Personne : Roussel, Élise
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Faculté de médecine, Université Laval
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- PublicationAccès libreG2/M blockade by paclitaxel induces caveolin-1 expression in A549 lung cancer cells : caveolin-1 as a marker of cytotoxicity.(Rapid Communications of Oxford, 2004-11-01) Roussel, Élise; Couët, Jacques; Bélanger, MartinCaveolins are highly expressed in terminally differentiated cells, but this expression is down-regulated in various cancer cell lines. Exposure to low doses of paclitaxel (taxol) is sufficient to up-regulate caveolin-1, suggesting that a mild cytotoxic stress induces a response implying caveolin and caveolae. Here we show that this up-regulation is sustained even after the cessation of paclitaxel treatment. After exposure to a cytostatic dose of paclitaxel (50 nM), A549 lung cancer cells are blocked in the G2/M cell cycle phase. After removal of paclitaxel, cell death occurs, accompanied with an increase in caveolin expression, suggesting an effect of caveolin in this process. Three days post-paclitaxel treatment, surviving A549 cells were passaged and only a half of them adhered to the culture dish. Adhering cells (still mainly in the G2/M cell cycle phase) were still unable to grow and progressively entered in an apoptotic state. This study suggests that effects of a low dose of paclitaxel were still present even 1 week after drug removal and that caveolin-1 is a good marker of cytotoxicity.
- PublicationAccès libreBenefits of long-term beta-blockade in experimental chronic aortic regurgitation(American Physiological Society, 2008-04-01) Lachance, Dominic.; Roussel, Élise; Couët, Jacques; Champetier, Serge.; Drolet, Marie-Claude.; Plante, Éric; Arsenault, MarieThe objective of this study was to assess the long-term effects of beta-blockade on survival and left ventricular (LV) remodeling in rats with aortic valve regurgitation (AR). The pharmacological management of chronic AR remains controversial. No drug has been definitively proven to delay the need for valve replacement or to affect morbidity and/or mortality. Our group has reported that the adrenergic system is activated in an animal model of AR and that adrenergic blockade may help maintain normal LV function. The effects of prolonged treatment with a beta-blocker are unknown. Forty Wistar rats with severe AR were divided into 2 groups of 20 animals each and treated with metoprolol (Met, 25 mg.kg(-1).day(-1)) or left untreated for 1 yr. LV remodeling was evaluated by echocardiography. Survival was assessed by Kaplan-Meir curves. Hearts were harvested for tissue analysis. All Met-treated animals were alive after 6 mo vs. 70% of untreated animals. After 1 yr, 60% of Met-treated animals were alive vs. 35% of untreated animals (P = 0.028). All deaths, except one, were sudden. There were no differences in LV ejection fraction (all >50%) or LV dimensions. LV mass tended to be lower in the Met-treated group. There was less subendocardial fibrosis in this group, as well as lower LV filling pressures (LV end-diastolic pressure). beta-Adrenergic receptor ratio (beta(1)/beta(2)) was improved. One year of treatment with Met was well tolerated. Met improved 1-yr survival, minimized LV hypertrophy, improved LV filling pressures, decreased LV subendocardial fibrosis, and helped restore the beta-adrenergic receptor ratio.
- PublicationAccès libreFenofibrate reduces cardiac remodeling and improves cardiac function in a rat model of severe left ventricle volume overload(Pergamon, 2012-11-07) Roussel, Élise; Couët, Jacques; Dhahri, Wahiba; Drolet, Marie-Claude.; Arsenault, MarieAims : Fenofibrate is a peroxisome proliferator-associated receptor alpha agonist (PPARα) used clinically for the management of dyslipidemia and is a myocardial fatty acid oxidation stimulator. It has also been shown to have cardiac anti-hypertrophic properties but the effects of fenofibrate on the development of eccentric LVH and ventricular function in chronic left ventricular (LV) volume overload (VO) are unknown. This study was therefore designed to explore the effects of fenofibrate treatment in a VO rat model caused by severe aortic valve regurgitation (AR) with a focus on cardiac remodeling and myocardial metabolism. Main methods : Male Wistar rats were divided in four groups (13–15 animals/group): Shams (S) treated with fenofibrate (F; 100 mg/kg/d PO) or not (C) and severe AR receiving or not fenofibrate. Treatment was started one week before surgery and the animals were sacrificed 9 weeks later. Key findings : AR rats developed severe LVH (increased LV weight) during the course of the protocol. Fenofibrate did not reduce LV weight. However, eccentric LV remodeling was strongly reduced by fenofibrate in AR animals. Fractional shortening was significantly less affected in ARF compared to ARC group. Fenofibrate also increased the myocardial enzymatic activity of enzymes associated with fatty acid oxidation while inhibiting glycolytic enzyme phosphofructokinase. Significance : Fenofibrate decreased LV eccentric remodeling associated with severe VO and helped maintain systolic function. Studies with a longer follow-up will be needed to assess the long-term effects of fenofibrate in chronic volume overload caused by aortic regurgitation.
