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Tondreau, Maxime

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Tondreau
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Maxime
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Département de biologie moléculaire, biochimie médicale et pathologie, Faculté de médecine, Université Laval
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Voici les éléments 1 - 8 sur 8
  • Publication
    Restreint
    Comparison of the direct burst pressure and the ring tensile test methods for mechanical characterization of tissue-engineered vascular substitutes
    (2014-02-21) Tondreau, Maxime; Laterreur, Véronique; Germain, Lucie; Vallières, Karine; Ruel, Jean; Tremblay, Catherine; Bourget, Jean-Michel; Auger, François A.; Lacroix, Dan.
    Tissue engineering provides a promising alternative for small diameter vascular grafts, especially with the self-assembly method. It is crucial that these grafts possess mechanical properties that allow them to withstand physiological flow and pressure without being damaged. Therefore, an accurate assessment of their mechanical properties, especially the burst pressure, is essential prior to clinical release. In this study, the burst pressure of selfassembled tissue-engineered vascular substitutes was first measured by the direct method, which consists in pressurizing the construct with fluid until tissue failure. It was then compared to the burst pressure estimated by Laplace's law using data from a ring tensile test. The major advantage of this last method is that it requires a significantly smaller tissue sample. However, it has been reported as overestimating the burst pressure compared to a direct measurement. In the present report, it was found that an accurate estimation of the burst pressure may be obtained from a ring tensile test when failure internal diameter is used as the diameter parameter in Laplace's law. Overestimation occurs with the method previously reported, i.e. when the unloaded internal diameter is used for calculations. The estimation of other mechanical properties was also investigated. It was demonstrated that data from a ring tensile test provide an accurate estimate of the failure strain and the stiffness of the constructs when compared to measurements with the direct method.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    In vivo remodeling of fibroblast-derived vascular scaffolds implanted for 6 months in rats
    (Hindawi, 2016-11-24) Tondreau, Maxime; Laterreur, Véronique; Germain, Lucie; Vallières, Karine; Ruel, Jean; Tremblay, Catherine; Bourget, Jean-Michel; Auger, François A.; Gauvin, Robert; Lacroix, Dan.
    There is a clinical need for tissue-engineered small-diameter (<6 mm) vascular grafts since clinical applications are halted by the limited suitability of autologous or synthetic grafts. This study uses the self-assembly approach to produce a fibroblast-derived decellularized vascular scaffold (FDVS) that can be available off-the-shelf. Briefly, extracellular matrix scaffolds were produced using human dermal fibroblasts sheets rolled around a mandrel, maintained in culture to allow for the formation of cohesive and three-dimensional tubular constructs, and decellularized by immersion in deionized water. The FDVSs were implanted as an aortic interpositional graft in six Sprague-Dawley rats for 6 months. Five out of the six implants were still patent 6 months after the surgery. Histological analysis showed the infiltration of cells on both abluminal and luminal sides, and immunofluorescence analysis suggested the formation of neomedia comprised of smooth muscle cells and lined underneath with an endothelium. Furthermore, to verify the feasibility of producing tissue-engineered blood vessels of clinically relevant length and diameter, scaffolds with a 4.6 mm inner diameter and 17 cm in length were fabricated with success and stored for an extended period of time, while maintaining suitable properties following the storage period. This novel demonstration of the potential of the FDVS could accelerate the clinical availability of tissue-engineered blood vessels and warrants further preclinical studies.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Développement à visée clinique d'une prothèse vasculaire décellularisée de faible diamètre produite par génie tissulaire
    (2015) Tondreau, Maxime; Bolduc, Stéphane; Auger, François A.
