Personne :
McCune, Frédéric

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Université Laval. Département de phytologie
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Voici les éléments 1 - 5 sur 5
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Impact de l'apiculture urbaine et du paysage urbain sur les abeilles sauvages
    (2018) McCune, Frédéric; Mazerolle, Marc J.; Fournier, Valérie
    Les abeilles sauvages contribuent significativement au service de pollinisation et connaissent présentement un déclin important. L’une des causes de ce déclin serait la compétition par l’abeille domestique. L’apiculture urbaine, une pratique assez récente, devient rapidement populaire. On ne connait pas de quelle façon la compétition entre les abeilles sauvages et domestiques s’exprime en milieu urbain, d’autant plus que ce milieu a déjà des impacts importants sur les abeilles, sauvages comme domestiques, notamment par la présence d’îlots de chaleur. Les objectifs de ce projet étaient de déterminer comment les paramètres environnementaux (abondance de l’abeille domestique, proportion des îlots de chaleur à l’intérieur de 1500 m, quantité et diversité des ressources florales) expliquent les communautés d’abeilles sauvages en milieu urbain. Nous avons émis les hypothèses : 1) que la compétition avec l’abeille domestique influence négativement les abeilles sauvages, 2) que les sites avec des ressources florales abondantes soutiennent des communautés d’abeilles sauvages plus diversifiées et abondantes et que ces ressources minimisent l’impact négatif de la compétition et 3) que l’urbanisation a des impacts variables sur les abeilles sauvages en fonction de leurs traits fonctionnels. Nous avons testé ces hypothèses à l’aide d’un jeu de données récoltées à Montréal en 2012 et 2013 sur 25 sites où les abeilles furent échantillonnées à l’aide de pièges-bols colorés. Nous avons étudié les patrons des communautés de 166 espèces d’abeilles sauvages ainsi que de l’abondance des espèces les plus communes après avoir tenu compte de la probabilité de détection. Nos analyses n’ont pas permis de détecter de compétition entre les abeilles sauvages et domestiques. Nos résultats indiquent cependant des effets variables des îlots de chaleur et positifs des ressources florales. Les villes permettent potentiellement la cohabitation harmonieuse entre l’apiculture urbaine et les abeilles sauvages à des densités modérées de ruches.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Insecticidal effect of Bacillus pumilus PTB180 and Bacillus subtilis PTB185 used alone and in combination against the foxglove aphid and the melon aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae)
    (Cambridge University Press, 2021-09-10) McCune, Frédéric; Antoun, Hani; Nguyen, Thi Thuy An; Naasz, Rémi; Kahia, Mouna; Fournier, Valérie
    The foxglove aphid, Aulacorthum solani (Kaltenbach) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and the melon aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae), are among the serious insect pests found in greenhouses. The efficacy of microbial control against these insects has been demonstrated and can be enhanced by the combination of different microbial agents. This study evaluated the efficacy of Bacillus pumilus Meyer and Gottheil PTB180 and Bacillus subtilis (Ehrenberg) Cohn PTB185, used alone and together, to control these two aphids both in the laboratory and in greenhouse on tomato, Solanum lycopersicum Linnaeus (Solanaceae), and cucumber, Cucumis sativus Linnaeus (Cucurbitaceae), plants. The results from the laboratory tests showed an increase in mortality induced by all biological treatments. In the greenhouse, all treatments induced mortality rates significantly higher than that of the control for A. solani. Similarly, all treatments performed better than the control against A. gossypii, significantly reducing its reproduction. Furthermore, we found no additive effects when mixing products nor negative interactions affecting survival for the bacteria investigated. These microorganisms therefore have potential for use in biological control.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Response of wild bee communities to beekeeping, urbanization, and flower availability
    (SpringerLink, 2019-11-09) McCune, Frédéric; Normandin-Leclerc, Étienne; Mazerolle, Marc J.; Fournier, Valérie
    Wild bees provide pollination services and are currently declining at the global scale. A potential cause for this decline is competitive interactions with domestic honey bees. Urban beekeeping, a fairly new activity, is rapidly gaining popularity. In contrast with agricultural and natural areas, the extent of competition between honey bees and wild bees in urban areas is unclear. The objectives of this study were to quantify the impact of honey bees, urbanization, and the availability of floral resources on wild bee communities. We hypothesized that honey bees exert negative impacts on wild bees, that floral resources favor wild bee communities and mitigate the negative impacts of competition with honey bees, and that the influence of heat islands, used as a proxy for urbanization, varies between wild bees with their functional traits (nesting behavior). We tested these hypotheses with a data set of 19,077 wild bee specimens collected using colored pan-traps at 25 urban sites in 2012 and 2013. We investigated community and population patterns after accounting for imperfect detection probability. We found no evidence of competition between wild and domesticated bees. Our analyses indicate mixed effects of urban heat islands across species and positive effects of floral resources. We conclude that cities can allow the coexistence of urban beekeeping and wild bees under moderate hive densities. However, it will remain crucial to further investigate the competitive interactions between wild and honey bees to determine the threshold of hive densities beyond which competition could occur.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Supplying honey bees with waterers : a precautionary measure to reduce exposure to pesticides
    (Springer Berlin, 2021-01-05) McCune, Frédéric; Rondeau, Sabrina; Fournier, Valérie; Samson-Robert, Olivier
    Water is essential for honey bees (Apis mellifera L.), but contaminated sources of water in agricultural environments represent a risk of exposure to potentially harmful contaminants. Providing clean water to honey bees could be an efficient and cost-effective measure for beekeepers to reduce bee mortality associated with pesticides and improve the health of their colonies. The main goal of this study was to design a waterer prototype to fulfill the water requirements of honey bees and to evaluate the potential of this waterer in improving colonies’ health in agricultural settings, through mitigating the possible impact of an exposure to pesticides from puddle water. We tested the preference of honey bees regarding water composition and waterer prototypes, among which honey bees showed a strong preference for salted water and a poultry-type waterer. Our waterer models were quickly adopted and intensively used through the season in both the context of honey production in field crops and pollination services in cranberry crops. However, in neither context did the use of waterers reduce worker mortality nor increase overall colony weight. Our waterers provided bees with water containing fewer pesticides and were associated with reduced risks of drowning compared to natural sources of water. Our study suggests that the use of waterers fulfills an important requirement for honey bees and represents an interesting and convenient precautionary measure for beekeepers.
  • Publication
    Restriction temporaire
    Response of bee and hoverfly populations to a land-use gradient in a Quebec floodplain
    (Kluwer, 2022-11-03) Slupik, Olivier; McCune, Frédéric; Watson, Chris; Proulx, Raphaël; Fournier, Valérie
    The main objective of this study was to inventory the abundance and species richness of wild bees and hoverflies in the Lac Saint-Pierre floodplain according to a land-use gradient. In 2019 and 2020, pollinators were sampled using pan-traps in three landscape types: Crop field margins, Perennial hayfields, and Natural habitats. Bee and hoverfly populations were dominated by a few species throughout the study area. Crop field margins contained greater floral availability and attracted more individuals and species of bees than other landscape types. Although hoverflies were not affected by either land-use type or flooding, the abundance and species richness of bees appeared to be reduced when spring flooding lasted longer, suggesting a mortality effect of flooding on their populations.