Personne : Goulet, Claude
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Université Laval. Département d'éducation physique
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- PublicationRestreintDiscordance in injury reporting between youth-athletes, their parents and coaches(Elsevier, 2008-07-24) Shrier, Ian; Goulet, Claude; Feldman, Debbie; Khelia, Imen; Akakpo, Huguette; Mazer, Barbara; Meeuwisse, Willem; Swaine, Bonnie RuthHiring experienced health professionals to collect data on sport injuries is expensive, limits resources, and may be prohibitive for surveillance studies. The objective of this study was to obtain pilot data on whether youth self-report deserves further study. We followed 67 recreational and elite soccer players aged 11–17 for one season and compared responses of injured players with those of their parents/coaches. We defined our main outcome of discordance as any disagreement in responses between the youth, parent and coach (triad). When one person didn’t know the answer, we categorised the responses as “concordance” if the other two members agreed. We omitted data when two people responded “Don’t Know”. Of 10 injuries that could be analysed, 29/30 interviews occurred within 21 days. For factual questions analysed, there was 100% concordance for the type and side of injury, and place where the injury occurred. There were 1–2 discordant triads for each of time of day, activity during injury and specific body part injured. There were greater discordances for date of injury, first-aid treatment, and opinions concerning underlying reasons for the injury. Interview-report by youth themselves should be explored as a possible low cost method of documenting youth sport injuries.
- PublicationAccès libreComparing the characteristics of snowboarders injured in a terrain park who present to the ski patrol, the emergency department or both(2013-06-26) Russell, Kelly; Goulet, Claude; Meeuwisse, Willem; Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto; Emery, Carolyn; Wishart, Jillian; Romanow, Nicole; Rowe, Brian H; Hagel, Brent ESki patrol report forms are a common data source in ski/snowboard research, but it is unclear if those who only present to the emergency department (ED) are systematically different from those who see the ski patrol. To determine the proportion and characteristics of injured snowboarders who bypass the ski patrol before presenting to the ED, three groups of injured snowboarders were compared: presented to the ED only, ski patrol only and ski patrol and ED. Data were collected from ski patrol Accident Report Forms (ARFs), ED medical records and telephone interviews. There were 333 injured snowboarders (ED only: 34, ski patrol only: 107, both: 192). Ability, time of day, snow conditions or drugs/alcohol predicted ED only presentation. Concussions (RRR: 4.66; 95% CI: 1.83, 11.90), sprains/strains (RRR: 4.22; 95% CI: 1.87, 9.49), head/neck (RRR: 2.90; 95% CI: 1.48, 5.78), trunk (RRR: 4.17; 95% CI: 1.92, 9.09) or lower extremity (RRR: 3.65; 95% CI: 1.32, 10.07) injuries were significantly more likely to present to ski patrol only versus ski patrol and ED. In conclusion, snowboarders who presented to the ED only had similar injuries as those who presented to both.
- PublicationRestreintSki and snowboard school programs : injury surveillance and risk factors for grade-specific injury(Wiley-Blackwell, 2018-02-08) Sran, Ravneet; Goulet, Claude; Djerboua, Maya; Romanow, Nicole; Mitra, Tatum; Russell, Kelly; White, K.; Emery, Carolyn; Hagel, Brent E.The objective of our study was to evaluate incidence rates and profile of school program ski and snowboard-related injuries by school grade group using a historical cohort design. Injuries were identified via Accident Report Forms completed by ski patrollers. Severe injury was defined as those with ambulance evacuation or recommending patient transport to hospital. Poisson regression analysis was used to examine the school grade group-specific injury rates adjusting for risk factors (sex, activity, ability, and socioeconomic status) and accounting for the effect of clustering by school. Forty of 107 (37%) injuries reported were severe. Adolescents (grades 7-12) had higher crude injury rates (91 of 10 000 student-days) than children (grades 1-3: 25 of 10 000 student-days; grades 4-6: 65 of 10 000 student-days). Those in grades 1-3 had no severe injuries. Although the rate of injury was lower in grades 1-3, there were no statistically significant grade group differences in adjusted analyses. Snowboarders had a higher rate of injury compared with skiers, while higher ability level was protective. Participants in grades 1-3 had the lowest crude and adjusted injury rates. Students in grades 7-12 had the highest rate of overall and severe injuries. These results will inform evidence-based guidelines for school ski/snowboard program participation by school-aged children.
