Personne :
Vachon, François

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Université Laval. École de psychologie
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Voici les éléments 1 - 7 sur 7
  • Publication
    Can pupillometry index auditory attentional capture in contexts of active visual processing?
    (Taylor & Francis, 2018-05-01) Vachon, François; Marois, Alexandre
    The rare presentation of a sound that deviates from the auditory background tends to capture attention, which is known to impede cognitive functioning. Such disruption is usually measured using performance on a concurrent visual task. Growing evidence recently showed that the pupillary dilation response (PDR) could index the attentional response triggered by a deviant sound. Given that the pupil diameter is sensitive to several vision-related factors, it is unclear whether the PDR could serve to study attentional capture in such contexts. Hence, the present study aimed at verifying whether the PDR can be used as a proxy for auditory attentional capture while a visual serial recall task (Experiment 1) or a reading comprehension task (Experiment 2) – respectively producing changes in luminance and gaze position – is being performed. Results showed that presenting a deviant sound within steady-state standard sounds elicited larger PDRs than a standard sound. Moreover, the magnitude of these PDRs was positively related to the amount of performance disruption produced by deviant sounds in Experiment 1. Performance remained unaffected by the deviants in Experiment 2, thereby implying that the PDR may be a more sensitive attention-capture index than behavioural measures. These results suggest that the PDR can be used to assess attentional capture by a deviant sound in contexts where the pupil diameter can be modulated by the visual environment.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    The benefits and the costs of using auditory warning messages in dynamic decision making settings
    (Sage, 2017-10-05) Vachon, François; Hodgetts, Helen M.; Chamberland, Cindy; Roberge-Vallières, Benoît; Tremblay, Sébastien
    The failure to notice critical changes in both visual and auditory scenes may have important consequences for performance in complex dynamic environments, especially those related to security, such as aviation, surveillance during major events, and command and control of emergency response. Previous work has shown that a significant number of situation changes remain undetected by operators in such environments. In the current study, we examined the impact of using auditory warning messages to support the detection of critical situation changes and to a broader extent the decision making required by the environment. Twenty-two participants performed a radar operator task involving multiple subtasks while detecting critical task-related events that were cued by a specific type of audio message. Results showed that about 22% of the critical changes remained undetected by participants, a percentage similar to that found in previous work using visual cues to support change detection. However, we found that audio messages tended to bias threat evaluation toward perceiving objects as more threatening than they were in reality. Such findings revealed both benefits and costs associated with using audio messages to support change detection in complex dynamic environments.
  • Publication
    Eyes have ears : indexing the orienting response to sound using pupillometry
    (Elsevier, 2017-10-07) Vachon, François; Labonté, Katherine; Marois, Alexandre; Parent, Mark
    The rare occurrence of a sound deviating from the auditory background tends to trigger attentional orienting. While some sympathetic physiological responses can be used to index this orienting response, findings surrounding the pupillary dilation response (PDR) as a proxy for the orienting response are conflicting. The current study was tailor-designed to examine whether the PDR satisfies specific criteria of an orienting response index, namely the classic habituation pattern and a sensitivity to the size of the deviation. The PDR decrement to a repeated standard sound, recovery to a deviant sound, and dishabituation to the re-presentation of the standard were assessed for small and large deviations embedded in irrelevant auditory sequences. The PDR not only showed habituation and dishabituation, but also recovered in correspondence with the magnitude of the acoustic deviation. This consistency between variations of the PDR and orienting response's properties indicates that the PDR is a valid index of the auditory orienting response.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Le rôle du masquage dans le phénomène du clignement attentionnel en audition
    (2007) Vachon, François; Tremblay, Sébastien
