Personne : Garneau, Véronique
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Université Laval. Département des sciences des aliments et de nutrition
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- PublicationRestreintAssociation between metabolic deteriorations and prior gestational diabetes according to weight status(Nature Pub. Group, 2014-11-29) Garneau, Véronique; Vigneault, Jessica; Lemieux, Simone; Weisnagel, John; Robitaille, Julie; Tchernof, AndréObjective The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of prior gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) on glucose and insulin homeostasis according to weight status. Methods The analysis included 299 women, 216 with [GDM(+)] and 83 without prior GDM [GDM(−)]. The mean time between pregnancy and testing was 3.9 years. Glucose values were obtained from a 2-h 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray. Results In women with normal BMI, fasting glucose, 2-h post-OGTT glucose, and HbA1 were higher for GDM(+) (P < 0.05). Normal-weight women with GDM(+) presented lower HOMA-IS, insulin secretion, and insulinogenic index (P < 0.05) compared to GDM(−). Body fat and android fat mass were higher, gynoid fat mass was similar, and lean body mass was decreased in GDM(+) vs. GDM(−) with normal weight (P < 0.05). A greater proportion of GDM(+) with overweight/obesity had prediabetes (72.1%) or type 2 diabetes (T2D) (21.7%) vs. GDM(−) and overweight/obesity (17.1 and 2.4%) or GDM(+) and normal weight (60.5 and 14.0%). Conclusions A combination of GDM and overweight/obesity is associated with T2D-related metabolic deteriorations. Nevertheless, normal-weight women with GDM(+) had increased android fat and greater metabolic complications, suggesting that women with prior GDM should benefit from lifestyle intervention, regardless of their weight status.
- PublicationAccès libreOmega-3 fatty acids status in human subjects estimated using a food frequency questionnaire and plasma phospholipids levels(BioMed Central, 2012-07-09) Garneau, Véronique; Paradis, Ann-Marie; Pérusse, Louis; Rudkowska, Iwona; Godin, Gaston; Julien, Pierre; Vohl, Marie-ClaudeBackground Intakes of omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids (FA) are associated with several health benefits. The aim of this study was to verify whether intakes of n-3 FA estimated from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) correlate with n-3 FA levels measured in plasma phospholipids (PL). Methods The study sample consisted of 200 French-Canadians men and women aged between 18 to 55 years. Dietary data were collected using a validated FFQ. Fasting blood samples were collected and the plasma PL FA profile was measured by gas chromatography. Results Low intakes of n-3 long-chain FA together with low percentages of n-3 long-chain FA in plasma PL were found in French-Canadian population. Daily intakes of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were similar between men and women. Yet, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and total n-3 FA intakes were significantly higher in men compared to women (ALA: 2.28 g and 1.69 g, p < 0.0001, total n-3 FA: 2.57 g and 1.99 g, p < 0.0001; respectively). In plasma PL, DPA and DHA percentages were significantly different between men and women (DPA: 1.03% and 0.88%, p < 0.0001, DHA: 3.00% and 3.43%, p = 0.0005; respectively). Moreover, DHA (men: r = 0.52, p < 0.0001; women: r = 0.57, p < 0.0001) and total n-3 FA (men: r = 0.47, p < 0.0001; women: r = 0.52, p < 0.0001) intakes were positively correlated to their respective plasma PL FA levels. In women, EPA (r = 0.44, p < 0.0001) and DPA (r = 0.23, p = 0.02) intakes were also correlated respectively with EPA and DPA plasma PL FA percentages. Conclusion Estimated n-3 long-chain FA intake among this young and well-educated French-Canadian population is lower than the recommendations. Further, FFQ data is comparable to plasma PL results to estimate DHA and total n-3 FA status in healthy individuals as well as to evaluate the EPA and DPA status in women. Overall, this FFQ could be used as a simple, low-cost tool in future studies to rank n-3 FA status of individuals.