- PublicationAccès libreFeature-specific terrain park-injury rates and risk factors in snowboarders : a case–control study(BMJ Publishing Group, 2013-11-01) Russell, Kelly; Goulet, Claude; Meeuwisse, Willem; Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto; Emery, Carolyn; Wishart, Jillian; Romanow, Nicole; Rowe, Brian H.; Hagel, Brent E.Background : Snowboarding is a popular albeit risky sport and terrain park (TP) injuries are more severe than regular slope injuries. TPs contain man-made features that facilitate aerial manoeuvres. The objectives of this study were to determine overall and feature-specific injury rates and the potential risk factors for TP injuries. Methods : Case–control study with exposure estimation, conducted in an Alberta TP during two ski seasons. Cases were snowboarders injured in the TP who presented to ski patrol and/or local emergency departments. Controls were uninjured snowboarders in the same TP. κ Statistics were used to measure the reliability of reported risk factor information. Injury rates were calculated and adjusted logistic regression was used to calculate the feature-specific odds of injury. Results : Overall, 333 cases and 1261 controls were enrolled. Reliability of risk factor information was κ>0.60 for 21/24 variables. The overall injury rate was 0.75/1000 runs. Rates were highest for jumps and half-pipe (both 2.56/1000 runs) and lowest for rails (0.43/1000 runs) and quarter-pipes (0.24/1000 runs). Compared with rails, there were increased odds of injury for half-pipe (OR 9.63; 95% CI 4.80 to 19.32), jumps (OR 4.29; 95% CI 2.72 to 6.76), mushroom (OR 2.30; 95% CI 1.20 to 4.41) and kickers (OR 1.99; 95% CI 1.27 to 3.12). Conclusions : Higher feature-specific injury rates and increased odds of injury were associated with features that promote aerial manoeuvres or a large drop to the ground. Further research is required to determine ways to increase snowboarder safety in the TP.
- PublicationRestreintPromoting respect for the rules and injury prevention in ice hockey : evaluation of the Fair-Play program(Elsevier Australia, 2005-08-01) Brunelle, Jean-Pierre; Goulet, Claude; Arguin, HélèneObjective: To reduce the number of transgressions to the rule, the occurrence of violent acts and to prevent injuries. Hockey Québec adopted the Fair-Play Program (FPP). The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the FPP. Methods: 52 Bantam (14–15 years) teams participated in this cohort study. In total, 49 games (13 with the FPP, 36 without FPP) were systematically assessed for transgressions to the rule. Body checking was allowed in all games. Transgressions to the rule data were obtained using a real time observation system in a natural setting, while injury data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire. Data were analysed using generalised linear, models with generalised estimating equations accounting for potential team effect. Results: The number of penalties per game was significantly lower (p<0.01) for games played with the FPP. Overall, no difference was noted in the number of transgressions observed during games played with or without the FPP. Players in leagues where the FPP was used held their opponents more frequently (p<0.0001). On the other hand, players in leagues without the FPP showed and hit more (p=0.05). No difference was noted in the injury rate for games played with or without the FPP. Conclusions: This study showed that the FPP is one of the tools available to help those in the hockey world promote fair play values. Moreover, this project clearly showed the importance of program evaluation and the value of direct observation in a natural setting.
- PublicationAccès libreEffectiveness of helmets in skiers and snowboarders: case-control and case crossover study(British Medical Association, 2005-02-10) Hagel, Brent E.; Goulet, Claude; Pless, Ivan B. (Ivan Barry); Platt, Robert W.; Robitaille, YvonneObjective: To determine the effect of helmets on the risk of head and neck injuries in skiers and snowboarders. Design: Matched case-control and case crossover study. Setting 19 ski areas in Quebec, Canada, November 2001 to April 2002. Participants: 1082 skiers and snowboarders (cases) with head and neck injuries reported by the ski patrol and 3295 skiers and snowboarders (controls) with non-head or non-neck injuries matched to cases at each hill. Main outcome measures: Estimates of matched odds ratios for the effect of helmet use on the risk of any head or neck injury and for people requiring evacuation by ambulance. Results: The adjusted odds ratio for helmet use in participants with any head injury was 0.71 (95% confidence interval 0.55 to 0.92), indicating a 29% reduction in the risk of head injury. For participants who required evacuation by ambulance for head injuries, the adjusted odds ratio for helmet use was 0.44 (0.24 to 0.81). Similar results occurred with the case crossover design (odds ratio 0.43, 0.09 to 1.83). The adjusted odds ratio for helmet use for participants with any neck injury was 0.62 (0.33 to 1.19) and for participants who required evacuation by ambulance for neck injuries it was 1.29 (0.41 to 4.04). Conclusions: Helmets protect skiers and snowboarders against head injuries. We cannot rule out the possibility of an increased risk of neck injury with helmet use, but the estimates on which this assumption is based are imprecise.