    La présentation successive de deux cibles (Cl et C2) dans une séquence rapide de stimuli se traduit souvent par un déficit dans l'identification de C2, un phénomène connu sous le nom de clignement attentionnel (CA; attentional blink). Alors que le phénomène est très étudié en vision, ses caractéristiques fonctionnelles sont encore méconnues en audition. La présente thèse cherche à combler cette lacune en investiguant le rôle du masquage des cibles dans le CA auditif, un facteur déterminant dans l'apparition du CA visuel. À l'aide de séquences de stimuli auditifs non verbaux, un premier chapitre empirique montre que, comme en modalité visuelle, la présentation d'au moins un item après C2 est nécessaire à l'obtention du CA en modalité auditive (Expériences 1 et 2) et que la magnitude du déficit est modulée par la distance temporelle séparant C2 de son masque (Expérience 3). Dans le deuxième chapitre empirique, l'incidence du masque de Cl et de C2 est comparée entre les modalités auditive et visuelle à l'aide de séquences de nature verbale composées uniquement des cibles et de leur masque respectif. En audition comme en vision, la présence du masque de C2 garantit l'observation du CA. Toutefois, alors que le masquage de Cl affecte toujours l'ampleur du CA visuel, son incidence en modalité auditive varie en fonction des caractéristiques des cibles. En effet, la présence du masque de Cl ne produit aucun effet sur le CA auditif lorsque les cibles sont discriminées par leur finale (Expérience 4), mais elle influence l'expression du déficit si les cibles se distinguent par leur début (Expérience 5). Les résultats de la thèse révèlent des similitudes mais également des différences entre l'audition et la vision sur le rôle de l'interférence dans le déploiement temporel de l'attention. Un modèle d'interférence multiple est proposé, dans lequel le traitement séquentiel de l'information est d'abord soumis à des limites spécifiques à chaque système sensoriel puis à un entonnoir central de nature amodale.
  • Publication
    Is auditory distraction by changing-state and deviant sounds underpinned by the same mechanism? Evidence from pupillometry
    (Elsevier, 2019-01-08) Vachon, François; Marsh, John E.; Marois, Alexandre
    The mere presence of task-irrelevant auditory stimuli is known to interfere with cognitive functioning. Disruption can be caused by changing auditory distractors (the changing-state effect) or by a sound that deviates from the auditory background (the deviation effect). The unitary account of auditory distraction explains both phenomena in terms of attentional capture whereas the duplex-mechanism account posits that they reflect two fundamentally different forms of distraction in which only the deviation effect is caused by attentional capture. To test these predictions, we exploited a physiological index of attention orienting: the pupillary dilation response (PDR). Participants performed visual serial recall while ignoring sequences of spoken letters. These sequences either comprised repeated or changing letters, and one letter could sometimes be replaced by pink noise (the deviant). Recall was poorer in both changing-state and deviant trials. Interestingly, the PDR was elicited by deviant sounds but not changing-state sounds, while a tonic increase in pupil size was found throughout changing-state trials. This physiological dissociation of the changing-state and the deviation effects suggests they are subtended by distinct mechanisms thereby procuring support for the duplex-mechanism account over the unitary account.
  • Publication
    Forewarning interruptions in dynamic settings : can prevention bolster recovery ?
    (American Psychological Association, 2019-03-21) Vachon, François; Labonté, Katherine; Tremblay, Sébastien
    In complex dynamic work environments, the consequences of task interruptions on performance can put public safety at risk. If not designed carefully, current tools aiming to facilitate interruption recovery can instead hamper performance because of information overload. Although a simpler solution—the forewarning of an imminent interruption—has proven effective in static contexts, existing theories of task interruption do not clearly predict its impact on the resumption of dynamically evolving tasks. The current study examined the effects of a preinterruption warning in dynamic settings to develop a better understanding of task resumption and supplement current theoretical accounts. In a simulation of above-water warfare, scenarios were either uninterrupted, unexpectedly interrupted, or interrupted following an auditory warning. Behavioral, oculomotor, and pupillometric data regarding decision making, information processing, and cognitive load were computed before, during, and after each interruption (or the corresponding moment). Interruption warnings triggered a cognitively demanding preinterruption preparation that, in turn, speeded up postinterruption information processing and decision making and lowered cognitive load when resuming the interrupted task. These findings help to complement current theories of interruptions while showing that preinterruption warnings represent a promising way to support interruption recovery in complex dynamic situations.