Personne : Larouche, Danielle
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Résultats de recherche
Expression of C4.4A in an in vitro human tissue-engineered skin model
2017-09-07, Germain, Lucie, Larouche, Danielle, Rochette-Drouin, Olivier, Ploug, Michael, Jacobsen, Benedikte
A multi-LU-domain-containing protein denoted C4.4A exhibits a tightly regulated membrane-associated expression in the suprabasal layers of stratified squamous epithelia such as skin and the esophagus, and the expression of C4.4A is dysregulated in various pathological conditions. However, the biological function of C4.4A remains unknown. To enable further studies, we evaluated the expression of C4.4A in monolayer cultures of normal human keratinocytes and in tissue-engineered skin substitutes (TESs) produced by the self-assembly approach, which allow the formation of a fully differentiated epidermis tissue. Results showed that, in monolayer, C4.4A was highly expressed in the centre of keratinocyte colonies at cell-cell contacts areas, while some cells located at the periphery presented little C4.4A expression. In TES, emergence of C4.4A expression coincided with the formation of the stratum spinosum. After the creation of a wound within the TES, C4.4A expression was observed in the suprabasal keratinocytes of the migrating epithelium, with the exception of the foremost leading keratinocytes, which were negative for C4.4A. Our results are consistent with previous data in mouse embryogenesis and wound healing. Based on these findings, we conclude that this human TES model provides an excellent surrogate for studies of C4.4A and Haldisin expressions in human stratified epithelia.
Stem cells of the skin and cornea : their clinical applications in regenerative medicine
2011-02-01, Germain, Lucie, Larouche, Danielle, Gauvin, Robert, Proulx, Stéphanie, Fradette, Julie
Purpose of review: The use of stem cells is of great interest for the treatment of various pathologies and ultimately for the restoration of organ function. Progress pointing towards future treatments of skin and corneal epithelial stem cell defects are reviewed, including the transplantation of living tissue-engineered substitutes. Recent findings: This article focuses on substitutes optimized for permanent replacement of skin and cornea. New skin substitutes for burn care are currently under development. More complex tissue-engineered skin substitutes in which stroma, adipose tissue, capillaries, and neurons are combined with the epithelium are being developed. Some dermal/epidermal substitutes have been applied to the treatment of patients. Cultured corneal epithelial cells have been characterized and more complete corneal substitutes are being designed. Long-term clinical results on the transplantation of cultured corneal stem cells for the treatment of limbal stem cell deficiency have been reported. Summary: Advances in tissue engineering for the development of substitutes that will benefit patients suffering from skin or corneal stem cell deficiencies are reviewed. These products are often a combination of cells, scaffolds and other factors. Key considerations in the development of corneal and skin substitutes for clinical applications are discussed.
Production of a bilayered self-assembled skin substitute using a tissue-engineered acellular dermal matrix
2015-09-28, Beaudoin-Cloutier, Chanel, Bernard, Geneviève, Germain, Lucie, Larouche, Danielle, Auger, François A., Gauvin, Robert, Guignard, Rina, Lacroix, Dan., Moulin, Véronique, Lavoie, Amélie
Our bilayered self-assembled skin substitutes (SASS) are skin substitutes showing a structure and functionality very similar to native human skin. These constructs are used, in life-threatening burn wounds, as permanent autologous grafts for the treatment of such affected patients even though their production is exacting. We thus intended to shorten their current production time to improve their clinical applicability. A self-assembled decellularized dermal matrix (DM) was used. It allowed the production of an autologous skin substitute from patient's cells. The characterization of SASS reconstructed using a decellularized dermal matrix (SASS-DM) was performed by histology, immunofluorescence, transmission electron microscopy, and uniaxial tensile analysis. Using the SASS-DM, it was possible to reduce the standard production time from about 8 to 4 and a half weeks. The structure, cell differentiation, and mechanical properties of the new skin substitutes were shown to be similar to the SASS. The decellularization process had no influence on the final microstructure and mechanical properties of the DM. This model, by enabling the production of a skin substitute in a shorter time frame without compromising its intrinsic tissue properties, represents a promising addition to the currently available burn and wound treatments.
Human post-natal stem cells in organs produced by tissue engineering for clinical applications
2008-01-01, Germain, Lucie, Larouche, Danielle, Auger, François A., Fradette, Julie
This chapter will focus on the clinical applications of post-natal stem cells. Massive tissue loss frequently requires grafting for proper healing. Considering that there is a shortage of organ donors, the expansion of cells in vitro and the reconstruction of tissues or organs constitute a very valuable alternative solution. The first clinical application of such tissues has been the autologous culture of epidermal cells for the treatment of burn patients, and will be presented herein. Since the cutaneous epithelium forms squames that are lost, it is continuously renewed every 28 days and its long-term regeneration depends on stem cells. The importance of preserving stem cells during in vitro expansion and after grafting will thus be discussed. Clinical applications of cultured cells from other tissues, such as limbal stem cells for corneal epithelium (surface of the eye) replacement, will also be reviewed. Finally, the development of new promising technologies and methods taking advantage of other sources of stem cells that could be isolated after birth from tissues such as adipose depots will also be presented.
