Personne : Jackson, Philip L.
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Université Laval. École de psychologie
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- PublicationRestreintTo what extent do we share the pain of others? Insight from the neural bases of pain empathy(Elsevier Science, 2006-11-01) Jackson, Philip L.; Rainville, Pierre; Decety, JeanIn the representationalist framework generally adopted in cognitive neuroscience, pain is conceived as a subjective experience triggered by the activation of a mental representation of actual or potential tissue damage (nociception). This representation may involve somatic sensory features, as well as affective-motivational reactions associated with the promotion of protective or recuperative visceromotor and behavioral responses. Mental representation of nociception may provide the primary referent from which a rich associative network can be established to evoke the notion of pain in the absence of a nociceptive stimulus. Here, we adopt the notion of a mental representation of pain as a means to relate the experience of pain in oneself to the perception of pain in others. We review the functional neuroimaging studies supporting the hypothesis that the perception of pain in others relies at least partly on the activation of a mental representation of pain in the Self, and thus on common neural systems. However, we also demonstrate that there are systematic differences in activation sites within painrelated areas that must be considered for a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying pain empathy
- PublicationRestreintVariability in the effector-specific pattern of motor facilitation during the observation of everyday actions : implications for the clinical use of action observation(Elsevier, 2010-07-13) Hétu, Sébastien; Jackson, Philip L.; Mercier, Catherine; Gagné, MartinAction observation is increasingly considered as a rehabilitation tool as it can increase the cortical excitability of muscles involved in the observed movements and therefore produce effector-specific motor facilitation. In order to investigate the action observation mechanisms, simple single joint intransitive movements have commonly been used. Still, how the observation of everyday movements which often are the prime target of rehabilitation affects the observer cortical excitability remains unclear. Using transcranial magnetic stimulations, we aimed at verifying if the observation of everyday movements made by the proximal or distal upper-limb produces effector-specific motor facilitation in proximal (arm) and distal (hand) muscles of healthy subjects. Results suggest that, similar to simple intransitive movements, observation of more complex everyday movements involving mainly the proximal or distal part of upper limb induces different patterns of motor facilitation across upper limb muscles (P=0.02). However, we observed large inter-individual variability in the strength of the effector-specific motor facilitation induced by action observation. Yet, subjects had similar types of response (strong or weak effector-specific effects) when watching proximal or distal movements indicating that the facilitation pattern was highly consistent within subjects (r=0.83-0.88, P<0.001). This suggests that some individuals are better than other at precisely mapping the observed movements on their motor repertoire and that this type of response holds for various types of everyday actions.
- PublicationRestreintBrain responses to facial expressions of pain : emotional or motor mirroring?(Academic Press, 2010-05-25) Budell, Lesley; Jackson, Philip L.; Rainville, PierreThe communication of pain requires the perception of pain-related signals and the extraction of their meaning and magnitude to infer the state of the expresser. Here, BOLD responses were measured in healthy volunteers while they evaluated the amount of pain expressed (pain task) or discriminated movements (movement task) in one-second video clips displaying facial expressions of various levels of pain. Regression analysis using subjects' ratings of pain confirmed the parametric response of several regions previously involved in the coding of self-pain, including the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and anterior insula (aINS), as well as areas implicated in action observation, and motor mirroring, such as the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and inferior parietal lobule (IPL). Furthermore, the pain task produced stronger activation in the ventral IFG, as well as in areas of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) associated with social cognition and emotional mirroring, whereas stronger activation during the movement task predominated in the IPL. These results suggest that perception of the pain of another via facial expression recruits limbic regions involved in the coding of self-pain, prefrontal areas underlying social and emotional cognition (i.e. 'mentalizing'), and premotor and parietal areas involved in motor mirroring.
