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Charette, Yanick

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Université Laval. École de travail social et de criminologie
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Voici les éléments 1 - 10 sur 17
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    The judicious judicial dispositions juggle : characteristics of police Interventions involving people with a mental illness
    (Canadian Psychiatric Association, 2011-11-01) Charette, Yanick; Crocker, Anne G.; Billette, Isabelle
    Objective: The number of police interventions with people presenting a mental health problem has been increasing during the past 30 years, and police services are becoming increasingly aware of the human resources and skills these interventions require. Our study addresses the characteristics explaining police time used and outcomes of interventions as police officers interact with people with mental illness. Method: Using a police service administrative database from a large Canadian city, and an identification algorithm method, police interventions with people with mental illness were identified on 3 randomly selected days in 1 year. A content analysis of intervention logs was carried out to identify characteristics of those interventions: the call initiator, the location, and the final outcome of the intervention. Results: Interventions with people with mental illness represent a small proportion (3%; n = 272) of all police interventions (n = 8485). General linear models show that the type of outcome is the most important factor in estimating the time required by police interventions. Arrests and hospitalizations are the least time-efficient outcomes, consuming 2.0 and 3.2 times, respectively, more time than informal dispositions. A multiple correspondence analysis shows that police interventions can be depicted in 2 dimensions, representing their main roles concerning people with mental illness, namely, to ensure the public safety and to protect the most vulnerable citizens. The more these services are required, the more police time will be required. Conclusion: Education and partnerships between police services and mental health services are essential to a proper management of outcomes.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    La perception du prestige des occupations illicites par des délinquants
    (Criminal Justice Association, 2015-01-01) Charette, Yanick
    Occupational prestige is a measure used in sociology of occupations to establish the social status of a job as a hierarchized continuum. The measure can be defined according to income, level of supervision, independence, and competence. Based on interviews with violators committed to imprisonment (n = 133), this study assesses the applicability of the notion of prestige to illicit occupations. Results show that the domains of activities associated with illicit occupations are not consistent regarding prestige, contrary to licit occupations. Some of the characteristics that define the prestige of licit occupations, such as income and competence, contribute to define the prestige of illicit ones as well. The criminal milieu reveals specific characteristics, among which is the difficulty to obtain occupational stability. Studying criminality with the same notions we use for the population at large allows us to compare both environments to understand their components and differences. And understanding social desirability within the criminal milieu would allow for a better understanding of the permutations in an offender’s career, that is, what motivates a delinquent to go back and forth between criminal and conventional occupations. ; Le prestige occupationnel est une mesure utilisée en sociologie des professions pour déterminer le statut social d’un emploi sous la forme d’un continuum hiérarchisé. Cette mesure peut être définie selon : le revenu, le niveau de supervision, l’autonomie et les compétences. En se basant sur des entrevues auprès de délinquants incarcérés (n = 133), cette étude évalue si cette notion de prestige s’applique aux occupations illicites. Les résultats suggèrent que, contrairement aux occupations licites, les domaines d’activité des occupations illicites ne présentent pas d’homogénéité en ce qui concerne le prestige. Certaines caractéristiques définissant le prestige des occupations licites, comme le revenu et la compétence, contribuent aussi à définir le prestige des occupations illicites. Le milieu criminel présente des caractéristiques particulières, notamment la difficulté d’atteindre une stabilité occupationnelle. En étudiant le crime avec les mêmes concepts que ceux utilisés pour étudier la population générale, il est possible de mieux comparer les deux milieux pour en comprendre les rouages et les distinctions. La compréhension de la désirabilité sociale à l’intérieur du milieu criminel pourrait permettre de mieux comprendre les permutations dans une carrière délinquante, à savoir les allers-retours entre les activités criminelles et un emploi conventionnel.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Dynamic and static factors associated with discharge dispositions : the National Trajectory Project of Individuals Found Not Criminally Responsible on Account of Mental Disorder (NCRMD) in Canada
    (Van Nostrand Reinhold, 2014-09-18) Crocker, Anne G.; Charette, Yanick; Nicholls, Tonia L.; Seto, Michael C.
