At baseline, 42 participants were classified as good sleepers, 34 met criteria for insomnia symptoms, and 24 for an insomnia syndrome. There were significant fluctuations of insomnia over time, with 66% of the participants changing sleep status at least once over the 12 monthly assessments (51.5% for good sleepers, 59.5% for insomnia syndrome, and 93.4% for insomnia symptoms). Changes of status were more frequent among individuals with insomnia symptoms at baseline (mean = 3.46, SD = 2.36) than among those initially classified as good sleepers (mean = 2.12, SD = 2.70). Among the subgroup with insomnia symptoms at baseline, 88.3% reported improved sleep (i.e., became good sleepers) at least once over the 12 monthly assessments compared to 27.7% whose sleep worsened (i.e., met criteria for an insomnia syndrome) during the same period. Among individuals classified as good sleepers at baseline, risks of developing insomnia symptoms and syndrome over the subsequent months were, respectively, 48.6% and 14.5%. Monthly assessment over an interval of 6 months was found most reliable to estimate incidence rates, while an interval of 3 months proved the most reliable for defining chronic insomnia. Conclusions: Monthly assessment of insomnia and sleep patterns revealed significant variability over the course of a 12-month period. These findings highlight the importance for future epidemiological studies of conducting repeated assessment at shorter than the typical yearly interval in order to reliably capture the natural course of insomnia over time.
  • Publication
    Restreint
    Effects and moderators of exercise on sleep in adults with cancer : individual patient data and aggregated meta-analyses
    (Elsevier, 2019-06-23) Savard, Josée; Bernard, Paquito; Steindorf, Karen; Boucher, François; Sweegers, Maike G.; Courneya, Kerry S.; Newton, Rob (Robert U.); Aaronson, Neil K.; Jacobsen, Paul B.; May, Anne M.; Galvao, Daniel A.; Stuiver, Martijn M.; Griffith, K. A.; Mesters, Iise; Knoop, Hans; Goedendorp, Martine; Bohus, Martin; Thorsen, Lene; Schmidt, Martina E.; Ulrich, Cornelia; Sonke, Gabe S.; Van Harten, Wim; Winters-Stone, Kerri; Velthuis, Miranda; Taaffe, Dennis; Van Mechelen, Willem; Kersten, Marie José; Nollet, Frans; Wenzel, Jennifer A.; Wiskemann, Joachim; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma; Brug, Johannes; Buffart, Laurien M.
    Objectives : To evaluate the effects of exercise interventions on sleep disturbances and sleep quality in patients with mixed cancer diagnoses, and identify demographic, clinical, and intervention-related moderators of these effects. Methods : Individual patient data (IPD) and aggregated meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Using data from the Predicting OptimaL cAncer RehabIlitation and Supportive care project, IPD of 2173 adults (mean age = 54.8) with cancer from 17 RCTs were analyzed. A complementary systematic search was conducted (until November 2018) to study the overall effects and test the representativeness of analyzed IPD. Effect sizes of exercise effects on self-reported sleep outcomes were calculated for all included RCTs. Linear mixed-effect models were used to evaluate the effects of exercise on post-intervention outcome values, adjusting for baseline values. Moderator effects were studied by testing interactions for demographic, clinical and intervention-related characteristics. Results : For all 27 eligible RCTs from the updated search, exercise interventions significantly decreased sleep disturbances in adults with cancer (g = −0.09, 95% CI [−0.16; −0.02]). No significant effect was obtained for sleep quality. RCTs included in IPD analyses constituted a representative sample of the published literature. The intervention effects on sleep disturbances were not significantly moderated by any demographic, clinical, or intervention-related factor, nor by sleep disturbances. Conclusions : This meta-analysis provides some evidence that, compared to control conditions, exercise interventions may improve sleep disturbances, but not sleep quality, in cancer patients, although this effect is of a small magnitude. Among the investigated variables, none was found to significantly moderate the effect of exercise interventions on sleep disturbances.