    Il existe un besoin clinique pour les prothèses vasculaires de faible diamètre (< 6 mm), notamment pour effectuer des pontages vasculaires. Les prothèses synthétiques de faible diamètre, n’ayant pas d’endothélium, sont sujettes à la thrombose. Ainsi les chirurgiens préfèrent utiliser les vaisseaux autologues des patients. Pour cela, la veine saphène est de loin la plus utilisée. Cependant, de nombreux patients n’ont pas de vaisseaux adéquats, soit parce qu’ils ont déjà été utilisés, soit parce qu’ils sont malades. Pour pallier ce manque, le LOEX a développé un substitut vasculaire reconstruit en laboratoire par la méthode d’auto-assemblage du génie tissulaire. Ces substituts, faits à partir de cellules humaines, ont une longue période de production et ne peuvent être faits à l’avance ni préservés. L’objectif principal de cette thèse est le développement d’une prothèse vasculaire de faible diamètre facilitant le transfert du laboratoire vers la clinique. S’inspirant de travaux antérieurs, les travaux focalisent sur des prothèses obtenues à partir de fibroblastes dermiques humains puis décellularisés. Comme la réponse immunitaire se fait principalement contre les cellules et non pas contre la matrice extracellulaire, la décellularisation permet de gagner une compatibilité immunitaire inter-individu, voire inter-espèce. Ainsi, des prothèses ont été implantées dans six rats pendant six mois sans immunosuppression avec un taux de succès de 83%. Les explants présentaient une infiltration cellulaire suggérant la formation d’une nouvelle media recouverte d’un endothélium. Par ailleurs, nous avons démontré qu’il était également possible de produire des prothèses de grandeur et diamètre adéquats pour une utilisation clinique. Ces prothèses ont été préservées durant trois mois sans altérer leurs propriétés mécaniques. Nous avons également endothélialisé des vaisseaux qui ont ensuite été conditionnés en bioréacteur durant une semaine. Le processus entraînait une compaction de la matrice extracellulaire et un gain dans la résistance à la traction du matériau. En conclusion, les prothèses vasculaires décellularisées offrent deux avantages majeurs facilitant ainsi les essais précliniques et accélérant leur transfert du laboratoire vers les patients.
  • Publication
    Restreint
    A new construction technique for tissue-engineered heart valves using the self-assembly method
    (Tissue Engineering & Regenerative Medicine International Society, 2014-04-03) Tondreau, Maxime; Laterreur, Véronique; Germain, Lucie; Vallières, Karine; Ruel, Jean; Tremblay, Catherine; Bourget, Jean-Michel; Auger, François A.; Lacroix, Dan.
    Tissue engineering appears as a promising option to create new heart valve substitutes able to overcome the serious drawbacks encountered with mechanical substitutes or tissue valves. The objective of this article is to present the construction method of a new entirely biological stentless aortic valve using the self-assembly method and also a first assessment of its behavior in a bioreactor when exposed to a pulsatile flow. A thick tissue was created by stacking several fibroblast sheets produced with the self-assembly technique. Different sets of custom-made templates were designed to confer to the thick tissue a three-dimensional (3D) shape similar to that of a native aortic valve. The construction of the valve was divided in two sequential steps. The first step was the installation of the thick tissue in a flat preshaping template followed by a 4-week maturation period. The second step was the actual cylindrical 3D forming of the valve. The microscopic tissue structure was assessed using histological cross sections stained with Masson's Trichrome and Picrosirius Red. The thick tissue remained uniformly populated with cells throughout the construction steps and the dense extracellular matrix presented corrugated fibers of collagen. This first prototype of tissue-engineered heart valve was installed in a bioreactor to assess its capacity to sustain a light pulsatile flow at a frequency of 0.5 Hz. Under the light pulsed flow, it was observed that the leaflets opened and closed according to the flow variations. This study demonstrates that the self-assembly method is a viable option for the construction of complex 3D shapes, such as heart valves, with an entirely biological material.
  • Publication
    Restreint
    Microstructured human fibroblast-derived extracellular matrix scaffold for vascular media fabrication
    (John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 2016-04-28) Guillemette, Maxime.; Tondreau, Maxime; Laterreur, Véronique; Germain, Lucie; Miville-Godin, Caroline; Ruel, Jean; Mounier, Maxence; Tremblay, Catherine; Labbé, Raymond; Bourget, Jean-Michel; Veres, Teodor; Auger, François A.; Gauvin, Robert
    In the clinical and pharmacological fields, there is a need for the production of tissue-engineered smalldiameter blood vessels. We have demonstrated previously that the extracellular matrix (ECM) produced by fibroblasts can be used as a scaffold to support three-dimensional (3D) growth of another cell type. Thus, a resistant tissue-engineered vascular media can be produced when such scaffolds are used to culture smooth muscle cells (SMCs). The present study was designed to develop an anisotropic fibroblastic ECM sheet that could replicate the physiological architecture of blood vessels after being assembled into a small diameter vascular conduit. Anisotropic ECM scaffolds were produced using human dermal fibroblasts, grown on a microfabricated substrate with a specific topography, which led to cell alignment and unidirectional ECM assembly. Following their devitalization, the scaffolds were seeded with SMCs. These cells elongated and migrated in a single direction, following a specific angle relative to the direction of the aligned fibroblastic ECM. Their resultant ECM stained for collagen I and III and elastin, and the cells expressed SMC differentiation markers. Seven days after SMCs seeding, the sheets were rolled around a mandrel to form a tissue-engineered vascular media. The resulting anisotropic ECM and cell alignment induced an increase in the mechanical strength and vascular reactivity in the circumferential direction as compared to unaligned constructs.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Étude du dimorphisme sexuel des sélénoprotéines antioxydantes au cours du développement pulmonaire murin
    (2011) Tondreau, Maxime; Bilodeau, Jean-François; Tremblay, Yves
    Les séléno-glutathion peroxydases (SeGPx) sont des antioxydants qui présentent un dimorphisme sexuel dans différents tissus de rongeurs et d'humains adultes. Il a été démontré que les hormones sexuelles telles que la testosterone et 1'estradiol modulent l'expression des SeGPx. Les souriceaux peuvent être utilisés comme modèle de prématurité pulmonaire humaine car ils naissent avec des poumons immatures et des niveaux hormonaux relatifs similaires à l'humain. Nous avons découvert chez les souriceaux un dimorphisme sexuel unique favorisant les femelles jusqu'à 5 jours après la naissance dans l'expression d'une SeGPx, la GPx-1. Cette différence sexuelle, si elle s'extrapole chez l'humain, pourrait notamment expliquer la plus grande susceptibilité des garçons à la dysplasie bronchopulmonaire et autres complications respiratoires.
