Personne : Bernatchez, Louis
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Université Laval. Département de biologie
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- PublicationAccès libreSupplementation stocking of lake trout (salvelinus namaycush) in small boreal lakes : ecotypes influence on growth and condition(Plos, 2018-07-12) Sirois, Pascal; Morissette, Olivier; Lester, Nigel Paul; Bernatchez, Louis; Wilson, Chris CarrollSupplementation stocking is a commonly used management tool to sustain exploited fish populations. Possible negative consequences of supplementation on local stocks are a concern for the conservation of wild fish populations. However, the direct impacts of supplementation on life history traits of local populations have rarely been investigated. In addition, intraspecific hybridization between contrasting ecotypes (planktivorous and piscivorous) has been seldom considered in supplementation plans. Here, we combined genetic (genotype-by-sequencing analysis) and life history traits to document the effects of supplementation on maximum length, growth rates, body condition and genetic admixture in stocked populations of two Lake Trout ecotypes from small boreal lakes in Quebec and Ontario, Canada. In both ecotypes, the length of stocked individuals was greater than local individuals and, in planktivorous-stocked populations, most stocked fish exhibited a planktivorous-like growth while 20% of fish exhibited piscivorous-like growth. The body condition index was positively related to the proportion of local genetic background, but this pattern was only observed in stocked planktivorous populations. We conclude that interactions and hybridization between contrasting ecotypes is a risk that could result in deleterious impacts and possible outbreeding depression. We discuss the implications of these findings for supplementation stocking.
- PublicationAccès libreTemporally dynamic habitat suitability predicts genetic relatedness among caribou(The Royal Society Publishing, 2014-08-13) Dussault, Christian; Pellissier, Loïc; Yannic, Glenn; Côté, Steeve D.; Le Corre, Mael René Vincent; Bernatchez, LouisLandscape heterogeneity plays a central role in shaping ecological and evolutionary processes. While species utilization of the landscape is usually viewed as constant within a year, the spatial distribution of individuals is likely to vary in time in relation to particular seasonal needs. Understanding temporal variation in landscape use and genetic connectivity has direct conservation implications. Here, we modelled the daily use of the landscape by caribou in Quebec and Labrador, Canada and tested its ability to explain the genetic relatedness among individuals. We assessed habitat selection using locations of collared individuals in migratory herds and static occurrences from sedentary groups. Connectivity models based on habitat use outperformed a baseline isolation-by-distance model in explaining genetic relatedness, suggesting that variations in landscape features such as snow, vegetation productivity and land use modulate connectivity among populations. Connectivity surfaces derived from habitat use were the best predictors of genetic relatedness. The relationship between connectivity surface and genetic relatedness varied in time and peaked during the rutting period. Landscape permeability in the period of mate searching is especially important to allow gene flow among populations. Our study highlights the importance of considering temporal variations in habitat selection for optimizing connectivity across heterogeneous landscape and counter habitat fragmentation.
- PublicationRestreintHow does salinity influence habitat selection and growth in juvenile American eels Anguilla rostrata?(Wiley, 2015-01-21) Pavey, Scott; Dionne, Mélanie; Bernatchez, Louis; Audet, Céline; Castonguay, Martin; Boivin, BrianThe influence of salinity on habitat selection and growth in juvenile American eels captured in four rivers across eastern Canada was assessed in controlled experiments in 2011 and 2012. Glass eels were first categorized according to their salinity preferences towards fresh (), salt () or brackish water () and the growth rate of each group of elvers was subsequently monitored in controlled and environments for 7 months. Most glass eels (78–89%) did not make a choice, . they remained in . Salinity preferences were not influenced by body condition, although a possible role of pigmentation could not be ruled out. Glass eels that did make a choice displayed a similar preference for (60–75%) regardless of their geographic origin but glass eels from the St Lawrence Estuary displayed a significantly higher locomotor activity than those from other regions. Neither the salinity preferences showed by glass eels in the first experiment nor the rearing salinities appeared to have much influence on growth during the experiments. Elvers from Nova Scotia, however, reached a significantly higher mass than those from the St Lawrence Estuary thus supporting the hypothesis of genetically (or epigenetically) based differences for growth between from different origins. These results provide important ecological knowledge for the sustained exploitation and conservation of this threatened species.
