Personne :
Desrochers, André

En cours de chargement...
Photo de profil
Adresse électronique
Date de naissance
Projets de recherche
Structures organisationnelles
Nom de famille
Université Laval. Département des sciences du bois et de la forêt
Identifiant Canadiana

Résultats de recherche

Voici les éléments 1 - 8 sur 8
  • Publication
    Animal and vegetation patterns in natural and man-made bog pools : implications for restoration
    (Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Ltd., 2005-11-22) Mazerolle, Marc J.; Poulin, Monique; Lavoie, Claude; Rochefort, Line; Desrochers, André; Drolet, Bruno
    1. Peatlands have suffered great losses following drainage for agriculture, forestry, urbanisation, or peat mining, near inhabited areas. We evaluated the faunal and vegetation patterns after restoration of a peatland formerly mined for peat. We assessed whether bog pools created during restoration are similar to natural bog pools in terms of water chemistry, vegetation structure and composition, as well as amphibian and arthropod occurrence patterns. 2. Both avian species richness and peatland vegetation cover at the site increased following restoration. Within bog pools, however, the vegetation composition differed between natural and man-made pools. The cover of low shrubs, Sphagnum moss, submerged, emergent and floating vegetation in man-made pools was lower than in natural pools, whereas pH was higher than in typical bog pools. Dominant plant species also differed between man-made and natural pools. 3. Amphibian tadpoles, juveniles and adults occurred more often in man-made pools than natural bog pools. Although some arthropods, including Coleoptera bog specialists, readily colonised the pools, their abundance was two to 26 times lower than in natural bog pools. Plant introduction in bog pools, at the stocking densities we applied, had no effect on the occurrence of most groups. 4. We conclude that our restoration efforts were partially successful. Peatland-wide vegetation patterns following restoration mimicked those of natural peatlands, but 4 years were not sufficient for man-made pools to fully emulate the characteristics of natural bog pools.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Selection of roosting habitat by male Myotis bats in a boreal forest
    (National Research Council of Canada, 2015-05-07) Desrochers, André; Racine, Etienne B.; Fabianek, François; Simard, Marie-Anouk
    Male little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus (Le Conte, 1831)) and northern long-eared bats (Myotis septentrionalis (Trouessart, 1897)) often roost under exfoliating bark, within trunks, and within cavities of trees during summer. Current lack of knowledge about the roosting ecology of these species in boreal forest limits our understanding of how they may be affected by logging. The main objective was to identify tree and forest stand features that were selected by bats for roosting within a balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) – paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marshall) forest of Quebec, Canada. Over 3 years, we captured and fitted radio transmitters to 22 individual bats to locate their roost trees for 7–14 days following release. We measured tree and forest stand features in the field and using light detection and ranging (LiDAR) technology. Roost trees were compared with random trees using generalized linear mixed models. Male Myotis bats selected larger and taller snags, within stands containing a higher proportion of canopy gaps and a larger number of snags compared with random trees. Vegetation clumps of 0.1 ha containing a minimum of 10 snags with a diameter at breast height (DBH) ≥ 10 cm should be maintained to preserve roosting habitat that is used by male Myotis bats in balsam fir – paper birch forests.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Regional patterns of habitat use by a threatened forest bird, the Bicknell’s Thrush, in Quebec
    (National Research Council, 2016-02-19) Aubry, Yves; Desrochers, André; Seutin, Gilles
    Conservation of threatened species often uses habitat models to inform management of habitat and populations. We examined habitat use by Bicknell’s Thrush (Catharus bicknelli (Ridgway, 1882)), a federally “Threatened” species, in two Appalachian regions, shaped by forestry activities, of southern Quebec. Within its breeding range, the species inhabits mountain tops and forests subjected to various logging activities. We assessed the role of vegetation and topography at two spatial scales, as well as spatial relationships with Swainson’s Thrush (Catharus ustulatus (Nuttall, 1840)), identified as a potential competitor by some authors. In both regions, Bicknell’s Thrushes were most likely to be reported at high elevations, in forest stands with high tree stem densities that underwent little or no stem reduction from forestry activities. Swainson’s Thrushes were present at all sites were Bicknell’s Thrushes were reported. These results are consistent with findings from studies in northeastern parts of its breeding range. We conclude that forest-stand thinning should be kept to a minimum throughout the high-elevation nesting habitat of Bicknell’s Thrush.
  • Publication
    Snow tracking and trapping harvest as reliable sources for inferring abundance : a 9-year comparison
    (Eagle Hill Institute, 2015-12-01) Desrochers, André; Kawaguchi, Toshinori; Bastien, Héloïse
    Trapping harvest and snow tracking are frequently used to infer population dynamics, yet there have been few evaluations of these indices. We developed population indices for Martes americana (American Marten), Mustela spp. (weasels), and Tamiasciurus hudsonicus (American Red Squirrel) from 9 years of snow-tracking data in eastern Canada. We employed mean track counts per unit effort as population indices derived from a generalized linear model (GLM) of track counts as a function of year and covariates including forest age. Mean track counts were significantly correlated with American Marten and weasel pelt sales and year effects in GLM were correlated with American Red Squirrel and weasel pelt sales. The results of both methods are in agreement; therefore they are likely valid sources to infer population dynamics for these species.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Exploring regional variation in roost selection by bats : evidence from a meta-analysis
    (Public Library of Science, 2015-09-29) Desrochers, André; Fabianek, François; Simard, Marie-Anouk
