Personne :
Ferland, Yaïves

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Ferland
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Yaïves
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Université Laval. Département des sciences géomatiques
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ncf10385500
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  • Publication
    Restreint
    Land use planning for disaster risk management
    (FAO, 2015-06-19) Ferland, Yaïves; Roy, Francis
    Land-use planning (LUP) is currently considered to be one of the best practices at the core of natural Disaster Risk Management (DRM) that can improve the security and resilience of the people affected. With a LUP policy, a community can consider disaster risks and their spatial distribution, steer more sustainable land development and use, and reduce the vulnerability of poor people who are often settled on degraded sites with significant authorities in relation to LUP and its regulatory control by zoning. In the context of natural DRM, LUP should be considered by government authorities as a procedure for pre-disaster prevention, mitigation, and preparedness for possible disasters, organization of emergency measures, coordination of recovery operations, displacement of populations and reconstruction. The planning process should then aim to reduce, during all phases of intervention, the risks associated with populations exposed to disaster. LUP concerns land policy formulation, encompassing legal and technical implementation on the ground, a master plan and zoning. The act of planning may result in identification of risk areas and the determination of normative rules, which can prohibit land use or alter property and tenure rights. The LUP process can improve the capacity of the poor and most disadvantaged by empowering them through public participation and collaborative decision-making. Public participation adds legitimacy and transparency to the process of policy formulation and programme development and promotes social acceptability. Moreover, LUP favours gender equality by taking into account the needs of women with respect to spatial arrangement of communities. Finally, this article attempts to demonstrate that vulnerability following natural disasters has a threefold nature: geographic vulnerability linked to the risks and constraints that limit use of a site, social vulnerability related to the socio-economic characteristics of the population, and institutional vulnerability consistent with the resources (often limited) available to communities to face the risks and dangers associated with a disaster. _________________________________________________________________________