    The majority of individuals found not criminally responsible on account of mental disorder (NCRMD) in Canada spend some time in hospital before they are conditionally or absolutely (no conditions) discharged to the community by a legally mandated review board. By law, the decision to conditionally discharge an individual found NCRMD should be guided by the need to protect the public, the mental condition of the accused, and the other needs of the accused, especially regarding his/her community reintegration. At the time of this study, Canadian legislation and case law required that the review board disposition should be the "least onerous and least restrictive" possible for the accused. This means that, if there is no evidence that the person poses a significant risk to public safety, he/she must be released. However, the Canadian Criminal Code does not specify the criteria that must be considered when making this risk assessment. This leads to two questions. (1) What predicts review board dispositions? (2) To what extent do disposition determinations reflect evidence-based practices? The present study examined dynamic and static predictors of detention in custody, conditional discharge (CD), and absolute discharge (AD) dispositions among persons found NCRMD across the three largest provinces in Canada. The National Trajectory Project (NTP) examined men and women found NCRMD in British Columbia (BC), Québec (QC), and Ontario (ON) between May 2000 and April 2005, followed until December 2008. For the purposes of this study, individuals who had at least one hearing with a review board were extracted from the NTP dataset (N = 1794: QC = 1089, ON = 483, BC = 222). Over the course of the study, 6743 review board hearings were examined (QC = 3505, ON = 2185, BC = 1053). Despite advances in the risk assessment field, presentation of a comprehensive structured risk assessment to the review board was not the norm. Yet our findings suggest that review boards were taking into account a combination of empirically validated static and dynamic risk factors, as represented by the items of the HCR-20 risk assessment scheme. Particular attention was being paid to the behavior of the patient between hearings (e.g., violent acts, compliance with conditions). Severity of index offense was associated with review board decisions; though index severity is not related to recidivism, it is an important consideration in terms of public perceptions of the justice system and can be related to better established risk factors (i.e., criminal history and prior violence). Historical factors had more influence on the decision to detain someone, while clinical factors were more influential on an AD decision. Disposition stability was the most common trajectory, meaning that a patient with a prior CD disposition was most likely to receive another CD disposition at the next hearing. Static and dynamic risk factors found in the HCR-20 influenced review board determinations, although presentation of a complete structured risk assessment is the exception, not the norm. Results suggest that clinicians recommending less restrictive dispositions are more likely to include a comprehensive risk assessment with their recommendation. An alternative explanation is that, when there is no comprehensive assessment of risk, the review board tends to be more cautious and apply more restrictive dispositions. The practice seems to be contrary to the legislation at the time of the study, given that there should be a presumption that the patient is not a significant threat.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    The predictive validity of clinical ratings of the Short-Term assessment of risk and treatability (START)
    (Simon Fraser University, Mental Health, Law and Policy Institute., 2010-12-09) Braithwaite, Erika; Charette, Yanick; Crocker, Anne G.; Andrea Reyes
    With the increased need to assess and manage risk in inpatient settings, the Short-Term Assessment of Risk and Treatability (START) was implemented on a civil psychiatric unit. The goal of the present study was to examine the tool's predictive validity when completed by clinical teams as part of routine practice. Data were collected for 34 patients hospitalized for a minimum of 30 days prior to and after a START evaluation. Several challenging behaviors, such as aggression towards others, self-harm, and substance abuse were assessed using the START Outcomes Scale (Nicholls et al., 2007 Nicholls, T. L., Gagnon, N., Crocker, A. G., Brink, J. H., Desmarais, S. L. and Webster, C. D. 2007. START Outcome Scale SOS, Vancouver, , Canada: BC Mental Health & Addiction Services. [Google Scholar] ). Results from multilevel logistic regression and Receiver Operating Characteristics analyses lend partial support for the predictive validity of the START. A limited set of START items combined was significantly better at predicting the challenging behaviors than the original total Strength and Vulnerability scales. Results are discussed in terms of the clinical use of risk assessment.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    The use of risk and need factors in forensic mental health decision-making and the role of gender and index offense severity
    (Wiley, 2015-02-19) Wilson, Catherine M.; Charette, Yanick; Crocker, Anne G.; Nicholls, Tonia L.; Seto, Michael C.