  • Publication
    Restreint
    Mechanical properties of endothelialized fibroblast-derived vascular scaffolds stimulated in a bioreactor
    (Elsevier BV, 2015-03-06) Tondreau, Maxime; Laterreur, Véronique; Germain, Lucie; Vallières, Karine; Ruel, Jean; Tremblay, Catherine; Bourget, Jean-Michel; Auger, François A.; Gauvin, Robert; Lacroix, Dan.
    There is an ongoing clinical need for tissue-engineered small-diameter (<6 mm) vascular grafts since clinical applications are restricted by the limited availability of autologous living grafts or the lack of suitability of synthetic grafts. The present study uses our self-assembly approach to produce a fibroblast-derived decellularized vascular scaffold that can then be available off-the-shelf. Briefly, scaffolds were produced using human dermal fibroblasts sheets rolled around a mandrel, maintained in culture to allow for the formation of cohesive and three-dimensional tubular constructs, and then decellularized by immersion in deionized water. Constructs were then endothelialized and perfused for 1 week in an appropriate bioreactor. Mechanical testing results showed that the decellularization process did not influence the resistance of the tissue and an increase in ultimate tensile strength was observed following the perfusion of the construct in the bioreactor. These fibroblast-derived vascular scaffolds could be stored and later used to deliver readily implantable grafts within 4 weeks including an autologous endothelial cell isolation and seeding process. This technology could greatly accelerate the clinical availability of tissue-engineered blood vessels.
  • Publication
    Restreint
    Human adipose-derived stromal cells for the production of completely autologous self-assembled tissue-engineered vascular substitutes
    (Minerals, Metals and Materials Society, 2015-06-15) Tondreau, Maxime; Laterreur, Véronique; Germain, Lucie; Vallières, Karine; Ruel, Jean; Auger, François A.; Fradette, Julie
    There is a clinical need for small-diameter vascular substitutes, notably for coronary and peripheral artery bypass procedures since these surgeries are limited by the availability of grafting material. This study reports the characterization of a novel autologous tissue-engineered vascular substitute (TEVS) produced in 10weeks exclusively from human adipose-derived stromal cells (ASC) self-assembly, and its comparison to an established model made from dermal fibroblasts (DF). Briefly, ASC and DF were cultured with ascorbate to form cell sheets subsequently rolled around a mandrel. These TEVS were further cultured as a maturation period before undergoing mechanical testing, histological analyses and endothelialization. No significant differences were measured in burst pressure, suture strength, failure load, elastic modulus and failure strain according to the cell type used to produce the TEVS. Indeed, ASC- and DF-TEVS both displayed burst pressures well above maximal physiological blood pressure. However, ASC-TEVS were 1.40-fold more compliant than DF-TEVS. The structural matrix, comprising collagens type I and III, fibronectin and elastin, was very similar in all TEVS although histological analysis showed a wavier and less dense collagen matrix in ASC-TEVS. This difference in collagen organization could explain their higher compliance. Finally, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) successfully formed a confluent endothelium on ASC and DF cell sheets, as well as inside ASC-TEVS. Our results demonstrated that ASC are an alternative cell source for the production of TEVS displaying good mechanical properties and appropriate endothelialization.