  • Publication
    Restreint
    Disruptions in sleep-wake cycles in community-dwelling cancer patients receiving palliative care and their correlates
    (Taylor & Francis, 2017-11-16) Bernatchez, Marie Solange; Savard, Josée; Ivers, Hans
    Significant disruptions in sleep–wake cycles have been found in advanced cancer patients in prior research. However, much remains to be known about specific sleep–wake cycle variables that are impaired in patients with a significantly altered performance status. More studies are also needed to explore the extent to which disrupted sleep–wake cycles are related to physical and psychological symptoms, time to death, maladaptive sleep behaviors, quality of life and 24-h light exposure. This study conducted in palliative cancer patients was aimed at characterizing patients’ sleep–wake cycles using various circadian parameters (i.e. amplitude, acrophase, mesor, up-mesor, down-mesor, rhythmicity coefficient). It also aimed to compare rest–activity rhythm variables of participants with a performance status of 2 vs. 3 on the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group scale (ECOG) and to evaluate the relationships of sleep–wake cycle parameters with several possible correlates. The sample was composed of 55 community-dwelling cancer patients receiving palliative care with an ECOG of 2 or 3. Circadian parameters were assessed using an actigraphic device for seven consecutive 24-h periods. A light recording and a daily pain diary were completed for the same period. A battery of self-report scales was also administered. A dampened circadian rhythm, a low mean activity level, an early mean time of peak activity during the day, a late starting time of activity during the morning and an early time of decline of activity during the evening were observed. In addition, a less rhythmic sleep–wake cycle was associated with a shorter time to death (from the first home visit) and with a lower 24-h light exposure. Sleep–wake cycles are markedly disrupted in palliative cancer patients, especially, near the end of life. Effective non-pharmacological interventions are needed to improve patients’ circadian rhythms, including perhaps bright light therapy.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Prevalence of insomnia and its treatment in Canada
    (Canadian Psychiatric Association, 2011-09-01) Mérette, Chantal; Morin, Charles M.; Bélanger, Lynda; Savard, Josée; LeBlanc, Mélanie; Ivers, Hans
    Objectives : To estimate the prevalence of insomnia and examine its correlates (for example, demographics and physical and mental health) and treatments. Methods : A sample of 2000 Canadians aged 18 years and older responded to a telephone survey about sleep, health, and the use of sleep-promoting products. Respondents with insomnia were identified using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision, and the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Edition, criteria. Results : Among the sample, 40.2% presented at least 1 symptom of insomnia (that is, trouble falling or staying asleep, or early morning awakening) for a minimum of 3 nights per week in the previous month, 19.8% were dissatisfied with their sleep, and 13.4% met all criteria for insomnia (that is, presence of 1 insomnia symptom 3 nights or more per week for at least 1 month, accompanied by distress or daytime impairment). Insomnia was associated with female sex, older age, and poorer self-rated physical and mental health. Thirteen per cent of respondents had consulted a health care provider for sleep difficulties once in their lifetime. Moreover, 10% had used prescribed medications for sleep in the previous year, 9.0% used natural products, 5.7% used over-the-counter products, and 4.6% used alcohol. There were differences between French- and English-speaking adults, with the former group presenting lower rates of insomnia (9.5%, compared with 14.3%) and consultation (8.7%, compared with 14.4%), but higher rates of prescribed medications (12.9%, compared with 9.3%) and the use of natural products (15.6%, compared with 7.4%). Conclusions : Insomnia is a prevalent condition, although few people seek professional consultation for this condition. Despite regional differences in the prevalence and treatments used to manage insomnia, prescribed medications remain the most widely used therapeutic option.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Familial aggregation of insomnia
    (American Sleep Disorders Association and Sleep Research Society, etc, 2017-02-01) Mérette, Chantal; Morin, Charles M.; Rochefort, Amélie; Savard, Josée; Dauvilliers, Yves A.; Jarrin, Denise C.; LeBlanc, Mélanie; Ivers, Hans
    Study Objectives: There is little information about familial aggregation of insomnia; however, this type of information is important to (1) improve our understanding of insomnia risk factors and (2) to design more effective treatment and prevention programs. This study aimed to investigate evidence of familial aggregation of insomnia among first-degree relatives of probands with and without insomnia. Methods: Cases (n = 134) and controls (n = 145) enrolled in a larger epidemiological study were solicited to invite their first-degree relatives and spouses to complete a standardized sleep/insomnia survey. In total, 371 first-degree relatives (Mage = 51.9 years, SD = 18.0; 34.3% male) and 138 spouses (Mage = 55.5 years, SD = 12.2; 68.1% male) completed the survey assessing the nature, severity, and frequency of sleep disturbances. The dependent variable was insomnia in first-degree relatives and spouses. Familial aggregation was claimed if the risk of insomnia was significantly higher in the exposed (relatives of cases) compared to the unexposed cohort (relatives of controls). The risk of insomnia was also compared between spouses in the exposed (spouses of cases) and unexposed cohort (spouses of controls). Results: The risk of insomnia in exposed and unexposed biological relatives was 18.6% and 10.4%, respectively, yielding a relative risk (RR) of 1.80 (p = .04) after controlling for age and sex. The risk of insomnia in exposed and unexposed spouses was 9.1% and 4.2%, respectively; however, corresponding RR of 2.13 (p = .28) did not differ significantly. Conclusions: Results demonstrate evidence of strong familial aggregation of insomnia. Additional research is warranted to further clarify and disentangle the relative contribution of genetic and environmental factors in insomnia.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Insomnia, hypnotic use, and road collisions : a population-based, 5-year cohort study
    (American Sleep Disorders Association and Sleep Research Society, 2020-02-29) Mérette, Chantal; Morin, Charles M.; Savard, Josée; LeBlanc, Mélanie; Ivers, Hans
    Study Objectives The study objectives were to examine accidental risks associated with insomnia or hypnotic medications, and how these risk factors interact with sex and age. Methods A population-based sample of 3,413 adults (Mage = 49.0 years old; 61.5% female), with or without insomnia, were surveyed annually for five consecutive years about their sleep patterns, sleep medication usage, and road collisions. Results There was a significant risk of reporting road collisions associated with insomnia (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.20; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.00–1.45) and daytime fatigue (HR = 1.21; 95% CI = 1.01–1.47). Insomnia and its daytime consequences were perceived to have played some contributory role in 40% of the reported collisions. Both chronic (HR = 1.50; 95% CI = 1.17–1.91) and regular use of sleep medications (HR = 1.58; 95% CI = 1.16–2.14) were associated with higher accidental risks, as well as being young female with insomnia and reporting excessive daytime sleepiness. Conclusions Both insomnia and use of sleep medications are associated with significant risks of road collisions, possibly because of or in association with some of their residual daytime consequences (i.e. fatigue and poor concentration). The findings also highlight a new group of at-risk patients, i.e. young women reporting insomnia and excessive daytime sleepiness.