- PublicationRestreintReproductive isolation in a nascent species pair is associated with aneuploidy in hybrid offspring(Royal Society, 2014-12-15) Dion-Côté, Anne-Marie; Bernatchez, Louis; Symonova, Radka; Ráb, PetrSpeciation may occur when the genomes of two populations accumulate genetic incompatibilities and/or chromosomal rearrangements that prevent inter-breeding in nature. Chromosome stability is critical for survival and faithful transmission of the genome, and hybridization can compromise this. However, the role of chromosomal stability on hybrid incompatibilities has rarely been tested in recently diverged populations. Here, we test for chromosomal instability in hybrids between nascent species, the ‘dwarf’ and ‘normal’ lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis). We examined chromosomes in pure embryos, and healthy and malformed backcross embryos. While pure individuals displayed chromosome numbers corresponding to the expected diploid number (2n = 80), healthy backcrosses showed evidence of mitotic instability through an increased variance of chromosome numbers within an individual. In malformed backcrosses, extensive aneuploidy corresponding to multiples of the haploid number (1n = 40, 2n = 80, 3n = 120) was found, suggesting meiotic breakdown in their F1 parent. However, no detectable chromosome rearrangements between parental forms were identified. Genomic instability through aneuploidy thus appears to contribute to reproductive isolation between dwarf and normal lake whitefish, despite their very recent divergence (approx. 15–20 000 generations). Our data suggest that genetic incompatibilities may accumulate early during speciation and limit hybridization between nascent species.
- PublicationAccès libreIdentifying designatable units for intraspecific conservation prioritization : a hierarchical approach applied to the lake whitefish species complex (Coregonus spp.)(John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2015-02-09) Mee, Jonathan A.; Bernatchez, Louis; Reist, Jim D.; Rogers, Sean Michael; Taylor, Eric B.The concept of the designatable unit (DU) affords a practical approach to identifying diversity below the species level for conservation prioritization. However, its suitability for defining conservation units in ecologically diverse, geographically widespread and taxonomically challenging species complexes has not been broadly evaluated. The lake whitefish species complex (Coregonus spp.) is geographically widespread in the Northern Hemisphere, and it contains a great deal of variability in ecology and evolutionary legacy within and among populations, as well as a great deal of taxonomic ambiguity. Here, we employ a set of hierarchical criteria to identify DUs within the Canadian distribution of the lake whitefish species complex. We identified 36 DUs based on (i) reproductive isolation, (ii) phylogeographic groupings, (iii) local adaptation and (iv) biogeographic regions. The identification of DUs is required for clear discussion regarding the conservation prioritization of lake whitefish populations. We suggest conservation priorities among lake whitefish DUs based on biological consequences of extinction, risk of extinction and distinctiveness. Our results exemplify the need for extensive genetic and biogeographic analyses for any species with broad geographic distributions and the need for detailed evaluation of evolutionary history and adaptive ecological divergence when defining intraspecific conservation units.
