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Biron, Éric

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Université Laval. Faculté de pharmacie
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  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Gastrointestinal stability and cytotoxicity of bacteriocins from gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria : a comparative in vitro study
    (Frontiers Media, 2022-01-25) Biron, Éric; Zirah, Séverine; Rebuffat, Sylvie; Soltani, Samira; Couture, Frédéric; Fliss, Ismaïl; Subirade, Muriel; Boutin, Yvan.
    Bacteriocins are receiving increased attention as potent candidates in food preservation and medicine. Although the inhibitory activity of bacteriocins has been studied widely, little is known about their gastrointestinal stability and toxicity toward normal human cell lines. The aim of this study was to evaluate the gastrointestinal stability and activity of microcin J25, pediocin PA-1, bactofencin A and nisin using in vitro models. In addition cytotoxicity and hemolytic activity of these bacteriocins were investigated on human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma cells (Caco-2) and rat erythrocytes, respectively. Pediocin PA-1, bactofencin A, and nisin were observed to lose their stability while passing through the gastrointestinal tract, while microcin J25 is only partially degraded. Besides, selected bacteriocins were not toxic to Caco-2 cells, and integrity of cell membrane was observed to remain unaffected in presence of these bacteriocins at concentrations up to 400 μg/mL. In hemolysis study, pediocin PA-1, bactofencin A, and nisin were observed to lyse rat erythrocytes at concentrations higher than 50 μg/mL, while microcin J25 showed no effect on these cells. According to data indicating gastrointestinal degradation and the absence of toxicity of pediocin PA-1, bactofencin A, and microcin J25 they could potentially be used in food or clinical applications.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    In vitro assessment of skin sensitization, irritability and toxicity of bacteriocins and reuterin for possible topical applications
    (Nature Publishing Group, 2022-03-17) Biron, Éric; Frédéric Couture; Soltani, Samira; Fliss, Ismaïl; Subirade, Muriel; Boutin, Yvan.
    Bacteriocins and reuterin are promising antimicrobials for application in food, veterinary, and medical sectors. In the light of their high potential for application in hand sanitizer, we investigated the skin toxicity of reuterin, microcin J25, pediocin PA-1, bactofencin A, and nisin Z in vitro using neutral red and LDH release assays on NHEK cells. We determined their skin sensitization potential using the human cell line activation test (h-CLAT). Their skin irritation potential was measured on human epidermal model EpiDerm™. We showed that the viability and membrane integrity of NHEK cells remained unaltered after exposure to bacteriocins and reuterin at concentrations up to 400 µg/mL and 80 mg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, microcin J25 and reuterin showed no skin sensitization at concentrations up to 100 µg/mL and 40 mg/mL, respectively, while pediocin PA-1, bactofencin A, and nisin Z caused sensitization at concentrations higher than 100 µg/mL. Tissue viability was unafected in presence of bacteriocins and reuterin at concentrations up to 200 µg/mL and 40 mg/ mL, respectively, which was confrmed by measuring cytokine IL-1α and IL-8 levels and by histological analysis. In conclusion, the current study provides scientifc evidence that some bacteriocins and reuterin, could be safely applied topically as sanitizers at recommended concentrations
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Bacteriocins as a new generation of antimicrobials : toxicity aspects and regulations
    (Elsevier, 2020-09-02) Ben Said, Laila; Biron, Éric; Soltani, Samira; Gaudreau, Hélène; Fliss, Ismaïl; Bédard, François; Hammami, Riadh
    In recent decades, bacteriocins have received substantial attention as antimicrobial compounds. Although bacteriocins have been predominantly exploited as food preservatives, they are now receiving increased attention as potential clinical antimicrobials and as possible immune-modulating agents. Infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria have been declared as a global threat to public health. Bacteriocins represent a potential solution to this worldwide threat due to their broad- or narrow-spectrum activity against antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Notably, despite their role in food safety as natural alternatives to chemical preservatives, nisin remains the only bacteriocin legally approved by regulatory agencies as a food preservative. Moreover, insufficient data on the safety and toxicity of bacteriocins represent a barrier against the more widespread use of bacteriocins by the food and medical industry. Here, we focus on the most recent trends relating to the application of bacteriocins, their toxicity and impacts.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Recent progress in the chemical synthesis of class II and s-glycosylated bacteriocins
    (Frontiers Research Foundation, 2018-05-23) Biron, Éric; Bédard, François
    A wide variety of antimicrobial peptides produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been identified and studied in the last decades. Known as bacteriocins, these ribosomally synthesized peptides inhibit the growth of a wide range of bacterial species through numerous mechanisms and show a great variety of spectrum of activity. With their great potential as antimicrobial additives and alternatives to traditional antibiotics in food preservation and handling, animal production and in veterinary and medical medicine, the demand for bacteriocins is rapidly increasing. Bacteriocins are most often produced by fermentation but, in several cases, the low isolated yields and difficulties associated with their purification seriously limit their use on a large scale. Chemical synthesis has been proposed for their production and recent advances in peptide synthesis methodologies have allowed the preparation of several bacteriocins. Moreover, the significant cost reduction for peptide synthesis reagents and building blocks has made chemical synthesis of bacteriocins more attractive and competitive. From a protein engineering point of view, the chemical approach offers many advantages such as the possibility to rapidly perform amino acid substitution, use unnatural or modified residues, and make backbone and side chain modifications to improve potency, modify the activity spectrum or increase the stability of the targeted bacteriocin. This review summarized synthetic approaches that have been developed and used in recent years to allow the preparation of class IIa bacteriocins and S-linked glycopeptides from LAB. Synthetic strategies such as the use of pseudoprolines, backbone protecting groups, microwave irradiations, selective disulfide bridge formation and chemical ligations to prepare class II and S-glycosylsated bacteriocins are discussed.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Bacteriocin-based synergetic consortia : a promising strategy to enhance antimicrobial activity and broaden the spectrum of inhibition
    (ASM Press, 2022-02-16) Ben Said, Laila; Biron, Éric; Soltani, Samira; Fliss, Ismaïl; Subirade, Muriel
    Bacteria-derived natural antimicrobial compounds such as bacteriocins, reruterin, and organic acids have recently received substantial attention as food preservatives or therapeutic alternatives in human or animal sectors. This study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of different bacteria-derived antimicrobials, alone or in combination, against a large panel of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Bacteriocins, including microcin J25, pediocin PA-1, nisin Z, and reuterin, were investigated alone or in combination with lactic acid and citric acid, using a checkerboard assay. Concentrations were selected based on predetermined MICs against Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Newport ATCC 6962 and Listeria ivanovii HPB28 as Gram-negative and Gram-positive indicator strains, respectively. The results demonstrated that the combination of microcin J25 + citric acid + lactic acid; microcin J25 + reuterin + citric acid; and microcin J25 + reuterin + lactic acid tested against S. Newport ATCC 6962 showed synergistic effects (FIC index = 0.5). Moreover, a combination of pediocin PA-1 + citric acid + lactic acid; and reuterin + citric acid + lactic acid against L. ivanovii HPB28 showed a partially synergistic interactions (FIC index = 0.75). Nisin Z exerted a partially synergistic effect in combination with acids (FIC index = 0.625 -0.75), whereas when it was combined with reuterin or pediocin PA-1, it showed additive effects (FIC index = 1) against L. ivanovii HPB28. The inhibitory activity of synergetic consortia were tested against a large panel of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. According to our results, combining different antimicrobials with different mechanisms of action led to higher potency and a broad spectrum of inhibition, including multidrug-resistance pathogens.