  • Publication
    Restreint
    Speed and trajectory of changes of insomnia symptoms during acute treatment with cognitive–behavioral therapy, singly and combined with medication
    (Elsevier Science, 2014-03-31) Mérette, Chantal; Morin, Charles M.; Savard, Josée; Vallières, Annie; Guay, Bernard; Beaulieu-Bonneau, Simon.; Ivers, Hans
    Objectives : To examine the speed and trajectory of changes in sleep/wake parameters during short-term treatment of insomnia with cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT) alone versus CBT combined with medication; and to explore the relationship between early treatment response and post-treatment recovery status. Methods : Participants were 160 adults with insomnia (mean age, 50.3 years; 97 women, 63 men) who underwent a six-week course of CBT, singly or combined with 10 mg zolpidem nightly. The main dependent variables were sleep onset latency, wake after sleep onset, total sleep time, sleep efficiency, and sleep quality, derived from sleep diaries completed daily by patients throughout the course of treatment. Results : Participants treated with CBT plus medication exhibited faster sleep improvements as evidenced by the first week of treatment compared to those receiving CBT alone. Optimal sleep improvement was reached on average after only one week for the combined treatment compared to two to three weeks for CBT alone. Early treatment response did not reliably predict post-treatment recovery status. Conclusions : Adding medication to CBT produces faster sleep improvement than CBT alone. However, the magnitude of early treatment response is not predictive of final response after the six-week therapy. Additional research is needed to examine mechanisms involved in this early treatment augmentation effect and its impact on long-term outcome.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Incidence and risk factors of insomnia in a population-based sample
    (2009-08-01) Mérette, Chantal; Morin, Charles M.; Savard, Josée; Baillargeon, Lucie; LeBlanc, Mélanie; Ivers, Hans
    Introduction: Despite the high prevalence of insomnia, there is little information about its incidence and risk factors. This study estimated the incidence of insomnia and examined potential risk factors in a cohort of good sleepers followed over a one-year period. Methods. Participants were 464 good sleepers who completed 3 postal evaluations over a one-year period (i.e., baseline, 6 months, and 12 months). Questionnaires assessed sleep, psychological and personality variables, stressful life events and coping skills, and health-related quality of life. Participants were categorized into 3 subgroups: (a) good sleepers (i.e., participants who remained good sleepers at the 3 assessments), (b) insomnia symptoms incident cases (i.e., developed insomnia symptoms either at 6- or 12-month follow-up), and (c) insomnia syndrome incident cases (i.e., developed an insomnia syndrome either at 6- or 12- month follow-up). Results: One-year incidence rates were 30.7% for insomnia symptoms and 7.4% for insomnia syndrome. These rates decreased to 28.8% and 3.9% for those without prior lifetime episode of insomnia. Compared to good sleepers and insomnia symptoms incident cases, insomnia syndrome incident cases presented a premorbid psychological vulnerability to insomnia, characterized by higher depressive and anxiety symptoms, lower extraversion, higher arousability, and poorer self-rated mental health at baseline. They also presented a higher level of bodily pain and a poorer general health. Five variables were associated with a new onset of an insomnia syndrome: previous episode of insomnia, positive family history of insomnia, higher arousability predisposition, poorer self-rated general health, and higher bodily pain. Conclusion: The one-year insomnia incidence rate was very high and several psychological and health factors were associated with new onset insomnia. Improved knowledge about the nature of these predisposing factors would be helpful to guide the development of effective public health prevention and intervention programs to promote better sleep quality.