Personne : Goulet, Claude
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Université Laval. Département d'éducation physique
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- PublicationRestreintRisk factors associated with alpine skiing injuries in children(American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine, 1999-09-01) Goulet, Claude; Régnier, Guy; Valois, Pierre; Grimard, Guy; Villeneuve, PaulWe investigated the relative contribution of four risk factors to the occurrence of injuries among alpine skiers aged 12 years and younger (3 to 12 years old; mean age, 9.43 years). The risk factors selected were deficient binding adjustment, absence of formal training, low skill level, and use of rented equipment. A group of injured skiers (N 41) and a control group of uninjured skiers (N 313) were recruited among young skiers at one major alpine ski center in the Québec City, Canada, area during the 1995 to 1996 season. No significant group differences were found for mean age or sex distribution. The adjusted odds ratios for injury were 7.54 (95% confidence interval [2.57, 22.15]) for skiers in the low level of skill category relative to highly skilled skiers, 7.14 (2.59, 19.87) for skiers who rented their ski equipment compared with skiers who owned their equipment, and 2.11 (1.02, 4.33) for skiers with ill-adjusted bindings compared with skiers with better-adjusted bindings. Only formal training did not meet the 0.05 significance level for entry into the model; this is probably because of methodologic limitations. Implications of these results for the development of a prevention program aimed at young skiers are discussed.
- PublicationRestreintEvaluation of a theory-based intervention aimed at improving coaches’ recommendations on sports nutrition to their athletes(Elsevier, 2016-05-24) Drapeau, Vicky; Goulet, Claude; Jacob, Raphaëlle; Lamarche, Benoît; Laramée, Catherine; Valois, Pierre; Provencher, VéroniqueBackground : Coaches are a major source of nutrition information and influence for young athletes. Yet, most coaches do not have training in nutrition to properly guide their athletes. Objective : The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention aimed at improving the accuracy of coaches’ recommendations on sports nutrition. Design : This was a quasi-experimental study with a comparison group and an intervention group. Measurements were made at baseline, post-intervention, and after a 2-month follow-up period. Coaches’ recommendations on sports nutrition during the follow-up period were recorded in a diary. Participants/setting : High school coaches from various sports (n=41) were randomly assigned to a comparison group or an intervention group. Intervention : Both groups attended two 90-minute sessions of a theory-based intervention targeting determinants of coaches’ intention to provide recommendations on sports nutrition. The intervention group further received an algorithm that summarizes sports nutrition guidelines to help promote decision making on sports nutrition recommendations. Main outcome measures : Nutrition knowledge and accuracy of coaches’ recommendations on sports nutrition. Statistical analysis performed : χ2 analyses and t-tests were used to compare baseline characteristics; mixed and general linear model analyses were used to assess the change in response to the intervention and differences in behaviors, respectively. Results : Coaches in the intervention vs comparison group provided more nutrition recommendations during the 2-month post-intervention period (mean number of recommendations per coach 25.7±22.0 vs 9.4±6.5, respectively; P=0.004) and recommendations had a greater accuracy (mean number of accurate recommendations per coach 22.4±19.9 [87.1%] vs 4.3±3.2 [46.1%], respectively; P<0.001). Knowledge was significantly increased post-intervention in both groups, but was maintained only in the intervention group during the 2-month follow-up (Pgroup*time=0.04). Conclusions : A theory-based intervention combined with a decision-making algorithm maintained coaches’ sports nutrition knowledge level over time and helped them to provide more accurate recommendations on sports nutrition.
- PublicationAccès libreDeterminants of restrictive dietary behaviors among female high school athletes(Paris Scholar Publishing, Ltd., 2015-09-01) Morissette, Éliane; Drapeau, Vicky; Goulet, Claude; Lamarche, Benoît; Couture, Steven; Laramée, Catherine; Valois, Pierre; Provencher, VéroniqueThis study assessed the determinants of intention to adopt restrictive dietary behaviors to lose weight among high school female athletes. Methods: Female athletes (N = 255) and non-athlete controls (N = 91) completed a questionnaire based on the theory of planned behavior. Results: Intention to adopt restrictive dietary behaviors to lose weight, which had a prevalence of 22%-29% among athletes and controls, was correlated primarily with attitude towards this behavior (R2 = 45%, p < .0001). Attitude was in turn correlated with improvement in appearance (R2 = 37%, p < .0001). Conclusions: Improvement in appearance is a key belief to address in interventions aimed at decreasing the intention to use restrictive dietary behaviors to lose weight among adolescent female athletes.
