Personne : Teasdale, Normand
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Université Laval. Département de kinésiologie
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- PublicationAccès libreChange in the natural head-neck orientation momentarily altered sensorimotor control during sensory transition(2017-01-17) Simoneau, Martin; Teasdale, Normand; Laurendeau, Simon; Xu, IsabelleAchilles tendon vibration generates proprioceptive information that is incongruent with the actual body position; it alters the perception of body orientation leading to a vibration-induced postural response. When a person is standing freely, vibration of the Achilles tendon shifts the internal representation of the verticality backward thus the vibration-induced postural response realigned the whole body orientation with the shifted subjective vertical. Because utricular otoliths information participates in the creation of the internal representation of the verticality, changing the natural orientation of the head-neck system during Achilles tendon vibration could alter the internal representation of the earth vertical to a greater extent. Consequently, it was hypothesized that compared to neutral head-neck orientation, alteration in the head-neck orientation should impair balance control immediately after Achilles tendon vibration onset or offset (i.e., sensory transition) as accurate perception of the earth vertical is required. Results revealed that balance control impairment was observed only immediately following Achilles tendon vibration offset; both groups with the head-neck either extended or flexed showed larger body sway (i.e., larger root mean square scalar distance between the center of pressure and center of gravity) compared to the group with the neutral head-neck orientation. The fact that balance control was uninfluenced by head-neck orientation immediately following vibration onset suggests the error signal needs to accumulate to a certain threshold before the internal representation of the earth vertical becomes incorrect.
- PublicationRestreintGlycemic instability and spontaneous energy intake : association with knowledge-based work(Ovid, 2008-09-01) Drapeau, Vicky; Teasdale, Normand; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Tremblay, Angelo; Poirier, PaulObjective: To further document the impact of knowledge-based work (KBW) on spontaneous energy intake and glucose homeostasis. Methods: We used a within-subjects experimental design, in which each participant was engaged in each of the three 45-minute conditions followed by an ad libitum buffet, 1) resting in a sitting position; 2) reading a document and writing a summary; or 3) performing a battery of computerized tests. Fourteen female students (mean age: 22.8 ± 2.3 years, mean body mass index: 22.4 ± 2.5 kg/m2) were recruited to participate. Plasma glucose, insulin, and cortisol levels at seven time-points, and appetite sensation markers were measured at each experimental condition. Results: The mean ad libitum energy intake after the reading-writing and the automated test-battery conditions exceeded that measured after rest by 848 kJ and 1057 kJ, respectively (p < .05). No specific dietary preference was detected, as reflected by the comparable percent of energy from each macronutrient in the three conditions. No significant difference in appetite sensation markers was observed among the three conditions. Mean cortisol level over 45 minutes in the two KBW conditions was significantly higher (p < .05) compared with the control condition. Finally, a significant increase in variations in plasma glucose and insulin levels was observed as compared with the control condition (p < .01). Conclusions: This study showed that KBW acutely induces an increase in spontaneous energy intake, and promotes an increased fluctuation in plasma glucose and insulin levels. This study contributes to the documentation of a new risk factor for a positive energy balance, with the potential to lead to overweight in the long-term.
- PublicationAccès libreOlder adults with mild cognitive impairments show less driving errors after a multiple sessions simulator training program but do not exhibit long term retention(Frontiers Media S.A., 2016-12-27) Germain Robitaille, Mathieu; Moszkowicz, Thierry; Hudon, Lisa; Simoneau, Martin; Teasdale, Normand; Laurendeau, Denis; Duchesne, Simon; Hudon, Carol; Bherer, LouisThe driving performance of individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is suboptimal when compared to healthy older adults. It is expected that the driving will worsen with the progression of the cognitive decline and thus, whether or not these individuals should continue to drive is a matter of debate. The aim of the study was to provide support to the claim that individuals with MCI can benefit from a training program and improve their overall driving performance in a driving simulator. Fifteen older drivers with MCI participated in five training sessions in a simulator (over a 21-day period) and in a 6-month recall session. During training, they received automated auditory feedback on their performance when an error was noted about various maneuvers known to be suboptimal in MCI individuals (for instance, weaving, omitting to indicate a lane change, to verify a blind spot, or to engage in a visual search before crossing an intersection). The number of errors was compiled for eight different maneuvers for all sessions. For the initial five sessions, a gradual and significant decrease in the number of errors was observed, indicating learning and safer driving. The level of performance, however, was not maintained at the 6-month recall session. Nevertheless, the initial learning observed opens up possibilities to undertake more regular interventions to maintain driving skills and safe driving in MCI individuals.