    Tree diameter, tree height and canopy closure have been described by previous meta-analyses as being important characteristics in roost selection by cavity-roosting bats. However, size and direction of effects for these characteristics varied greatly among studies, also referred to as heterogeneity. Potential sources of heterogeneity have not been investigated in previous meta-analyses, which are explored by correlating additional covariates (moderator variables). We tested whether effect sizes from 34 studies were consistent enough to reject the null hypothesis that trees selected by bats did not significantly differ in their characteristics from randomly selected trees. We also examined whether heterogeneity in tree diameter effect sizes was correlated to moderator variables such as sex, bat species, habitat type, elevation and mean summer temperature.Methods We used Hedges’ g standardized mean difference as the effect size for the most common characteristics that were encountered in the literature. We estimated heterogeneity indices, potential publication bias, and spatial autocorrelation of our meta-data. We relied upon meta-regression and multi-model inference approaches to evaluate the effects of moderator variables on heterogeneity in tree diameter effect sizes. Results Tree diameter, tree height, snag density, elevation, and canopy closure were significant characteristics of roost selection by cavity-roosting bats. Size and direction of effects varied greatly among studies with respect to distance to water, tree density, slope, and bark remaining on trunks. Inclusion of mean summer temperature and sex in meta-regressions further explained heterogeneity in tree diameter effect sizes. Conclusions Regional differences in roost selection for tree diameter were related to mean summer temperature. Large diameter trees play a central role in roost selection by bats, especially in colder regions, where they are likely to provide a warm and stable microclimate for reproductive females. Records of summer temperature fluctuations inside and outside tree cavities that are used by bats should be included in future research.
  • Publication
    Landscape characteristics influence pond occupancy by frogs after accounting for detectability
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2005-06-01) Mazerolle, Marc J.; Desrochers, André; Rochefort, Line
    Many investigators have hypothesized that landscape attributes such as the amount and proximity of habitat are important for amphibian spatial patterns. This has produced a number of studies focusing on the effects of landscape characteristics on amphibian patterns of occurrence in patches or ponds, most of which conclude that the landscape is important. We identified two concerns associated with these studies: one deals with their applicability to other landscape types, as most have been conducted in agricultural landscapes; the other highlights the need to account for the probability of detection. We tested the hypothesis that landscape characteristics influence spatial patterns of amphibian occurrence at ponds after accounting for the probability of detection in little-studied peatland landscapes undergoing peat mining. We also illustrated the costs of not accounting for the probability of detection by comparing our results to conventional logistic regression analyses. Results indicate that frog occurrence increased with the percent cover of ponds within 100, 250, and 1000 m, as well as the amount of forest cover within 1000 m. However, forest cover at 250 m had a negative influence on frog presence at ponds. Not accounting for the probability of detection resulted in underestimating the influence of most variables on frog occurrence, whereas a few were overestimated. Regardless, we show that conventional logistic regression can lead to different conclusions than analyses accounting for detectability. Our study is consistent with the hypothesis that landscape characteristics are important in determining the spatial patterns of frog occurrence at ponds. We strongly recommend estimating the probability of detection in field surveys, as this will increase the quality and conservation potential of models derived from such data.
  • Publication
    Small-mammal responses to peat mining of southeastern Canadian bogs
    (National Research Council,, 2001-02-09) Mazerolle, Marc J.; Drolet, Bruno; Desrochers, André
    Bogs, or ombrotrophic peatlands, are well represented in parts of southeastern Canada but are subjected to increasing pressure from the peat industry. We assessed the impact of peat mining on small mammals inhabiting unexploited bog fragments on the periphery of mined bogs. We conducted two separate studies in bogs mined to different levels (0–83%) in southeastern Québec and New Brunswick. The first study used a low sampling effort over 1 month in 26 bogs, while the second used a high sampling effort of 6 months spread across 2 years in 12 bogs. Of the 15 small-mammal species encountered, only 2 were bog specialists. Abundance and species richness of small mammals in bog fragments increased significantly with percentage of area mined and, in some cases, increased with bog area. Both studies suggest that disturbances resulting from peat mining facilitate the invasion of more generalized small-mammal species. Furthermore, small mammals were more abundant near forest or mined edges than at bog centers, and some species responded strongly to vegetation cover. The response of small mammals to peat mining contrasts with the one documented for birds, amphibians, and plants.
  • Publication
    Landscape resistance to frog movements
    (NRC Canada, 2005-05-18) Mazerolle, Marc J.; Desrochers, André
    An animal's capacity to recolonize a patch depends on at least two components: its ability to detect the patch and its ability to reach it. However, the disruption of such processes by anthropic disturbances could explain low animal abundance patterns observed by many investigators in certain landscapes. Through field experiments, we compared the orientation and homing success of northern green frogs (Rana clamitans melanota Rafinesque, 1820) and northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens Schreber, 1782) translocated across disturbed or undisturbed surfaces. We also monitored the path selected by individuals when presented with a choice between a short distance over a disturbed surface and a longer, undisturbed route. Finally, we measured the water loss and behaviour of frogs on substrates resulting from anthropogenic disturbances and a control. When presented with a choice, 72% of the frogs avoided disturbed surfaces. Although able to orient towards the pond of capture when translocated on disturbed surfaces, frogs had a lower probability of homing successfully to the pond than when translocated at a similar distance on an undisturbed surface. Frogs lost the most water on substrates associated with disturbance and in the absence of cover. Our data illustrate that anthropically disturbed areas devoid of cover, such as mined peatlands and agricultural fields, disrupt the ability of frogs to reach habitat patches and are likely explanations to their reduced abundance patterns in such environments.