- PublicationRestreintAssociation between yogurt consumption, dietary patterns and cardio-metabolic risk factors(Springer Medizin, 2015-03-15) Drapeau, Vicky; Garneau, Véronique; Thifault, Elisabeth; Cormier, Hubert; Pérusse, Louis; Tremblay, Angelo; Vohl, Marie-ClaudePurpose To examine whether yogurt consumption is associated with a healthier dietary pattern and with a better cardio-metabolic risk profile among healthy individuals classified on the basis of their body mass index (BMI). Methods A 91-item food frequency questionnaire, including data on yogurt consumption, was administered to 664 subjects from the INFOGENE study. After principal component analysis, two factors were retained, thus classified as the Prudent and Western dietary patterns. Results Yogurt was a significant contributor to the Prudent dietary pattern. Moreover, yogurt consumption was associated with lower body weight, waist-to-hip ratio, and waist circumference and tended to be associated with a lower BMI. Consumers had lower levels of fasting total cholesterol and insulin. Consumers of yogurt had a positive Prudent dietary pattern mean score, while the opposite trend was observed in non-consumers of yogurt. Overweight/obese individuals who were consumers of yogurts exhibited a more favorable cardio-metabolic profile characterized by lower plasma triglyceride and insulin levels than non-consumers within the same range of BMI. There was no difference in total yogurt consumption between normal-weight individuals and overweight/obese individuals. However, normal-weight subjects had more daily servings of high-fat yogurt and less daily servings of fat-free yogurt compared to overweight/obese individuals. Conclusions Being a significant contributor to the Prudent dietary pattern, yogurt consumption may be associated with healthy eating. Also, yogurt consumption may be associated with lower anthropometric indicators and a more beneficial cardio-metabolic risk profile in overweight/obese individuals.
- PublicationAccès libreRaspberry consumption : identification of distinct immune-metabolic response profiles by whole blood transcriptome profiling(Elsevier, 2022-01-10) Roy, Denis; Garneau, Véronique; Franck, Maximilien; Toro Martin, Juan de; Couillard, Charles; Varin, Thibaut; Pilon, Geneviève; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Couture, Patrick; Marette, André.Background. Numerous studies reported that diets rich in phenolic compounds are beneficial to human health, especially for immune-metabolic conditions, yet these effects and underlying mechanisms are not well defined. Objectives. The main goal of this study was to investigate the architecture of the inter-individual variability of the immune-metabolic response to raspberry consumption, by identifying distinct subgroups of participants sharing similar transcriptomic signatures. Methods. The 24 participants assigned to the treated arm of a randomized controlled trial, and at risk of developing metabolic syndrome, received 280g/day of frozen raspberries for 8 weeks. RNAseq data from whole blood assessed at weeks 0 and 8 were used to identify sub-groups of responses to raspberry consumption, by using partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and hierarchical clustering. Changes in clinical features, metabolic parameters, plasma metabolites and gut metagenomics were compared between the resulting sub-groups. Results. Transcriptomic-based clustering regrouped the initial 24 study participants into two significantly different sub-groups of response to raspberry consumption, with 13 participants being defined as responders and 11 as non-responders. Following raspberry consumption, a significant decrease in plasma triglycerides, total-cholesterol and C-reactive protein was found in the responder sub-group, as compared to the non-responder sub-group. Two major components composed respectively of 100 and 220 genes were further identified by sparse PLS-DA as those better discriminating responders and non-responders. Functional pathways related to cytokine production, leukocyte activation and immune response were significantly enriched with discriminant genes. Factor analysis revealed that the first metabolomic factor mostly composed of decreasing triglycerides and increasing phosphatidylcholines was significantly higher in responders, as compared to non-responders. Analysis of gut metagenomic data revealed differences between responders and non-responders prior to the intervention and distinct modulations, notably regarding Firmicutes and Actinobacteria phyla. Conclusions. The discrimination analysis carried out in the present study based on transcriptional changes following raspberry consumption was able to identify two divergent sub-groups of participants, which were further identified as responders and non-responders, according to their immune-metabolic and gut metagenomic responses. In the context of precision nutrition, this holistic approach represents a promising framework to tackle the issue of inter-individual variability in the understanding of the impact of foods or nutrients on immune-metabolic health.
