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Charbonneau, Éric

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Institut universitaire de cardiologie et de pneumologie de Québec, Université Laval
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  • Publication
    Mitral repair versus replacement for ischemic mitral regurgitation : comparison of short-term and long-term survival
    (American Heart Association, 2009-09-15) Sénéchal, Mario; Charbonneau, Éric; Magne, Julien; Voisine, Pierre; Girerd, Nicolas; Pibarot, Philippe; Dumesnil, Jean G.; Dagenais, François.; Mathieu, Patrick
    Background— When compared to mitral valve replacement (MVR), mitral valve repair (MVRp) is associated with better survival in patients with organic mitral regurgitation (MR). However, there is an important controversy about the type of surgical treatment that should be used in patients with ischemic MR. The objective of this study was to compare the postoperative outcome of MVRp versus MVR in patients with ischemic MR. Methods and Results— Preoperative and operative data of 370 patients with ischemic MR who underwent mitral valve surgery were prospectively collected and retrospectively analyzed. MVRp was performed in 50% of patients (n=186) and MVR in 50% (n=184). Although operative mortality was significantly lower after MVRp compared to MVR (9.7% versus 17.4%; P=0.03), overall 6-year survival was not statistically different between procedures (73±4% versus 67±4%; P=0.17). After adjusting for other risk factors and propensity score, the type of procedure (MVRp versus MVR) did not come out as an independent predictor of either operative (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 0.7–2.9; P=0.34) or overall mortality (HR, 1.2; 95% CI, 0.7–1.9; P=0.52). Conclusion— As opposed to what has been reported in patients with organic MR, the results of this study suggest that MVRp is not superior to MVR with regard to operative and overall mortality in patients with ischemic MR. These findings provide support for the realization of a randomized trial comparing these 2 treatment modalities.
  • Publication
    Downregulation of microRNA-126 contributes to the failing right ventricle in pulmonary arterial hypertension
    (American Heart Association, 2015-09-08) Dahou, Abdellaziz; Charbonneau, Éric; Provencher, Steeve; Thébault, Christophe; Ruffenach, Grégoire; Breuils-Bonnet, Sandra; Bonnet, Sébastien; Johnson, Ian; Perron, Jean; Paulin, Roxane; Tremblay, Ève; Wong, Ryan; Lajoie, Annie C.; Joubert, Philippe; Potus, François; Pibarot, Philippe; Michelakis, Evangelos D.; Graydon, Colin; Paradis, Renée; Nadeau, Valérie
    Background—Right ventricular (RV) failure is the most important factor of both morbidity and mortality in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). However, the underlying mechanisms resulting in the failed RV in PAH remain unknown. There is growing evidence that angiogenesis and microRNAs are involved in PAH-associated RV failure. We hypothesized that microRNA-126 (miR-126) downregulation decreases microvessel density and promotes the transition from a compensated to a decompensated RV in PAH. Methods and Results—We studied RV free wall tissues from humans with normal RV (n=17), those with compensated RV hypertrophy (n=8), and patients with PAH with decompensated RV failure (n=14). Compared with RV tissues from patients with compensated RV hypertrophy, patients with decompensated RV failure had decreased miR-126 expression (quantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction; P<0.01) and capillary density (CD31+ immunofluorescence; P<0.001), whereas left ventricular tissues were not affected. miR-126 downregulation was associated with increased Sprouty-related EVH1 domain-containing protein 1 (SPRED-1), leading to decreased activation of RAF (phosphorylated RAF/RAF) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK); (phosphorylated MAPK/MAPK), thus inhibiting the vascular endothelial growth factor pathway. In vitro, Matrigel assay showed that miR-126 upregulation increased angiogenesis of primary cultured endothelial cells from patients with decompensated RV failure. Furthermore, in vivo miR-126 upregulation (mimic intravenous injection) improved cardiac vascular density and function of monocrotaline-induced PAH animals. Conclusions—RV failure in PAH is associated with a specific molecular signature within the RV, contributing to a decrease in RV vascular density and promoting the progression to RV failure. More importantly, miR-126 upregulation in the RV improves microvessel density and RV function in experimental PAH.