- PublicationRestreintThe study of social cognition with neuroimaging methods as a means to explore future directions of deficit evaluation in schizophrenia?(International Society for Neuroimaging in Psychiatry, 2010-12-23) Brunet-Gouet, Eric; Achim, Amélie M.; Jackson, Philip L.; Vistoli, Damien; Passerieux, Christine; Hardy-Baylé, Marie-ChristineThis article discusses the important advances in a recent field of science dealing with the brain processes implicated in understanding social situations and interacting with others. Many behavioral studies on schizophrenia have shown the impairment of these processes and their preferential relation with disorganization and negative syndromes. Brain imaging is a powerful method to identify brain systems participating in these processes in healthy subjects and will be used increasingly to study mental disorders such as schizophrenia. A few preliminary studies have opened this field of research and allowed for the drawing of some limited conclusions. We emphasize the importance of developing an integrated neurocognitive framework to account for the multifaceted nature of social cognition deficits in schizophrenia. Inspired by contemporary models of empathy and social cognition that identify different components such as shared representation, mentalizing, self/other distinction, we show how schizophrenia affects these components at the behavioral and functional levels. We also outline the interest of this model to understand putative abnormalities of contextual integration within the area of mentalization. Finally, we discuss how specialized measures of brain functions during the performance of these precisely defined mental processes might be used as outcome predictors.
- PublicationRestreintDecreasing phantom limb pain through observation of action and imagery : a case series(Wiley, 2011-02-01) Jackson, Philip L.; Mercier, Catherine; Michon, Pierre-Emmanuel; Malouin, Francine.; Beaumont, GenevièveBackground. Phantom limb pain is often resistant to treatment. Techniques based on visual-kinesthetic feedback could help reduce it. Objective. The objective of the current study was to test if a novel intervention combining observation and imagination of movements can reduce phantom limb pain. Methods. This single-case multiple baseline study included six persons with upper or lower limb phantom pain. Participants' pain and imagery abilities were assessed by questionnaires. After a 3–5-week baseline, participants received a two-step intervention of 8 weeks. Intervention 1 was conducted at the laboratory with a therapist (two sessions/week) and at home (three sessions/week); and Intervention 2 was conducted at home only (five times/week). Interventions combined observation and imagination of missing limb movements. Participants rated their pain level and their ease to imagine daily throughout the study. Results. Time series analyses showed that three participants rated their pain gradually and significantly lower during Intervention 1. During Intervention 2, additional changes in pain slopes were not significant. Four participants reported a reduction of pain greater than 30% from baseline to the end of Intervention 2, and only one maintained his gains after 6 months. Group analyses confirmed that average pain levels were lower after intervention than at baseline and had returned to baseline after 6 months. Social support, degree of functionality, and perception of control about their lives prior to the intervention correlated significantly with pain reduction. Conclusions. Persons with phantom limb pain may benefit from this novel intervention combining observation and motor imagery. Additional studies are needed to confirm our findings, elucidate mechanisms, and identify patients likely to respond.
- PublicationRestreintThe multilevel organization of vicarious pain responses : effects of pain cues and empathy traits on spinal nociception and acute pain(Elsevier Science, 2011-07-01) Jackson, Philip L.; Martel, Marc O.; Rainville, Pierre; Roy, Mathieu; Vachon-Presseau, Etienne; Caron, ÉtienneThe shared-representation model of empathy suggests that vicarious pain processes rely partly on the activation of brain systems underlying self-pain in the observer. Here, we tested the hypothesis that self-pain may be facilitated by the vicarious priming of neural systems underlying pain perception. Pictures illustrating painful agents applied to the hand or the foot (sensory information), or painful facial expressions (emotional information) were shown to 43 participants to test the effects of vicarious pain on the nociceptive flexion reflex (NFR) of the lower limb and pain intensity and unpleasantness produced by transcutaneous electrical stimulation applied over the sural nerve. Results confirmed the expected priming effects of vicarious pain on spinal and perceptual processes. However, for comparable pain intensity and arousal evoked by the pain pictures, the facilitation of the NFR and the self-pain unpleasantness measurements was more robust in response to pictures depicting pain sensory compared to emotional information. Furthermore, the facilitation of the NFR by pain pictures was positively correlated with the empathy trait of the observer. In contrast, the change in perceived shock-pain intensity was negatively correlated with empathic traits. This dissociation implies that low-level vicarious priming processes underlying pain facilitation may be downregulated at higher pain-processing stages in individuals reporting higher levels of empathy. We speculate that this process contributes to reducing self–other assimilation and is necessary to adopt higher-order empathic responses and altruistic behaviors.
