Personne : Vandenberg, Grant William
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Université Laval. Département des sciences animales
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- PublicationAccès libreComparison of black soldier fly larvae pre-treatments and drying techniques on the microbial load and physico-chemical characteristics(Wageningen Academic Publishers, 2021-07-14) Deschamps, Marie-Hélène; Vandenberg, Grant William; Cisse, M'ballou; Ratti, Cristina; Saucier, Linda; Lebeuf, YolaineBlack soldier fly larvae (BSFL) are good candidates for upcycling wet organic residuals. Like other unprocessed raw animal products, BSFL require processing to prevent spoilage and degradation during storage and to facilitate their use as feed ingredients. In this study, hot-air drying and freeze-drying were examined as means to ensure long-term preservation. Pre-treatments of larvae, such as puncturing, blanching (40 s) and scalding (2, 4, 6 and 8 min) in boiling water reduced drying times, most likely by affecting the integrity of the wax-coated cuticle that protects the larvae against desiccation. Overall, the larvae dried two to six times faster using hot-air compared to freeze-drying, and larvae pre-treatments were proven to effectively improve drying efficacy. Pre-treating larvae in boiling water followed by a shorter drying time with hot air was effective at reducing primary and secondary oxidation as well as darkening/browning (colour lightness, L* value) compared to the untreated control (rawthawed) larvae. The larvae pre-treatments in boiling water also led to a significant reduction in microbial load (3.21 to 4.83 log) in the dry product compared to the control. BSFL powder, produced from grinding thawed larvae that were pre-treated for 4 min in boiling water before being dried in hot air (60 °C; 6 h), had a water activity below 0.4. This led to a relatively stable product with limited colour changes over a 30-day storage period. These processing treatments also resulted in a product with no detectable Salmonella and Escherichia coli counts ranging from 100 to 1000 cfu/g. Overall, the powdered BSFL product was deemed suitable to incorporate into pelleted feed under the current regulations in Canada.
- PublicationAccès libreEffects of killing methods on lipid oxidation, colour and microbial load of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae(Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, 2019-04-21) Larouche, Jennifer; Deschamps, Marie-Hélène; Vandenberg, Grant William; Doyen, Alain; Saucier, Linda; Lebeuf, YolaineThe projected global population growth by 2050 will require an increase in the production of high-quality food. Insects represent a promising alternative ingredient for feed with a lower environmental impact than conventional livestock such as poultry, swine and bovine species. In a context of commercial-scale production and considering the great diversity of insects, it is crucial to optimize the processing steps, including those used to kill insects. In addition to being able to maximize the nutritional and microbiological quality of the final product, insect killing methods should be rapid and effective. This project aims to optimize killing methods, i.e., blanching, desiccation, freezing (−20 °C; −40 °C; liquid nitrogen), high hydrostatic pressure, grinding and asphyxiation (CO2; N2; vacuum conditioning), and to evaluate their impact on the composition, lipid oxidation, colour and microbiological quality on the black soldier fly larvae. Blanching appears to be the most appropriate strategy since it is a rapid and effective killing method reducing larval moisture while minimizing lipid oxidation, microbial contamination and colour alteration. Ultimately, this work will help to establish a standardized protocol that meets the Canadian regulatory quality requirements for feed. Abstract : Black soldier fly (BSF) larvae represent a promising alternative ingredient for animal feed. Post-production processing can, however, affect their quality. This project aimed to optimize larval killing by comparing the effects on the nutritional and microbiological quality of 10 methods, i.e., blanching (B = 40 s), desiccation (D = 60 °C, 30 min), freezing (F20 = −20 °C, 1 h; F40 = −40 °C, 1 h; N = liquid nitrogen, 40 s), high hydrostatic pressure (HHP = 3 min, 600 MPa), grinding (G = 2 min) and asphyxiation (CO2 = 120 h; N2 = 144 h; vacuum conditioning, V = 120 h). Some methods affected the pH (B, asphyxiation), total moisture (B, asphyxiation and D) and ash contents (B, p < 0.001). The lipid content (asphyxiation) and their oxidation levels (B, asphyxiation and D) were also affected (p < 0.001). Killing methods altered the larvae colour during freeze-drying and in the final product. Blanching appears to be the most appropriate strategy since it minimizes lipid oxidation (primary = 4.6 ± 0.7 mg cumen hydroperoxide (CHP) equivalents/kg; secondary = 1.0 ± 0.1 mg malondialdehyde/kg), reduces microbial contamination and initiates dehydration (water content = 78.1 ± 1.0%). We propose herein, an optimized protocol to kill BSF that meet the Canadian regulatory requirements of the insect production and processing industry.