- PublicationRestreintThe challenges of adapting theory to practice(Elsevier, 2005-12-16) Goulet, Claude
- PublicationRestreintRisk factors associated with serious ski patrol-reported injuries sustained by skiers and snowboarders in snow-parks and on other slopes(Canadian Public Health Association, 2007-09-01) Goulet, Claude; Hagel, Brent E.; Hamel, Denis; Légaré, GillesBACKGROUND : Over the past years, the rate of injuries sustained at the alpine ski hills in Québec significantly increased. This raises concern over a possible increase in risk of severe injuries associated with snow-park use. The main objective of this study was to examine the severity of injuries sustained by skiers and snowboarders in snow-parks compared with other slopes from 2001 to 2005. METHODS : A case-control study design was used. Subjects were injured skiers and snowboarders who reported to the ski patrol with an injury. Two sets of severely injured cases were defined based on the type of injury and ambulance evacuation. Injured controls were those who did not sustain severe injuries. 50,593 injury report forms were analyzed. A logistic regression analysis was performed to relate the severity of injury to the type of slope used when the injury occurred. All analyses were controlling for age, sex, skill level, helmet use, season, and type of activity. RESULTS : There was evidence to suggest that, for skiers (adjusted OR = 1.36; 95% CI: 1.21-1.53) and snowboarders (adjusted OR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.05-1.23), participation in a snow-park increased the risk of being evacuated by ambulance. Severe injuries in skiers were also more likely to occur in snow-parks, but snowboarders had similar risk of severe injury in snow-parks and on other slopes. CONCLUSIONS : These results provide evidence that the type of activities performed in snow-parks may increase the risk of sustaining a severe injury compared with participation on other slopes.
- PublicationRestreintInjuries among skiers and snowboarders in Quebec(Ovid, 2004-05-01) Hagel, Brent E.; Goulet, Claude; Platt, Robert W.; Pless, Ivan B.Background: Snow sports such as skiing and snowboarding are recognized as hazardous, but population-based injury rates or specific risk factors have been difficult to estimate as a result of a lack of complete data for both numerator and denominator. Methods: We used data from 3 surveys to estimate the number of participants and annual number of outings in Quebec by age, sex, activity, and calendar year. Injuries reported by ski patrollers were used to estimate injury rates among skiers and snowboarders for the head and neck, trunk, upper extremity, and lower extremity. Results: Head–neck and trunk injury rates increased over time from 1995–1996 to 1999–2000. There was a steady increase in the rate of injury with younger age for all body regions. The rate of head–neck injury was 50% higher in snowboarders than in skiers (adjusted rate ratio [ARR] = 1.5; 95% confidence interval = 1.3–1.8). Women and girls had a lower rate of head–neck injury (0.73; 0.62–0.87). Snowboarders were twice as likely as skiers to have injuries of the trunk (2.1; 1.7–2.6), and more than 3 times as likely to have injuries of the upper extremities (3.4; 2.9–4.1). Snowboarders had a lower rate of injury only of the lower extremities (0.79; 0.66–0.95). Snowboarder collision-related injury rates increased substantially over time. Conclusions: Except for lower extremity injuries, snowboarders have a higher rate of injuries than skiers. Furthermore, collision-related injury rates have increased over time for snowboarders. Targeted injury prevention strategies in this group seem justified.
- PublicationRestreintRisk of injury associated with bodychecking experience among youth hockey players(Canadian Medical Association, 2011-08-09) Emery, Carolyn; Goulet, Claude; Kang, Jian; Shrier, Ian; Hagel, Brent E.; Benson, Brian; Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto; McAllister, Jenelle; Meeuwisse, WillemBackground: In a previous prospective study, the risk of concussion and all injury was more than threefold higher among Pee Wee ice hockey players (ages 11–12 years) in a league that allows bodychecking than among those in a league that does not. We examined whether two years of bodychecking experience in Pee Wee influenced the risk of concussion and other injury among players in a Bantam league (ages 13–14) compared with Bantam players introduced to bodychecking for the first time at age 13. Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study involving hockey players aged 13–14 years in the top 30% of divisions of play in their leagues. Sixty-eight teams from the province of Alberta (n = 995), whose players had two years of bodychecking experience in Pee Wee, and 62 teams from the province of Quebec (n = 976), whose players had no bodychecking experience in Pee Wee, participated. We estimated incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for injury and for concussion. Results: There were 272 injuries (51 concussions) among the Bantam hockey players who had bodychecking experience in Pee Wee and 244 injuries (49 concussions) among those without such experience. The adjusted IRRs for game-related injuries and concussion overall between players with bodychecking experience in Pee Wee and those without it were as follows: injury overall 0.85 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.63 to 1.16); concussion overall 0.84 (95% CI 0.48 to 1.48); and injury resulting in more than seven days of time loss (i.e., time between injury and return to play) 0.67 (95% CI 0.46 to 0.99). The unadjusted IRR for concussion resulting in more than 10 days of time loss was 0.60 (95% CI 0.26 to 1.41). Interpretation: The risk of injury resulting in more than seven days of time loss from play was reduced by 33% among Bantam hockey players in a league where bodychecking was allowed two years earlier in Pee Wee compared with Bantam players introduced to bodychecking for the first time at age 13. In light of the increased risk of concussion and other injury among Pee Wee players in a league where bodychecking is permitted, policy regarding the age at which hockey players are introduced to bodychecking requires further consideration.