Évaluation de la relation entre les apports en antioxydants et le niveau d'expression de marqueurs inflammatoires dans le tissu mammaire normal de femmes atteintes du cancer du sein
2017, Larouche, Danielle, Diorio, Caroline
Le régime alimentaire joue un rôle dans le développement du cancer du sein, mais le mode d’action des facteurs nutritionnels sur le tissu mammaire est mal compris. Un des mécanismes potentiels est la création d’un stress oxydatif qui favoriserait le processus tumoral et l’inflammation. Par conséquent, la consommation d’antioxydants pourrait contribuer à réduire l’inflammation dans les tissus et à prévenir le cancer du sein. Cependant, peu d’études ont exploré la relation entre les apports en antioxydants et l’expression de marqueurs inflammatoires dans le tissu mammaire. Ce projet visait à évaluer la relation entre les apports en antioxydants et l’expression de 11 marqueurs inflammatoires dans le tissu mammaire normal de 160 femmes atteintes d’un cancer du sein. Les données alimentaires ont été obtenues par un questionnaire de fréquence alimentaire auto-administré mesurant les apports alimentaires et la prise de suppléments de l’année précédente. L’expression des marqueurs inflammatoires a été évaluée par immunohistochimie. La corrélation entre les apports en antioxydants et l’expression des marqueurs inflammatoires a été analysée par le coefficient de corrélation partiel de Spearman. Les analyses ont été effectuées pour l’ensemble de l’échantillon et pour les femmes pré-ménopausées et post-ménopausées prises séparément. Après la correction de Bonferroni, les apports élevés en bêta-tocophérol corrélaient avec une diminution de l’expression de l’IL-10 pour l’ensemble de l’échantillon (r=-0,26) et chez les femmes post-ménopausées (r=-0,39). Parmi toutes les femmes, les apports en zinc corrélaient négativement avec l’expression de l’IL-10 (r=-0,26) et parmi les femmes post-ménopausées, les apports en sélénium corrélaient négativement avec l’expression de la lactoferrine (r=-0,39). Aucune association significative n’a été observée chez les femmes pré-ménopausées. Nos résultats suggèrent que le bêta-tocophérol, le zinc et le sélénium pourraient agir sur le tissu mammaire par des mécanismes affectant l’expression de certains marqueurs inflammatoires et que ceci serait influencé par le statut ménopausique.
Identification of epithelial stem cells in vivo and in vitro using keratin 19 and BrdU
2010-01-01, Germain, Lucie, Larouche, Danielle, Paquet, Claudie, Simard-Bisson, Carolyne, Lavoie, Amélie
Progress in the identification of skin stem cells and the improvement of culture methods open the possibility to use stem cells in regenerative medicine. Based on their quiescent nature, the development of label retention assays allowed the localization of skin stem cells in the bulge region of the pilosebaceous units and in the bottom of rete ridges in glabrous skin. The development of markers such as keratin 19 also permits their study in human tissues. In this chapter, protocols to identify skin stem cells based on their slow-cycling property and their expression of keratin 19 will be described in detail. The methods include the labeling of skin stem cells within mouse or rat tissues in vivo, the labeling of proliferative human cells in vitro using 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU), and the detection of keratin 19 and BrdU by immunofluorescence or immunoperoxidase staining.
A novel single-step self-assembly approach for the fabrication of tissue-engineered vascular constructs
2009-12-28, Germain, Lucie, Ahsan, Taby, Larouche, Danielle, Auger, François A., Gauvin, Robert, Dubé, Jean, Tanguay, Robert M., Lévesque, Philippe
There is a clinical need for a functional tissue-engineered blood vessel because small-caliber arterial graft (<5 mm) applications are limited by the availability of suitable autologous vessels and suboptimal performances of synthetic grafts. This study presents an analysis of the mechanical properties of tissue-engineered vascular constructs produced using a novel single-step self-assembly approach. Briefly, the tissue-engineered vascular media were produced by culturing smooth muscle cell in the presence of sodium l-ascorbate until the formation of a cohesive tissue sheet. This sheet was then rolled around a tubular support to create a media construct. Alternatively, the tissue-engineered vascular adventitia was produced by rolling a tissue sheet obtained from dermal fibroblasts or saphenous vein fibroblasts. The standard self-assembly approach to obtain the two-layer tissue-engineered vascular constructs comprising both media and adventitia constructs consists of two steps in which tissue-engineered vascular media were first rolled on a tubular support and a tissue-engineered vascular adventitia was then rolled on top of the first layer. This study reports an original alternative method for assembling tissue-engineered vascular constructs comprising both media and an adventitia in a single step by rolling a continuous tissue sheet containing both cell types contiguously. This tissue sheet was produced by growing smooth muscle cells alongside fibroblasts (saphenous vein fibroblasts or dermal fibroblasts) in the same culture dish separated by a spacer, which is removed later in the culture period. The mechanical strength assessed by uniaxial tensile testing, burst pressure measurements, and viscoelastic behavior evaluated by stepwise stress relaxation tests reveals that the new single-step fabrication method significantly improves the mechanical properties of tissue-engineered vascular construct for both ultimate tensile strength and all the viscoelastic moduli.