- PublicationAccès libreImpact of anesthesia on echocardiographic evaluation of systolic and diastolic function in rats(Elsevier, 2006-11-28) Lachance, Dominic.; Roussel, Élise; Couët, Jacques; Drolet, Marie-Claude.; Plante, Éric; Arsenault, MarieBackground : Echocardiography is used on rats but general anesthesia is usually necessary to be able to obtain a good quality echocardiogram. Each type of anesthetic agent has specific impacts on hemodynamics and, therefore, may affect differentially the echocardiographic measurements. Objectives : We sought to compare the echocardiograms of normal rats and rats with chronic aortic regurgitation under anesthesia using ketamine-xylazine or isoflurane. Methods : Animals underwent an echocardiogram with both drugs sequentially. Echocardiographic measurements were compared. Results : Mitral diastolic Doppler measurements (early diastolic filling wave [E] and late atrial diastolic filling wave [A] velocities) were significantly affected by the type of anesthesia in the normal group but not left ventricular dimensions or ejection fraction. Left ventricular dimensions were affected by the type of anesthesia in the aortic regurgitation group and diastolic Doppler flow. Conclusion : The anesthetic agent has significant specific impacts on many echocardiographic measurements. Investigators working with rat models should be aware of those potential effects.
- PublicationRestreintRole of caveolin-1 in etoposide resistance development in A549 lung cancer cells(Taylor & Francis, 2004-07-23) Roussel, Élise; Couët, Jacques; Bélanger, Martin; Gaudreau, Martin.Caveolin 1 expression is downregulated in various cancer cell lines. Interestingly, in several drug-resistant cancer cells, a strong induction of caveolin 1 expression has been reported suggesting a role for caveolin 1 in the acquisition and/or the maintenance of multidrug resistance phenotype. In addition, it was reported that p-glycoprotein localized to caveolin-rich membrane domains in these cells. In this study, we progressively exposed A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells to increasing doses of etoposide. Both R1 and R2 cell lines had greatly increased levels of p-glycoprotein expression while mrp expression levels were moderately increased but only R2 cells had raised caveolin levels compared to control A549 cells. Both caveolin-1 and p-glycoprotein colocalize in Triton-insoluble membrane domains in all our cell lines but only caveolins-1 was solubilized by the addition of octylglucoside at 4C suggesting that these two proteins are located in different membrane domains. Using an anti-caveolin-1 antibody, we did not succeed to immunoprecipitate p-glycoprotein. Interestingly, total cellular cholesterol (the major lipid component of caveolae and triton-insoluble domains) was greatly increased in both R1 and R2 cell lines compared to naive A549 cells.
- PublicationAccès libreDobutamine stress echocardiography in healthy adult male rats(BioMed Central, 2005-10-26) Lachance, Dominic.; Roussel, Élise; Couët, Jacques; Drolet, Marie-Claude.; Plante, Éric; Arsenault, MarieBackground : Dobutamine stress echocardiography is used to investigate a wide variety of heart diseases in humans. Dobutamine stress echocardiography has also been used in animal models of heart disease despite the facts that the normal response of healthy rat hearts to this type of pharmacological stress testing is unknown. This study was performed to assess this normal response. Methods : 15 normal adult male Wistar rats were evaluated. Increasing doses of dobutamine were infused intravenously under continuous imaging of the heart by a 12 MHz ultrasound probe. Results : Dobutamine stress echocardiography reduced gradually LV diastolic and systolic dimensions. Ejection fraction increased by a mean of +24% vs. baseline. Heart rate increased progressively without reaching a plateau. Changes in LV dimensions and ejection fraction reached a plateau after a mean of 4 minutes at a constant infusion rate. Conclusion : DSE can be easily performed in rats. The normal response is an increase in heart rate and ejection fraction and a decrease in LV dimensions. A plateau in echocardiographic measurements is obtained after 4 minutes of a constant infusion rate in most animals.
- PublicationAccès libreEffects of spironolactone treatment on an experimental model of chronic aortic valve regurgitation(ICR, 2012-07-01) Lachance, Dominic.; Roussel, Élise; Couët, Jacques; Zendaoui, Adnane; Arsenault, MarieBACKGROUND AND AIM OF THE STUDY : Aortic regurgitation (AR) is a disease for which there is currently no effective medical treatment. It has been shown previously in an experimental model of AR that the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays a major role, and that medications blocking the RAAS are effective to protect against left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and also help to maintain a normal systolic function. The role of aldosterone receptor blockers in this disease has never been evaluated. Thus, the effects were studied of the aldosterone receptor blocking agent spironolactone in a model of chronic AR in rats. METHODS : The effects of a six-month treatment with spironolactone were evaluated in adult Wistar rats with severe AR, compared to sham-operated and untreated AR animals. RESULTS : Spironolactone treatment decreased the total heart weight. In addition, the LV expression of atrial natriuretic peptide mRNA was decreased by spironolactone treatment, as was the expression of collagen 1 and LOX1 mRNAs. Left ventricular fibrosis was decreased by spironolactone treatment. CONCLUSION : Spironolactone protected against volume-overload cardiomyopathy in this model of aortic valve regurgitation. The predominant protective effect was a decrease in myocardial fibrosis.