  • Publication
    Direction of persistent ischemic mitral jet after restrictive valve annuloplasty: implications for interpretation of perioperative echocardiography
    (Elsevier, 2007-10-01) Dubois, Michelle; Magne, Julien; Sénéchal, Mario; Charbonneau, Éric; Pibarot, Philippe; Dumesnil, Jean G.; Dagenais, François.
    BACKGROUND: Ischemic mitral regurgitation (MR) often persists after restrictive mitral valve annuloplasty (MVA) and is associated with a poor prognosis. It was hypothesized that the anterior displacement of the posterior aspect of the annulus caused by annuloplasty could induce a change in the direction of MR jet. METHODS: The echocardiograms of 21 patients who underwent restrictive MVA for ischemic MR and who had detectable postoperative MR were analyzed before and early after surgery to evaluate the direction of MR jet. RESULTS: The MR jet direction was posterior in 15 patients (72%) and central or anterior in six patients (28%) before the operation, compared with four patients (20%) and 17 patients (80%), respectively, after MVA (P<0.001). Overall, the jet direction was modified in 16 of 21 7patients (76%) following MVA. Among the subset of 11 patients with clinically significant persistent MR (vena contracta width greater than 3 mm), the MR jet direction changed in nine patients (82%) compared with their preoperative evaluation. Importantly, the initial clinical interpretation, based on a subjective evaluation, had classified MR severity as nonsignificant in six of 11 patients (55%), likely due to the eccentricity of the jet and its change in direction. CONCLUSION: The direction of the persistent MR jet early after annuloplasty is often different from that of preoperative MR jet and may lead to significant misinterpretation of the postoperative echocardiogram
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Impact of aortic stenosis severity and its interaction with prosthesis-patient mismatch on operative mortality following aortic valve replacement.
    (ICR, 2012-03-02) Girerd, Nicolas; Charbonneau, Éric; Dumont, Éric; Magne, Julien; Baillot, Richard; Voisine, Pierre; Pibarot, Philippe; Dumesnil, Jean G.; Dagenais, François.; Mathieu, Patrick
    The optimal timing of aortic valve replacement (AVR) in patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) is a source of debate. Moreover, it has been shown previously that prosthesis-patient mismatch (PPM) is an independent predictor of operative mortality after AVR. The study aim was to assess the effect of the preoperative severity of AS and its interaction with PPM with respect to operative mortality after AVR.
  • Publication
    The impact of complete revascularization on long-term survival is strongly dependent on age
    (Little, Brown & Co., 2012-11-01) Charbonneau, Éric; Dumont, Éric; Magne, Julien; Baillot, Richard; Voisine, Pierre; Mohammadi, Siamak; Doyle, Daniel; Girerd, Nicolas; Pibarot, Philippe; Dagenais, François.; Rabilloud, Muriel; Mathieu, Patrick
    BACKGROUND: Complete revascularization during coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) has been reported to be associated with better short-term and long-term outcomes. We hypothesized that the survival benefit of complete revascularization would be less in old patients than in young patients. METHODS: We analyzed data from 6,539 consecutive patients who had undergone a first isolated on-pump CABG procedure between 2000 and 2008. We investigated the impact of complete revascularization and its interaction with age on operative and long-term survival using propensity-score-based analyses. RESULTS: Patients with incomplete (versus complete) revascularization (n=318 [4.9%]) were sicker overall. During a mean follow-up of 5.8±2.2 years, 909 patients died. In the propensity-score-matched analysis, operative mortality was not significantly different between patients with complete revascularization and those with incomplete revascularization (1.9% versus 2.8%; odds ratio [OR], 1.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.56-3.46; p=0.48). In contrast, incomplete revascularization had an independent negative impact on long-term survival, which was strongly age dependent (hazard ratio [HR] for interaction, 0.96 per year increment; p=0.02). In a propensity-score-matched analysis, incomplete revascularization was independently associated with higher long-term mortality in patients younger than 60 years (HR, 3.27; 95% CI, 1.21-8.86; p=0.02), whereas it was not in patients 60 to 70 years and 70 years of age and older (p=0.87 and p=0.24, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to what is observed in patients younger than 60 years, complete revascularization does not seem to improve long-term survival in older patients. This suggests that elderly patients at high operative risk may be considered, when deemed clinically appropriate, for limited coronary revascularization