- PublicationRestreintTranscriptional and biochemical markers in transplanted Perca flavescens to characterize cadmium- and copper-induced oxidative stress in the field(Elsevier, 2015-02-21) Defo, Michel Amery; Bernatchez, Louis; Campbell, P. G. C. (Peter Gerald Cadogan); Couture, PatriceDespite recent progress achieved in elucidating the mechanisms underlying local adaptation to pollution, little is known about the evolutionary change that may be occurring at the molecular level. The goal of this study was to examine patterns of gene transcription and biochemical responses induced by metal accumulation in clean yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and metal depuration in contaminated fish in a mining and smelting region of Canada. Fish were collected from a reference lake (lake Opasatica) and a Cd, Cu and Zn contaminated lake (lake Dufault) located in the Rouyn-Noranda region (Qc, Canada) and caged for one or four weeks in their own lake or transplanted in the other lake. Free-ranging fish from the same lakes were also collected. Kidney Cd and Cu concentrations in clean fish caged in the contaminated lake increased with the time of exposure, but metal depuration did not occur in contaminated fish caged in the clean lake. After 4 weeks, the major retinoid metabolites analysed, the percentage of free dehydroretinol (dROH) and the retinol dehydrogenase-2 (rdh-2) transcription level in liver decreased in clean fish transplanted into the metal-contaminated lake, suggesting that metal exposure negatively impacted retinoid metabolism. However, we observed an increase in almost all of the retinoid parameters analysed in fish from the metal-impacted lake caged in the same lake, which we interpret as an adaptation response to higher ambient metal concentration. In support of this hypothesis, liver transcription levels of microsomal glutathione-S-transferase-3 (mgst-3) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (g6pdh) were enhanced in clean fish transplanted into the metal-contaminated lake and this up-regulation was accompanied by an increase in the activities of corresponding enzymes, involved in antioxidant response. However, although in the same fish the transcription level of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn sod) was also increased, this did not lead to a change in the activity of the SOD enzyme, suggesting that this upregulation was aimed at maintaining SOD-related antioxidant capacities. In contrast, the transcription level of the cat gene, which did not change in contaminated fish, did not compensate for the decrease of CAT activity. After 4 weeks of exposure, some plastic responses of the clean fish were observed when they were transplanted in the metal-contaminated lake. However, probably as a consequence of the prior 80 years of exposure to metals, the contaminated population showed a limited plastic response in the expression of the majority of the candidate genes tested, when they were transplanted in the reference lake. The overall findings of this field investigation highlight how yellow perch molecularly and biochemically responded to a sudden or relatively long-term exposure (4 weeks) to a cocktail of metals.
- PublicationRestreintGrowth, female size, and sex ratio variability in American Eel of different origins in both controlled conditions and the wild : implications for stocking programs.(Taylor & Francis, 2015-02-18) Pavey, Scott; Bernatchez, Louis; Stacey, Joshua A.; Audet, Céline; Pratt, T. C; Castonguay, Martin; Côté, CarolineFreshwater eels Anguilla spp. are declining worldwide, and a major challenge is understanding why these panmictic species show contrasting patterns of intraspecific phenotypic variation and recruitment. We present results on studies of the American Eel A. rostrata to understand and discriminate the effects of origin and plasticity on growth and sex determination. We considered two separate growth and one length-at-age data sets. The first growth data set originated from a 34-month rearing experiment starting from the glass eel life stage to test the effects of origin, salinity, and density on growth and sex determination. The second growth data set originated from a shorter rearing experiment of 18 months starting at the yellow eel stage (around 3 years old) and compared transplanted individuals in Lake Ontario (LO) with natural migrants to the LO area. The third data set compared transplanted individuals in LO sampled by electrofishing with naturally migrating individuals. Sex ratios were identical for all origins and treatments in the long-term growth experiment (34–35% females). While male size distribution had little variability, certain female groups had a large variation in growth and presented fast- and slow-growing clusters. On the other hand, both cases of natural migrants to the LO area were consistent with being only slow-growing females. We found that wild individuals rearing in the LO area were nearly exclusively transplanted individuals and that males, as well as fast-growing females, were present. Even though the entire species is panmictic, these results support a role for spatially varying selection in explaining the phenotypic variation observed among regions and among individuals of the same region, and such factors must be considered for any successful management strategies of American Eel.