- PublicationAccès libreEffects of exercise in volume overload : insights from a model of aortic regurgitation(Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2009-06-01) Lachance, Dominic.; Roussel, Élise; Couët, Jacques; Bouchard Thomassin, Andrée-Anne; Champetier, Serge.; Plante, Éric; Arsenault, MarieBackground : Aortic valve regurgitation (AR) imposes a pathologic volume overload to the left ventricle (LV), whereas aerobic exercise causes physiologic volume overloading. The impact of combining both LV volume overloads (pathologic and physiologic) is unknown. Considering the known beneficial effects of aerobic training on the cardiovascular system, we hypothesized that the positive effects would outweigh the negative ones and that exercise would improve the tolerance of the LV to AR. Methods : Forty female adult Wistar rats were randomly divided in the following groups: 1) sham sedentary (SS), 2) sham trained (ST), 3) AR sedentary (ARS), and 4) AR trained (ART). Training consisted in treadmill running for 30 min five times per week at 20 m·s−1 for 24wk. In vivo follow-up was made by echocardiography and invasive intracardiac pressure measurements. Hearts were harvested for tissue analysis. Results : Echocardiography revealed less LV dilation and hypertrophy in ART versus ARS as well as improved myocardial performance index. LV ejection fractions remained similar and within normal range in ART versus ARS. Invasive cardiac pressures yielded improved dP/dt− in ART versus ARS but similar dP/dt+. β1-Adrenergic receptor mRNA expression was improved in the ART group versus ARS. Conclusion : Our data suggest that a moderate aerobic exercise program helps minimize LV dilation and hypertrophy and improves diastolic cardiac performance in heart submitted to chronic volume overload due to severe aortic valve regurgitation in this animal model.
- PublicationAccès libreEarly left ventricular remodeling in acute severe aortic regurgitation : insights from an animal model.(Hertfordshire : ICR, 2008-05-03) Lachance, Dominic.; Roussel, Élise; Couët, Jacques; Drolet, Marie-Claude.; Plante, Éric; Arsenault, MarieBACKGROUND AND AIM OF THE STUDY: Chronic aortic regurgitation (AR) induces left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and eventually LV dysfunction. While the effects of chronic AR on the left ventricle are well known, the effects of acute AR have not been adequately evaluated. It was hypothesized that the LV tissues would be rapidly remodeled by acute AR, and that the renin-angiotensin system would be involved in that acute remodeling. METHOD: The early LV adaptations to acute AR were evaluated serially over a period of 14 days, using a rat model. Adaptations were evaluated in vivo by echocardiography, and in vitro on explanted heart tissue after one, two, or 14 days. RESULTS: After 14 days, the left ventricle of AR rats was already significantly hypertrophied and dilated (end-diastolic diameter +16% (p <0.05) versus sham; LV mass +16% (p <0.01) versus sham). A short and transient increase in fractional shortening was observed during the first 48 h after AR induction. The cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area and perivascular fibrosis were significantly increased after 14 days of AR. The number of fibronectin-positive cells in LV sections rapidly increased, as did the fibronectin protein and mRNA content of LV crude homogenates. The expression of pro-matrix metalloproteinase 2 was clearly abnormal after two days. Significant shifts in the expression of angiotensin II receptors were also detected as early as one 1 day. CONCLUSION: Significant macroscopic and microscopic abnormalities were present in the left ventricle of rats with acute AR, soon after its induction. Considerable hypertrophy, perivascular fibrosis and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling were present after only 14 days. These results suggest that, in AR, the myocytes and ECM are affected significantly at a very early stage of the disease.
- PublicationAccès libreTranscriptional changes associated with long-term left ventricle volume overload in rats : impact on enzymes related to myocardial energy metabolism.(Hindawi, 2015-10-25) Lachance, Dominic.; Roussel, Élise; Couët, Jacques; Walsh-Wilkinson, Élisabeth; Dhahri, Wahiba; Gascon, Suzanne; Drolet, Marie-Claude.; Sarrhini, Otman; Arsenault, Marie; Rousseau, Jacques A.; Lecomte, RogerPatients with left ventricle (LV) volume overload (VO) remain in a compensated state for many years although severe dilation is present. The myocardial capacity to fulfill its energetic demand may delay decompensation. We performed a gene expression profile, a model of chronic VO in rat LV with severe aortic valve regurgitation (AR) for 9 months, and focused on the study of genes associated with myocardial energetics. Methods. LV gene expression profile was performed in rats after 9 months of AR and compared to sham-operated controls. LV glucose and fatty acid (FA) uptake was also evaluated in vivo by positron emission tomography in 8-week AR rats treated or not with fenofibrate, an activator of FA oxidation (FAO). Results. Many LV genes associated with mitochondrial function and metabolism were downregulated in AR rats. FA β-oxidation capacity was significantly impaired as early as two weeks after AR. Treatment with fenofibrate, a PPARα agonist, normalized both FA and glucose uptake while reducing LV dilation caused by AR. Conclusion. Myocardial energy substrate preference is affected early in the evolution of LV-VO cardiomyopathy. Maintaining a relatively normal FA utilization in the myocardium could translate into less glucose uptake and possibly lesser LV remodeling.