- PublicationAccès libreSex differences in effects of mental work and moderate-intensity physical activity on energy intake in young adults(Hindawi, 2013-05-29) Pérusse-Lachance, Émilie; Drapeau, Vicky; Teasdale, Normand; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Sénécal, Caroline; Tremblay, Angelo; Brassard, PatriceThe aim of this study was to examine the acute effects of mental work and moderate-intensity physical activity on various components of energy balance in young and healthy adults. With the use of a randomized crossover design, 35 participants aged 24 ± 3 years completed three 45-min conditions, namely, (i) resting in a sitting position (control), (ii) reading and writing (mental work (MW)), and (iii) exercising on a treadmill at 40% of peak oxygen uptake (exercise), followed by an ad libitum lunch. The endpoints were spontaneous energy intake (EI), energy expenditure (EE), appetite sensations, and EI for the remainder of the day. We observed that the energy cost of the control and MW conditions was about the same whereas the exercise condition increased EE to a greater extent in men than women. Exercise induced a decrease in EI relative to EE compared to the control condition that was more pronounced in men than women. However, women tended to increase their energy intake after the MW condition compared to the control one whereas an opposite trend was observed in men. None of the appetite sensation markers differed significantly between both sexes. In conclusion, men and women have specific food intake patterns when submitted to cognitive and physical stimuli.
- PublicationAccès libreMental work stimulates cardiovascular responses through a reduction in cardiac parasympathetic modulation in men and women(OMICS Publishing Group, 2012-06-13) Pérusse-Lachance, Émilie; Drapeau, Vicky; Teasdale, Normand; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Sénécal, Caroline; Tremblay, Angelo; Brassard, Patrice; Poirier, PaulMental Work (MW) stimulates Cardiovascular (CV) functions in healthy adults and a reduction in cardiac parasympathetic modulation could be one mechanism involved in such a response. The influence of sex on these CV responses remains ambiguous. The aim of the study was to evaluate CV impacts of MW in healthy individuals and whether sex influences CV responses induced by MW. The impact of a 45-min reading and writing session vs. a control condition, on Blood Pressure (BP), Heart Rate (HR), and Heart Rate Variability (HRV), was evaluated in 44 healthy adults with the use of a randomized crossover design. The influence of sex on those variables was then evaluated. Diastolic BP (74 Â± 1 vs. 69 Â± 1 mmHg; p < 0.05) and mean arterial pressure (MAP; 87 Â± 7 vs. 83 Â± 8 mmHg; p < 0.005), HR (68 Â± 1 vs. 62 Â± 1 bpm; p < 0.0001) and low frequency/high frequency ratio (2.8 Â± 0.1 vs. 2.0 Â± 0.1; p < 0.0001) were higher, while global HRV (SDNN: 84 Â± 3 vs.104 Â± 3 ms; p < 0.0001) and cardiac parasympathetic activity were lower during MW (p < 0.0001) vs. the control condition in the whole sample. During both experimental conditions, HR was higher (p < 0.0001), while BP, rMSSD, pNN50 and low frequency component of HRV were lower in women compared to men (all p < 0.05). The intensity of the cognitive demand and its influence on CV variables were comparable between men and women. These results support that MW increases BP and HR through decrement in cardiac parasympathetic modulation in healthy subjects and suggest that sex does not influence CV responses induced by cognitive demand of similar intensity.
- PublicationAccès libreAlternative avenues in the assessment of driving capacities in older drivers and implications for training(Cambridge University Press, 2010-12-01) Simoneau, Martin; Teasdale, Normand; Gamache, Pierre.; Hudon, CarolThe population aging, combined with the overrepresentation of older drivers in car crashes, engendered a whole body of research destined at finding simple and efficient assessment methods of driving capacities. However, this quest is little more than a utopian dream, given that car crashes and unsafe driving behaviours can result from a plethora of interacting factors. This review highlights the main problems of the current assessment methods and training programs, and presents theoretical and empirical arguments justifying the need of reorienting the research focus. Our discussion is elaborated in light of the fundamental principle of specificity in learning and practice. We also identify overlooked variables that are deterministic when assessing, and training, a complex ability like driving. We especially focus on the role of the sensorimotor transformation process. Finally, we propose alternative methods that are in-line with the recent trends in educational programs that use virtual reality and simulation technologies.