    Canadian legislation makes Review Boards (RBs) responsible for rendering dispositions for individuals found Not Criminally Responsible on account of Mental Disorder (NCRMD) after considering public safety, the mental condition of the accused, and his/her potential for community reintegration. We reviewed 6,743 RB hearings for 1,794 individuals found NCRMD in the three largest Canadian provinces to investigate whether items from two empirically supported risk assessment measures, the Historical Clinical Risk Management‐20 and the Violence Risk Appraisal Guide, were considered. Less than half the items were included in expert reports or in RBs' reasons for dispositions, and consideration of these items differed according to gender and index offense severity of the accused. These items included evidence‐based risk factors and/or legally specified criteria: mental health, treatment, and criminal history. These results illustrate the gap between research on risk factors and the integration of this evidence into practice. In particular, we recommend the implementation of structured measures to reduce the potential for clinicians to be unduly influenced by gender and offense severity.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Supportive housing and forensic patient outcomes
    (Plenum Pub. Corp., 2015-06-01) Salem, Leila; Charette, Yanick; Crocker, Anne G.; Seto, Michael C.; Nicholls, Tonia L.; Côté, Gilles
    In Canada, Review Boards are mandated to evaluate individuals found Not Criminally Responsible on Account of Mental Disorder (NCRMD) on an annual basis and render 1 of 3 dispositions: (a) custody, (b) conditional discharge, or (c) absolute discharge. To promote social reintegration, conditional discharge can be ordered with the condition to live in supportive housing. However, NCRMD accused face great barriers to housing access as a result of the stigma associated with the forensic label. The goal of this study was to evaluate the role of housing in the clinical and criminal trajectories of forensic patients as they reintegrate into the community. Data for this study were extracted from a national study of individuals found NCRMD in Canada (Crocker, Nicholls, Seto, Côté, et al., in press). The present study focuses on a random sample of NCRMD accused in the province of Québec, who were under a conditional discharge disposition during the study period (n = 837). Controlling for sociodemographic, clinical, and criminal variables, survival analysis showed that individuals placed in independent housing following a conditional discharge from the Review Board were 2.5 times more likely to commit a new offense, nearly 3 times more likely to commit an offense against a person, and 1.4 times more likely to be readmitted for psychiatric treatment compared with individuals residing in supportive housing. These results point to the influence housing can have on the trajectories of forensic patients, above and beyond a range of clinical, criminological, and sociodemographic factors.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    L’impact des expériences d’impunité sur les risques de récidive pénale
    (Canadian Criminal Justice Association, 2016-08-04) Charette, Yanick
    Considérant que la probabilité d’être puni varie d’un individu à l’autre, la théorie de la dissuasion doit être adaptée pour tenir compte à la fois des expériences délinquantes punies et impunies. L’omission de ce paramètre du modèle de décision peut amener des biais importants et une surestimation de l’échec au sein d’une carrière délinquante. Les études de prédiction de la récidive se basant uniquement sur les données pénales sont vulnérables à ce biais. Dans le cadre de cette étude, les données de délinquance autorévélée d’un échantillon de 199 détenus, mises en parallèle avec des données pénales, ont permis d’estimer la capacité individuelle d’évitement pénal. Lorsqu’on prend en considération cette disposition, les antécédents pénaux deviennent un indicateur des échecs auxquels les délinquants font face durant leur trajectoire délinquante plutôt que de la poursuite même de cette trajectoire, créant l’illusion de l’efficacité de sa prédiction par les antécédents pénaux. L’intensité des coûts pénaux antérieurs ainsi que les opportunités d’emploi conventionnel sont deux facteurs qui réduisent la probabilité de la poursuite de la carrière criminelle. Les bénéfices soutirés des activités criminelles augmentent cette probabilité.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Evaluating the effect of project longevity on group-involved shootings and homicides in New Haven, Connecticut
    (Sage, 2016-04-10) Sierra Arévalo, Michael; Charette, Yanick; Papachristos, Andrew V.