- PublicationRestreintPredictors of the use of performance-enhancing substances by young athletes(Raven Press, 2010-07-01) Goulet, Claude; Valois, Pierre; Buist, André; Côté, MélanieObjectives: To document the use of performance-enhancing substances (PES) by young athletes and to identify associated factors. Design: Retrospective survey. Setting: Self-reported anonymous questionnaire. Participants: Three thousand five hundred seventy-three athletes (mean age, 15.5 years) from Quebec provincial teams run by organizations recognized by the Government of Quebec. Interventions: All subjects filled out a validated questionnaire on factors associated with the use of and the intention to use PES. Main Outcome Measures: The use of and intention to use PES. Results: In the 12 months before filling out the questionnaire, 25.8% of respondents admitted having attempted to improve their athletic performance by using 1 or more of 15 substances that were entirely prohibited or restricted by the International Olympic Committee. Multiple regression analyses showed that behavioral intention (ß = 0.34) was the main predictor of athletes' use of PES. Attitude (ß = 0.09), subjective norm (ß = 0.13), perceived facilitating factors (ß = 0.40), perceived moral obligation (ß = -0.18), and pressure from the athlete's entourage to gain weight (ß = 0.10) were positively associated with athletes' behavioral intention to use PES. Conclusions: This study provides evidence that supports the predicting value of the theory of planned behavior. Results suggest that the athlete's psychosocial environment has a significant impact on the decision to use PES and support the need to integrate this factor into the development and implementation of prevention interventions.
- PublicationAccès libreEvaluation of a theory-based intervention aimed at reducing intention to use restrictive dietary behaviors among adolescent female athletes(Elsevier, 2017-06-07) Drapeau, Vicky; Goulet, Claude; Jacob, Raphaëlle; Lamarche, Benoît; Laramée, Catherine; Valois, Pierre; Provencher, VéroniqueObjective To evaluate the effectiveness of a theory-based intervention to reduce the intention to use restrictive dietary behaviors for losing weight among adolescent female athletes involved in aesthetic sports. Design Cluster-randomized controlled trial. Setting Aesthetic sport teams of adolescent female athletes aged 12–17 years. Participants Two teams (n = 37 athletes) in the intervention group and 3 teams (n = 33) in the comparison group. Interventions The 2 groups received nutrition education during 3 weekly 60-minute sessions. The intervention group was further exposed to a theory-based intervention targeting the specific determinant of intention to use restrictive dietary behaviors for losing weight, namely attitude. Main Outcome Measures Difference over time between groups in intention to use restrictive dietary behaviors for losing weight and in nutrition knowledge. Analysis Mixed models for repeated measures. Results The theory-based intervention contributed to maintaining a low intention of using restrictive dietary behaviors for losing weight over time in the intervention group compared with the comparison group (P < .03). Nutrition knowledge score increased equally in both groups. Conclusion and Implications Complementing nutrition education with theory-based behavior change intervention may help maintain a low intention of using restrictive dietary behaviors for losing weight among female high school athletes involved in aesthetic sports.
- PublicationAccès libreInjuries and risk taking in alpine skiing(ASTM, 2001-01-01) Goulet, Claude; Régnier, Guy; Ouellet, Gaétan; Valois, PierreThe purpose of this study was to investigate the relation between motivation toward alpine skiing, attitude toward risk-taking behavior, risk-taking behavior, and injury incidence. Participants were skiers over eleven years of age. They completed a questionnaire that investigated skill level, sources of motivation toward alpine skiing, attitude toward risktaking behavior, and risk-taking behavior. A MANOVA was performed to compare three groups of skiers: (1) 163 skiers caught on the slope while performing a voluntary thrill-seeking behavior that could directly or indirectly lead to a sequence of events frequently associated to injuries (RISK TAKING); (2) 190 injured skiers (INJURED); and (3) 219 randomly selected skiers (UNINJURED). Significant differences were found between the three groups on age and skill level (p < 0.001). Skiers from the RISK TAKING group were younger (19.9 years old) than those from the INJURED group (24.7 years old) who were in turn younger than the UNINJURED group (30.7 years old). Skiers from the INJURED group were the least skilled, while those from the RISK TAKING group were the most skilled (p < 0.001). No differences were found between the INJURED and the UNINJURED groups on their source of motivation for skiing and their attitude toward risk taking. However, skiers from the RISK TAKING group were significantly different than the other two groups on those cognitive variables. They perceived the risky behaviors presented in vignettes as being less dangerous than skiers from the UNINJURED and the INJURED groups. These results suggest that in future prevention programs, the emphasis should be placed on the development of skiing technique among the lowskilled skiers. It also questions the strategy of targeting risk takers in prevention campaigns.