- PublicationRestreintTranscriptome profile analysis reveals specific signatures of pollutants in Atlantic eels(Springer Science & Business Media B.V., 2014-09-26) Louis, Lucie; Bernatchez, Louis; Pierron, Fabien; Normandeau, Éric; Coudret, Raphaël; Caron, Antoine; Peluhet, Laurent; Labadie, Pierre; Budzinski, Hélène; Durrieu, Gilles; Sarraco, Jérôme; Élie, Pierre; Couture, Patrice; Baudrimont, MagalieIdentifying specific effects of contaminants in a multi-stress field context remain a challenge in ecotoxicology. In this context, “omics” technologies, by allowing the simultaneous measurement of numerous biological endpoints, could help unravel the in situ toxicity of contaminants. In this study, wild Atlantic eels were sampled in 8 sites presenting a broad contamination gradient in France and Canada. The global hepatic transcriptome of animals was determined by RNA-Seq. In parallel, the contamination level of fish to 8 metals and 25 organic pollutants was determined. Factor analysis for multiple testing was used to identify genes that are most likely to be related to a single factor. Among the variables analyzed, arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lindane (¿-HCH) and the hepato-somatic index (HSI) were found to be the main factors affecting eel’s transcriptome. Genes associated with As exposure were involved in the mechanisms that have been described during As vasculotoxicity in mammals. Genes correlated with Cd were involved in cell cycle and energy metabolism. For ¿-HCH, genes were involved in lipolysis and cell growth. Genes associated with HSI were involved in protein, lipid and iron metabolisms. Our study proposes specific gene signatures of pollutants and their impacts in fish exposed to multi-stress conditions.
- PublicationRestreintGenetic evidence of local exploitation of Atlantic salmon in a coastal subsistence fishery in the Northwest Atlantic(NRC Research Press, 2014-09-11) Bradbury, I. R. (Ian Robert); Bernatchez, Louis; Hamilton, Lorraine C.; Rafferty, Sara; Meerburg, David John; Poole, Rebecca; Dempson, J.B.; Robertson, Martha J.; Reddin, D. G.; Bourret, Vincent; Dionne, Mélanie; Chaput, Gerald J.; Sheehan, Timothy F.; King, Timothy L.; Candy, John RFisheries targeting mixtures of populations risk the overutilization of minor stock constituents unless harvests are monitored and managed. We evaluated stock composition and exploitation of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in a subsistence fishery in coastal Labrador, Canada, using genetic mixture analysis and individual assignment with a microsatellite baseline (15 loci, 11 829 individuals, 12 regional groups) encompassing the species’ western Atlantic range. Bayesian and maximum likelihood mixture analyses of fishery samples over 6 years (2006–2011; 1772 individuals) indicate contributions of adjacent stocks of 96%–97%. Estimates of fishery-associated exploitation were highest for Labrador salmon (4.2%–10.6% per year) and generally <1% for other regions. Individual assignment of fishery samples indicated nonlocal contributions to the fishery (e.g., Quebec, Newfoundland) were rare and primarily in southern Labrador, consistent with migration pathways utilizing the Strait of Belle Isle. This work illustrates how genetic analysis of mixed stock Atlantic salmon fisheries in the Northwest Atlantic using this new baseline can disentangle exploitation and reveal complex migratory behaviours.
- PublicationRestreintDietary sodium protects fish against copper-induced olfactory impairment(ScienceDirect (Elsevier B.V.), 2015-01-22) Azizishirazi, Ali; Bougas, Bérénice; Dew, William A.; Bernatchez, Louis; Pyle, Greg G.Exposure to low concentrations of copper impairs olfaction in fish. To determine the transcriptional changes in the olfactory epithelium induced by copper exposure, wild yellow perch (Perca flavescens) were exposed to 20 μg/L of copper for 3 and 24h. A novel yellow perch microarray with 1000 candidate genes was used to measure differential gene transcription in the olfactory epithelium. While three hours of exposure to copper changed the transcription of only one gene, the transcriptions of 70 genes were changed after 24h of exposure to copper. Real-time PCR was utilized to determine the effect of exposure duration on two specific genes of interest, two sub-units of Na/K-ATPase. At 24 and 48 h, Na/K-ATPase transcription was down-regulated by copper at olfactory rosettes. As copper-induced impairment of Na/K-ATPase activity in gills can be ameliorated by increased dietary sodium, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were used to determine if elevated dietary sodium was also protective against copper-induced olfactory impairment. Measurement of the olfactory response of rainbow trout using electro-olfactography demonstrated that sodium was protective of copper-induced olfactory dysfunction. This work demonstrates that the transcriptions of both subunits of Na/K-ATPase in the olfactory epithelium of fish are affected by Cu exposure, and that dietary Na protects against Cu-induced olfactory dysfunction.