Des Canadiens « précurseurs de la recherche sur les cellules souches hématopoïétiques » lauréats du prix Lasker
2006-02-15, Germain, Lucie, Larouche, Danielle, Paquet, Claudie
À la fin de l'année 2005, le prestigieux prix Lasker pour la recherche médicale fondamentale a été décerné à deux scientifiques canadiens, les Docteurs Ernest A. McCulloch et James E. Till, qui se sont illustrés par leurs travaux portant notamment sur la capacité des cellules souches à s’auto-renouveler et à se différencier en cellules pouvant présenter de multiples phénotypes.
Characterization of a 150 kDa accessory receptor for TGF-beta 1 on keratinocytes : direct evidence for a GPI anchor and ligand binding of the released form.
2001-09-05, Tam, Betty Y. Y., Germain, Lucie, Larouche, Danielle, Hooper, N.M, Philip, Anie
Fibroblasts play a critical role in wound repair and in the development of fibrotic diseases, and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) has been shown to profoundly modulate fibroblast function. However, there is limited information on the TGF-β receptor types, isoform specificity, and complex formation in skin fibroblasts. Here, we report that normal adult human skin fibroblasts display two isoform-specific, cell surface glycosyl phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored, TGF-β binding proteins in addition to the type I, II, and III TGF-β receptors. The identities of these proteins are confirmed on the basis of their affinity for TGF-β isoforms, immunoprecipitation with specific antireceptor antibodies, and other biochemical analyses. Immunoprecipitation results also indicated oligomeric complex formation between type I and II and between type II and III TGF-β receptors. Furthermore, by using affinity labeling and two-dimensional electrophoresis, we demonstrate the occurrence of type I and II heterodimers and type I homodimers of TGF-β receptors on these cells. Because the type I receptor does not bind TGF-β in the absence of type II receptor, these results indicate that one molecule of TGF-β induces the formation of a heterooligomeric complex containing more than one molecule each of type I and II TGF-β receptors on these cells. These cells respond to TGF-β by markedly down-regulating all five binding proteins and by potently augmenting DNA synthesis. These results allow the expansion of the proposed heteromeric TGF-β receptor signaling paradigm using mutantcells that are unresponsive to TGF-β and cell lines that have been transfected to overexpress these receptors, to include normal TGF-β-responsive cells. In addition, the definition of TGF-β receptor profiles in human skin fibroblasts provides important information for studying their alterations in these cells in various skin diseases.
Tissue-engineered skin preserving the potential of epithelial cells to differentiate into hair after grafting.
2018-01-09, Fortier, Kristine, Germain, Lucie, Larouche, Danielle, Paquet, Claudie
The aim of this study was to evaluate whether tissue-engineered skin produced in vitro was able to sustain growth of hair follicles in vitro and after grafting. Different tissues were designed. Dissociated newborn mouse keratinocytes or newborn mouse hair buds (HBs) were added onto dermal constructs consisting of a tissue-engineered cell-derived matrix elaborated from either newborn mouse or adult human fibroblasts cultured with ascorbic acid. After 7–21 days of maturation at the air–liquid interface, no hair was noticed in vitro. Epidermal differentiation was observed in all tissue-engineered skin. However, human fibroblast-derived tissue-engineered dermis (hD) promoted a thicker epidermis than mouse fibroblast-derived tissue-engineered dermis (mD). In association with mD, HBs developed epithelial cyst-like inclusions presenting outer root sheath-like attributes. In contrast, epidermoid cyst-like inclusions lined by a stratified squamous epithelium were present in tissues composed of HBs and hD. After grafting, pilo-sebaceous units formed and hair grew in skin elaborated from HBs cultured 10–26 days submerged in culture medium in association with mD. However, the number of normal hair follicles decreased with longer culture time. This hair-forming capacity after grafting was not observed in tissues composed of hD overlaid with HBs. These results demonstrate that epithelial stem cells can be kept in vitro in a permissive tissue-engineered dermal environment without losing their potential to induce hair growth after grafting.