- PublicationRestreintEvaluation of sports nutrition knowledge and recommendations among high school coaches(Human Kinetics Publishers, 2015-08-01) Drapeau, Vicky; Couture, Steven; Goulet, Claude; Lamarche, Benoît; Morissette, Éliane; Valois, Pierre; Provencher, VéroniqueThe objectives of this study were to evaluate high school coaches’ knowledge in sports nutrition and the nutritional practices they recommend to their athletes. Forty-seven high school coaches in “leanness” and “non-leanness” sports from the greater region of Quebec (women = 44.7%) completed a questionnaire on nutritional knowledge and practices. “Leanness sports” were defined as sports where leanness or/and low bodyweight were considered important (e.g., cheerleading, swimming and gymnastics), and “non-leanness sports” were defined as sports where these factors are less important (e.g., football). Participants obtained a total mean score of 68.4% for the nutrition knowledge part of the questionnaire. More specifically, less than 30% of the coaches could answer correctly some general nutrition questions regarding carbohydrates and lipids. No significant difference in nutrition knowledge was observed between coaches from “leanness” and “non-leanness” sports or between men and women. Respondents with a university education scored higher than the others (73.3% vs. 63.3%, p < .05). Coaches who participated in coaching certification also obtained better results than those without a coaching certification. The most popular source of information about nutrition used by coaches was the Internet at 55%. The two most popular nutrition practices that coaches recommended to improve athlete performance were hydration and consumption of protein-rich foods. Recommendation for nutritional supplements use was extremely rare and was suggested only by football coaches, a nonleanness sport. Findings from this study indicate that coaches need sports nutrition education and specific training.
- PublicationRestreintA motivational model of performance-enhancing substance use in elite athletes(2006-12-01) Donahue, Eric G.; Goulet, Claude; Miquelon, Paule; Valois, Pierre; Buist, André; Vallerand, Robert J.Very little research has been done so far on the psychological determinants of performance-enhancing substance use in sports. The purpose of this study was to propose and test a motivational model of performance-enhancing substance use with elite athletes (N = 1,201). The model posits that intrinsic and extrinsic motivation toward sport predict, respectively, positive and negative sportspersonship orientations, which in turn negatively predict the use of performance-enhancing substances. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing intrinsic and extrinsic motivation toward sport, sportspersonship orientations, and performance-enhancing substance use in the last 12 months. Findings supported the motivational model. The present findings support the role of intrinsic motivation and sportspersonship orientations in preventing athletes from engaging in unethical behavior such as the use of performance-enhancing substances. Future research should seek to replicate this model with professional and Olympic athletes.
- PublicationAccès libreÉtude de l’éthique, du dopage et de certaines habitudes de vie chez des sportifs québécois(Secrétariat au loisir et au sport Québec, 2002-01-01) Goulet, Claude; Buist, André; Valois, Pierre; Côté, MélanieLe but principal de cette recherche est de documenter le phénomène de l’utilisation, par des sportifs québécois, de substances, méthodes et produits dopants pour améliorer leurs performances sportives, et de déterminer les facteurs qui sont associés à un tel comportement. L’échantillon à l’étude est constitué de 3 573 athlètes âgés de 10 à 20 ans provenant soit des équipes du Québec, soit des réseaux civil et scolaire relevant d’organismes reconnus par le Secrétariat au loisir et au sport (SLS). Tous ces sujets ont répondu de façon individuelle ou en groupe au questionnaire auto-administré sur l’utilisation des substances, méthodes et produits dopants et leurs déterminants. Les résultats de l’enquête indiquent que plus de 25 % des répondants reconnaissent avoir fait usage, dans les 12 mois qui ont précédé l’administration du questionnaire, de l’un ou plusieurs des 15 substances, méthodes et produits totalement interdits ou soumis à des restrictions par le Comité international olympique (CIO) qui leur étaient présentés pour améliorer leurs performances sportives. Parmi ces 15 substances, méthodes et produits, ce sont principalement les comprimés de caféine, le médicament décongestionnant Sudafed et les médicaments en inhalateur pour l’asthme qui sont majoritairement utilisés. D’autre part, il ressort des analyses de régression multiple effectuées que l’intention comportementale est le principal prédicteur de l’utilisation ou non de substances, méthodes et produits dopants pour améliorer les performances sportives. Les résultats démontrent également que l’attitude, la norme sociale, les facteurs facilitant l’usage des produits dopants de même que le sentiment d’obligation morale sont associés à l’intention comportementale des athlètes en matière d’usage de produits ergogéniques. Les programmes éducatifs devront donc être conçus de façon à atteindre les objectifs qui suivent. Premièrement, développer chez les athlètes une attitude favorable envers la non-utilisation de substances, méthodes et produits dopants dans les sports en axant l’intervention sur les avantages associés à un tel comportement. Deuxièmement, sensibiliser les proches des athlètes quant aux capacités de ces derniers à réaliser de bonnes performances sportives sans avoir à utiliser de produits dopants. Troisièmement, l’intervention éducative devrait être axée principalement sur le renforcement des capacités psychologiques des athlètes à performer dans les sports en dépit du fait qu’ils peuvent se considérer d’une certaine façon désavantagés parce qu’ils ne prennent pas de produits dopants. Il faut renforcer leur sentiment d’efficacité personnelle au regard de leurs performances sportives. Les athlètes pourront ainsi se sentir capables de ne pas utiliser de produits dopants, et ce, en dépit du fait que cela pourrait nuire à leurs performances sportives. Autrement dit, les athlètes pourront se sentir capables de réaliser de bonnes performances sportives, bien qu’ils n’aient pas eu recours à des produits dopants.