Personne : Beaudoin, Georges
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Université Laval. Département de géologie et de génie géologique
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- PublicationAccès libreAge and origin of uranium mineralization in the Camie River deposit (Otish Basin, Québec, Canada)(ScienceDirect, 2017-10-11) Lesbros-Piat-Desvial, Marion; Beaudoin, Georges; Mercadier, Julien; Creaser, RobertThe Camie River uranium deposit is located in the southeastern part of the Paleoproterozoic Otish Basin (Québec). The uranium mineralization consists of disseminated and vein uraninite and brannerite precipitated close to the unconformity between Paleoproterozoic fluviatile, pervasively altered, sandstones and conglomerates of the Matoush Formation and the underlying sulfide-bearing graphitic schists of the Archean Hippocampe greenstone belt. Diagenetic orange/pink feldspathic alteration of the Matoush Formation consists of authigenic albite cement partly replaced by later orthoclase cement, with the Na2O content of clastic rocks increasing with depth. Basin-wide green muscovite alteration affected both the Matoush Formation and the top of the basement Tichegami Group. Uraninite with minor brannerite is mainly hosted by subvertical reverse faults in basement graphitic metapelites ± sulfides and overlying sandstones and conglomerates. Uranium mineralization is associated with chlorite veins and alteration with temperatures near 320 ºC, that are paragenetically late relative to the diagenetic feldspathic and muscovite alterations. Re-Os geochronology of molybdenite intergrown with uraninite yields an age of 1724.0 ± 4.9 Ma, whereas uraninite yields an identical, although slightly discordant, 1724 ± 29 Ma SIMS U-Pb age. Uraninite has high concentrations in REE with flat REE spectra resembling those of uraninite formed from metamorphic fluids, rather than the bell-shaped patterns typical of unconformity-related uraninite. Paragenesis and geochronology therefore show that the uranium mineralization formed approximately 440 million years after intrusion of the Otish Gabbro dykes and sills at ~2176 Ma, which constrains the minimum age for the sedimentary host rocks. The post-diagenetic stage of uraninite after feldspathic and muscovite alterations, the paragenetic sequence and the brannerite-uraninite assemblage, the relatively high temperature for the mineralizing event (~320 °C) following the diagenetic Na- and K-dominated alteration, lack of evidence for brines typical of unconformity-related U deposits, the older age of the Otish Basin compared to worldwide basins hosting unconformity-related uranium deposits, the large age difference between basin fill and mineralization, the older age of the uranium oxide compared to ages for worldwide unconformity-related U deposits, and the flat REE spectra of uraninite do not support the previous interpretation that the Camie River deposit is an unconformity-associated uranium deposit. Rather, the evidence is more consistent with a PaleoProterozoic, higher-temperature hydrothermal event at 1724 Ma, whose origin remains speculative.
- PublicationAccès libreTextures and chemical composition of magnetite from iron oxide-copper-gold (IOCG) and Kiruna-type iron oxide-apatite (IOA) deposits and their implications for ore genesis and magnetite classification schemes(2019-07-30) Beaudoin, Georges; Xiaowen, HuangTextural and compositional data of magnetite from Igarapé Bahia, Alemao, Sossego, Salobo, and Candelaria iron oxide copper-gold (IOCG) and El Romeral Kiruna-type iron oxide-apatite (IOA) deposits show that some magnetite grains display oscillatory zoning or have been reequilibrated by oxy-exsolution, coupled dissolution and reprecipitation (CDR) reactions, and/or recrystallization. Textures formed via CDR are most widespread in the studied samples. The original oscillatory zoning was likely derived from the crystal growth during fluctuating fluid compositions rather than from variation in temperature and oxygen fugacity. The oxy-exsolution of ilmenite in magnetite is attributed to increasing oxygen fugacity and decreasing temperature with alteration and mineralization, resulting in product magnetite with lower Ti and higher V contents. Recrystallization of some magnetite grains is commonly due to high-temperature annealing that retained primary compositions. Two different types of CDR processes are defined according to textures and chemical compositions of different generations of magnetite. The first generation of magnetite (Mag-1) is an inclusion-rich and trace element-rich core, which was replaced by an inclusion-poor and trace element-poor rim (Mag-2). The third generation of magnetite (Mag-3), inclusion poor but trace element rich, occurs as veins replacing Mag-2 along fractures or grain margins. Type 1 CDR process transforming Mag-1 to Mag-2 is more extensive and is similar to processes reported in skarn deposits, whereas type 2 CDR process is local, transforming Mag-2 to Mag-3. During type 1 CDR process, minor and trace elements Si, K, Ca, Mg, Al, and Mn in magnetite are excluded, and Fe contents increase to various extents, in contrast to type 2 CDR process, which is characterized by increased contents of Si, K, Ca, Mg, Al, and Mn. Type 1 CDR process is possibly induced by the changing fluid composition and/or decreasing temperature during progressive alteration and ore formation, whereas type 2 CDR process can be interpreted as post-ore replacement due to a new pulse of magmatic-hydrothermal fluids. The identification of magnetite core (Mag-1) with igneous origin and rim (Mag-2) with magmatic-hydrothermal origin in the Sossego IOCG and El Romeral IOA deposits supports a fluid changing from magmatic to magmatic-hydrothermal during IOCG and IOA formation and indicates a genetic link between these two deposit types. The large data set here further demonstrates that magnetite is susceptible to textural and compositional reequilibration during high-temperature magmatic and magmatic-hydrothermal processes. Reequilibrated magnetite, particularly that formed by CDR processes, has a chemical composition that can be different from that of primary magnetite. Modified magnetite, therefore, cannot be used to discriminate its primary origin or to interpret its provenance in overburden sediments. Therefore, in situ chemical analysis of magnetite combined with textural characterization is necessary to understand the origin of magnetite in IOCG and IOA deposits.