    Beginning in November 2012, New Haven, Connecticut, served as the pilot site for Project Longevity, a statewide focused deterrence gun violence reduction strategy. The intervention brings law enforcement, social services, and community members together to meet with members of violent street groups at program call-ins. Using autoregressive integrated moving average models and controlling for the possibility of a non-New Haven–specific decline in gun violence, a decrease in group offending patterns, and the limitations of police-defined group member involved (GMI) categorization of shootings and homicides, the results of our analysis show that Longevity is associated with a reduction of almost five GMI incidents per month. These findings bolster research confirming the efficacy of focused deterrence approaches to reducing gun violence.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    The National Trajectory Project of individuals found not criminally responsible on account of mental disorder in Canada. Part 3 : trajectories and outcomes through the forensic system
    (Sage, 2015-03-01) Crocker, Anne G.; Charette, Yanick; Seto, Michael C.; Nicholls, Tonia L.; Côté, Gilles; Caulet, Malijai
    Objective : To examine the processing and Review Board (RB) disposition outcomes of people found not criminally responsible on account of mental disorder (NCRMD) across the 3 most populous provinces in Canada. Although the Criminal Code is federally legislated, criminal justice is administered by provinces and territories. It follows that a person with mental illness who comes into conflict with the law and subsequently comes under the management of a legally mandated RB may experience different trajectories across jurisdictions. Method : The National Trajectory Project examined 1800 men and women found NCRMD in British Columbia (n = 222), Quebec (n = 1094), and Ontario (n = 484) between May 2000 and April 2005, followed until December 2008. Results : We found significant interprovincial differences in the trajectories of people found NCRMD, including time detained in hospital and time under the supervision of an RB. The odds of being conditionally or absolutely discharged by the RB varied across provinces, even after number of past offences, diagnosis at verdict, and most severe index offence (all covariates decreased likelihood of discharge) were considered. Conclusions : Considerable discrepancies in the application of NCRMD legislation and the processing of NCRMD cases through the forensic system across the provinces suggests that fair and equitable treatment under the law could be enhanced by increased national integration and collaboration.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Police encounters involving citizens with mental illness : use of resources and outcomes
    (American Psychiatric Association, 2014-04-01) Charette, Yanick; Crocker, Anne G.; Billette, Isabelle
    Objective Few studies have addressed use of resources in police interventions involving individuals with mental illness. The time police officers spend on interventions is a straightforward measure with significant administrative weight, given that it addresses human resource allocation. This study compared the characteristics of police interventions involving individuals with mental illness and a control sample of individuals without mental illness. Methods A total of 6,128 police interventions in Montreal, Québec, were analyzed by using a retrospective analysis of police intervention logs from three days in 2006. Interventions involving citizens with (N=272) and without (N=5,856) mental illness were compared by reason for the intervention, the use of arrest, and the use of police resources. Results Police interventions involving individuals with mental illness were less likely than those involving individuals without mental illness to be related to more severe offenses. However, interventions for minor offenses were more likely to lead to arrest when they involved citizens with mental illness. Interventions for reasons of equal severity were twice as likely to lead to arrest if the citizen involved had a mental illness. After controlling for the use of arrest and the severity of the situation, the analysis showed that police interventions involving individuals with mental illness used 87% more resources than interventions involving individuals without mental illness. Conclusions Future studies using administrative police data sets could investigate the use of resources and division of costs involved in new programs or partnerships to better address the interface of criminal justice and mental health care.