- PublicationRestreintA biopsychosocial formulation of pain communication(American Psychological Association, 2011-11-01) Hadjistavropoulos, Thomas; Jackson, Philip L.; Craig, Kenneth D.; Rainville, Pierre; Duck, Steve; Cano, Annmarie; Goubert, Liesbet; Mogil, Jeffrey Steven; Sullivan, Michael J. L.; Williams, Amanda C. de C.; Vervoort, Tine; Fitzgerald, Theresa DeverWe present a detailed framework for understanding the numerous and complicated interactions among psychological and social determinants of pain through examination of the process of pain communication. The focus is on an improved understanding of immediate dyadic transactions during painful events in the context of broader social phenomena. Fine-grain consideration of social transactions during pain leads to an appreciation of sociobehavioral events affecting both suffering persons as well as caregivers. Our examination considers knowledge from a variety of perspectives, including clinical health psychology, social and developmental processes, evolutionary psychology, communication studies, and behavioral neuroscience.
- PublicationRestreintA social-neuroscience perspective on empathy(Cambridge University Press, 2006-04-01) Decety, Jean; Jackson, Philip L.In recent years, abundant evidence from behavioral and cognitive studies and functional-imaging experiments has indicated that individuals come to understand the emotional and affective states expressed by others with the help of the neural architecture that produces such states in themselves. Such a mechanism gives rise to shared representations, which constitutes one important aspect of empathy, although not the sole one. We suggest that other components, including people's ability to monitor and regulate cognitive and emotional processes to prevent confusion between self and other, are equally necessary parts of a functional model of empathy. We discuss data from recent functional-imaging studies in support of such a model and highlight the role of specific brain regions, notably the insula, the anterior cingulate cortex, and the right temporo-parietal region. Because this model assumes that empathy relies on dissociable information-processing mechanisms, it predicts a variety of structural or functional dysfunctions, depending on which mechanism is disrupted.
- PublicationAccès libreNeural circuits involved in imitation and perspective-taking(Elsevier, 2006-01-10) Jackson, Philip L.; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Decety, JeanIs it important to adopt the perspective of the model when learning a new skill? Is the “mirror system” equally involved when the teacher is facing or side-by-side with students? In this functional MRI study, we measured the cerebral hemodynamic changes in participants who watched video-clips depicting simple hand or foot actions. The participants either watched passively or imitated these actions. Half the video-clips depicted actions filmed from the perspective of the participant (1st-person perspective) and half from a frontal view as if watching someone else (3rd-person perspective). Behavioral results showed that latency to imitate was significantly shorter for the 1st-person perspective than the 3rd-person perspective. Functional imaging results demonstrate that the observation of intransitive actions engaged primary visual and extrastriate visual areas, but not the premotor cortex. Imitation vs. observation of actions yielded enhanced signal in the contralateral somatosensory and motor cortices, cerebellum, left inferior parietal lobule and superior parietal cortex, and left ventral premotor cortex. Activity in the lateral occipital cortex around the extrastriate body area was significantly enhanced during imitation, as compared to observation of actions confirming that this region involvement reaches beyond the perception of body parts. Moreover, comparisons of the two visual perspectives showed more activity in the left sensory–motor cortex for 1st-person, even during observation alone, and in the lingual gyrus for 3rd-person perspective. These findings suggest that the 1st-person perspective is more tightly coupled to the sensory-motor system than the 3rd-person perspective, which requires additional visuospatial transformation.
- PublicationRestreintEmpathy examined through the neural mechanisms involved in imagining how I feel versus how you feel pain(Pergamon Press, 2005-09-06) Jackson, Philip L.; Brunet-Gouet, Eric; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Decety, JeanPerspective-taking is a stepping stone to human empathy. When empathizing with another individual, one can imagine how the other perceives the situation and feels as a result. To what extent does imagining the other differs from imagining oneself in similar painful situations? In this functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment, participants were shown pictures of people with their hands or feet in painful or non-painful situations and instructed to imagine and rate the level of pain perceived from different perspectives. Both the Self's and the Other's perspectives were associated with activation in the neural network involved in pain processing, including the parietal operculum, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC; BA32) and anterior insula. However, the Self-perspective yielded higher pain ratings and involved the pain matrix more extensively in the secondary somatosensory cortex, the ACC (BA 24a'/24b'), and the insula proper. Adopting the perspective of the Other was associated with specific increase in the posterior cingulate/precuneus and the right temporo-parietal junction. These results show the similarities between Self- and Other-pain representation, but most interestingly they also highlight some distinctiveness between these two representations, which is a crucial aspect of human empathy. It may be what allows us to distinguish empathic responses to others versus our own personal distress. These findings are consistent with the view that empathy does not involve a complete Self-Other merging.