- PublicationRestreintIsotopic evidence of passive mineral carbonation in mine wastes from the Dumont Nickel Project (Abitibi, Quebec)(Elsevier, 2017-03-17) Beaudoin, Georges; Dupont, Pierre; Gras, Antoine; Bussière, Bruno; Lemieux, Jean-Michel; Plante, Benoît; Molson, John W. H.Natural weathering of ultramafic rocks in mine tailings captures atmospheric CO2 through the formation of magnesium carbonates. The Dumont Nickel Project (DNP) is of particular interest as it will generate 1.7 Gt of ultramafic residues. A field experiment has been conducted at the DNP site in order to understand the process of natural CO2 sequestration. Two experimental cells were built using waste rock and mineral processing tailings and were instrumented with gas sampling ports and probes to monitor water saturation and suction. A decrease of the interstitial gas-phase CO2 concentration in both cells, from atmospheric values (∼390 ppmv) near the surface to ∼100 ppmv near the bottom, reflects active CO2 consumption by the residues. The total carbon content of the weathered DNP mine waste ranges from 0.2 wt% to 6.5 wt% C. Hydrotalcites supergroup minerals (pyroaurite-3R, brugnatellite, pyroaurite 2-H), aragonite, nesquehonite, dypingite and hydromagnesite were absent from the unweathered residues and precipitated in the cells during passive mineral carbonation. In situ measurements using Wavelength-Scanned Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy reveal an increase of δ13C(air) from −8‰ near the surface of the cells to ∼2‰ near the bottom that is correlated with the decrease in CO2 concentration. This trend is explained by kinetic carbon isotope fractionation during dissolution of atmospheric CO2 in interstitial water (ΔDIC-CO2 = −11.2‰). Secondary carbonates, precipitated from the interstitial water, are characterized by a moderately high δ18O and low δ13C. These isotopic compositions of the carbonates are consistent with precipitation in an evaporative environment where the kinetic carbon fractionation during atmospheric CO2 dissolution produces interstitial water depleted in 13C. Moreover, isotopic compositions of hydrotalcite supergroup minerals and other carbonate minerals are consistent with modern precipitation from the weathering of mining residue. These observations demonstrate the atmospheric source for the sequestered CO2 and help constrain a conceptual model of the carbonation reaction in the residues.
- PublicationAccès libreTrace element composition of scheelite in orogenic gold deposits(Société de géologie appliquée aux gîtes minéraux, 2019-09-11) Makvandi, Sheida; Sciuba, Marjorie; Beaudoin, Georges; Grzela, DonaldScheelite from 25 representative orogenic gold deposits from various geological settings was investigated by EPMA (electron probe micro-analyzer) and LA-ICP-MS (laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer) to establish discriminant geochemical features to constrain indicator mineral surveys for gold exploration. Scheelite from orogenic gold deposits displays five REE patterns including a bell-shaped pattern with a (i) positive or (ii) negative Eu anomaly; (iii) a flat pattern with a positive Eu anomaly and, less commonly, (iv) a LREE-enriched pattern, and (v) a HREE-enriched pattern. The REE patterns are interpreted to reflect the source of the auriferous hydrothermal fluids and, perhaps, co-precipitating mineral phases. Scheelite from deposits formed in rocks metamorphosed at upper greenschist to lower amphibolite facies have low contents in REE, Y, and Sr, and high contents in Mn, Nb, Ta, and V, compared to scheelite formed in rocks metamorphosed below the middle greenschist facies. Scheelite from deposits hosted in sedimentary rocks has high Sr, Pb, U, and Th, and low Na, REE, and Y, compared to that hosted in felsic to intermediate rocks. Statistical analysis including elemental plots and multivariate statistics with PLS-DA (partial least square-discriminant analysis) reveal that the metamorphic facies of the host rocks as well as the regional host rock composition exert a strong control on scheelite composition. This is a result of fluid-rock exchange during fluid flow to gold deposition site. PLS-DA and elemental ratio plots show that scheelite from orogenic gold deposits have distinct Sr, Mo, Eu, As, and Sr/Mo, but indistinguishable REE signatures, compared to scheelite from other deposit types.