- PublicationAccès libreBiomarqueurs de l'exposition à la diète(2010) Garneau, Véronique; Vohl, Marie-ClaudeCe projet de recherche avait deux objectifs principaux. Le premier était de vérifier la relation existant entre les niveaux d'acides gras oméga-3 (n-3) présents dans les phospholipides (PL) du plasma, l'obésité et les facteurs de risque de maladies cardiovasculaires. Ensuite, le second objectif de recherche était de vérifier si les apports alimentaires en différents acides gras n-3 estimés à l'aide d'un questionnaire de fréquence alimentaire (FFQ) corrélaient avec les niveaux de ces mêmes acides gras dans les PL du plasma. Pour cette étude, 200 sujets obèses (indice de masse corporelle (IMC) >-30kg/m ) et non-obèses en bonne santé et âgés entre 18 et 55 ans ont été recrutés. Dans un premier temps, les niveaux des acides gras n-3 présents dans les PL du plasma ont été mis en relation avec divers facteurs de risque de maladies cardiovasculaires. L'acide alphalinolénique (ALA) a montré des résultats contradictoires pour les facteurs de risque étudiés. Aucune association significative n'a été obtenue entre l'acide éicosapentaénoïque (EPA) et les facteurs de risque étudiés. L'acide docosapentaénoïque (DPA) était associé à un profil métabolique plus détérioré tandis que l'acide docosahexaénoïque (DHA) était associé à un meilleur profil métabolique. Dans un deuxième temps, les apports alimentaires en différents n-3 ont été comparés aux niveaux d'acides gras correspondants des PL plasmatiques. Des corrélations significatives entre le questionnaire de fréquence et le biomarqueur ont été observées pour l'EPA, le DPA, le DHA et le total des n-3 chez les femmes tandis que, chez les hommes, des corrélations significatives n'ont été obtenues que pour le DHA et le total des n-3. Les résultats de cette étude montrent donc, d'une part, que le statut en n-3 a un impact sur certains facteurs de risque de maladies cardiovasculaires et, d'autre part, que le FFQ permet d'obtenir un bon portrait du statut en n-3 surtout chez les femmes.
- PublicationAccès libreAssociation between polymorphisms in the fatty acid desaturase gene cluster and the plasma triacylglycerol response to an n-3 PUFA supplementation(MDPI Pub, 2012-08-17) Garneau, Véronique; Thifault, Elisabeth; Cormier, Hubert; Paradis, Ann-Marie; Rudkowska, Iwona; Lemieux, Simone; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Couture, PatrickEicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids have been reported to have a variety of beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease risk factors. However, a large inter-individual variability in the plasma lipid response to an omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation is observed in different studies. Genetic variations may influence plasma lipid responsiveness. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of a supplementation with n-3 PUFA on the plasma lipid profile in relation to the presence of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) gene cluster. A total of 208 subjects from Quebec City area were supplemented with 3 g/day of n-3 PUFA, during six weeks. In a statistical model including the effect of the genotype, the supplementation and the genotype by supplementation interaction, SNP rs174546 was significantly associated (p = 0.02) with plasma triglyceride (TG) levels, pre- and post-supplementation. The n-3 supplementation had an independent effect on plasma TG levels and no significant genotype by supplementation interaction effects were observed. In summary, our data support the notion that the FADS gene cluster is a major determinant of plasma TG levels. SNP rs174546 may be an important SNP associated with plasma TG levels and FADS1 gene expression independently of a nutritional intervention with n-3 PUFA.
- PublicationAccès libreAssociations between dietary protein sources, plasma BCAA and short-chain acylcarnitine levels in adults(M D P I AG, 2019-01-15) Guénard, Frédéric; Garneau, Véronique; Allam-Ndoul, Bénédicte; Pérusse, Louis; Lemieux, Simone; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Rousseau, MichèleElevated plasma branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) and C3 and C5 acylcarnitines (AC) levels observed in individuals with insulin resistance (IR) might be influenced by dietary protein intakes. This study explores the associations between dietary protein sources, plasma BCAA levels and C3 and C5 ACs in normal weight (NW) or overweight (OW) individuals with or without metabolic syndrome (MS). Data from 199 men and women aged 18–55 years with complete metabolite profile were analyzed. Associations between metabolic parameters, protein sources, plasma BCAA and AC levels were tested. OW/MS+ consumed significantly more animal protein (p = 0.0388) and had higher plasma BCAA levels (p < 0.0001) than OW/MS− or NW/MS− individuals. Plasma BCAA levels were not associated with BCAA intakes in the whole cohort, while there was a trend for an association between plasma BCAA levels and red meat or with animal protein in OW/MS+. These associations were of weak magnitude. In NW/MS− individuals, the protein sources associated with BCAA levels varied greatly with adjustment for confounders. Plasma C3 and C5 ACs were associated with plasma BCAA levels in the whole cohort (p < 0.0001) and in subgroups based on OW and MS status. These results suggest a modest association of meat or animal protein intakes and an association of C3 and C5 ACs with plasma BCAA levels, obesity and MS.
- PublicationAccès libreEffects of age, sex, body mass index and APOE genotype on cardiovascular biomarker response to an n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation(S. Karger, 2013-05-08) Garneau, Véronique; Thifault, Elisabeth; Cormier, Hubert; Bouchard-Mercier, Annie; Paradis, Ann-Marie; Rudkowska, Iwona; Ouellette, Catherine; Lemieux, Simone; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Couture, PatrickObjectives: To test whether age, sex, body mass index (BMI), and the apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype are associated with the metabolic response to an n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation. Methods: 210 subjects followed a 2-week run-in period based on Canada’s Food Guide and underwent a 6-week 5 g/day fish oil supplementation (1.9 g of eicosapentaenoic acid and 1.1 g of docosahexaenoic acid). Cardiovascular disease risk factors were measured. Results: n-3 PUFA supplementation was associated with a decrease of plasma triglyceride levels (p = 0.0002) as well as with an increase of fasting glucose (FG) levels (p =0.02). Age was associated with post-intervention plasma total cholesterol (p = 0.01), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p = 0.007), apolipoprotein B (p = 0.04), and insulin (p = 0.002) levels. Sex was associated with post-intervention plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (p = 0.02). BMI was associated with plasma FG (p = 0.02) and insulin levels (p < 0.0001) after the supplementation. APOE genotype was associated with FG (p = 0.001) and C-reactive protein levels (p = 0.03) after the supplementation. Conclusion: Results suggest that age, sex, BMI, and the APOE genotype contribute to the inter-individual variability observed in the metabolic response to an n-3 PUFA supplementation.
- PublicationAccès libreEffects of daily raspberry consumption on immune-metabolic health in subjects at risk of metabolic syndrome : a randomized controlled trial(MDPI Pub., 2020-12-17) Roy, Denis; Garneau, Véronique; Franck, Maximilien; Toro Martin, Juan de; Couillard, Charles; Guay, Valérie; Marette, André; Kearney, Michèle; Pilon, Geneviève; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Couture, Patrick; Marette, André.Consumption of red raspberries has been reported to exert acute beneficial effects on postprandial glycemia, insulinemia, triglyceridemia, and cytokine levels in metabolically disturbed subjects. In a two-arm parallel-group, randomized, controlled trial, 59 subjects with overweight or abdominal obesity and with slight hyperinsulinemia or hypertriglyceridemia were randomized to consume 280 g/day of frozen raspberries or to maintain their usual diet for 8 weeks. Primary analyses measured metabolic differences between the groups. Secondary analyses performed with omics tools in the intervention group assessed blood gene expression and plasma metabolomic changes following the raspberry supplementation. The intervention did not significantly affect plasma insulin, glucose, inflammatory marker concentrations, nor blood pressure. Following the supplementation, 43 genes were differentially expressed, and several functional pathways were enriched, a major portion of which were involved in the regulation of cytotoxicity, immune cell trafficking, protein signal transduction, and interleukin production. In addition, 10 serum metabolites were found significantly altered, among which β-alanine, trimethylamine N-oxide, and bioactive lipids. Although the supplementation had no meaningful metabolic effects, these results highlight the impact of a diet rich in raspberry on the immune function and phospholipid metabolism, thus providing novel insights into potential immune-metabolic pathways influenced by regular raspberry consumption
- PublicationAccès libreNutrigenetic testing for personalized nutrition : an evaluation of public perceptions, attitudes, and concerns in a population of French Canadians(S. Karger AG, 2019-05-24) Garneau, Véronique; Vallée-Marcotte, Bastien; Cormier, Hubert; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Robitaille, Julie; Desroches, SophieBackground/Aims: This study aimed to evaluate attitudes, perceptions, and concerns about nutrigenetic testing for personalized nutrition in the general population of the province of Quebec in Canada. Methods: A total of 1,425 individuals from the province of Quebec completed a 37-question online survey on nutrigenetics and were included in analyses. The χ2 test was used to test for associations between categorical variables. Results: The majority of the participants (93.3%) considered dietitians the best professionals to give personalized dietary advice based on nutrigenetic testing. The main reported advantage for nutrigenetic testing was “health” (23.5%), followed by “disease prevention” (22.2%). Among the disadvantages, “no disadvantage” (24.4%), followed by “diet restriction” (12.9%) were mostly reported. The 2 major concerns raised were accessibility to genetic testing by telemarketing companies and spammers (51.8%), and solicitation by companies using personal genetic data to sell products (48.6%). Conclusions: French Canadians generally have a positive attitude towards nutrigenetics and consider its use to have many benefits. They expressed concern about possible confidentiality issues associated with the management or property of genetic test results. Education about such issues is needed. Overall, our findings suggest that the population is interested in more extensive use of nutrigenetics in health management.