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Bachelard, Hélène

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Université Laval. Département de médecine
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  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Altered cardiac bradykinin metabolism in experimental diabetes caused by the variations of angiotensin converting enzyme and other peptidases
    (Churchill Livingstone, 2009-10-16) Adam, Albert; Bachelard, Hélène; Leclair, Patrick; Koumbadinga, Gérémy Abdull; Montpas, Nicolas; Marceau, François
    The peptidases angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and neutral endopeptidase 24.11 (NEP) mediate most of the kinin catabolism in normal cardiac tissue and are the molecular targets of inhibitory drugs that favorably influence diabetic complications. We studied the variations of those kininases in the myocardium of rats in experimental diabetes. ACE and NEP activities were significantly decreased in heart membranes 4–8 weeks post-streptozotocin (STZ) injection. However, insulin-dependent diabetes did not modify significantly bradykinin (BK) half-life (t1/2) while the effect of both ACE (enalaprilat) and ACE and NEP (omapatrilat) inhibitors on BK degradation progressively decreased, which may be explained by the upregulation of other unidentified metallopeptidase(s). In vivo insulin treatment restored the activities of both ACE and NEP. ACE and NEP activities were significantly higher in hearts of young Zucker rats than in those of Sprague–Dawley rats. BK t1/2 and the effects of peptidase inhibitors on t1/2 varied accordingly. It is concluded that kininase activities are subjected to large and opposite variations in rat cardiac tissue in type I and II diabetes models. A number of tissue or molecular factors may determine these variations, such as remodeling of cardiac tissue, ectoenzyme shedding to the extracellular fluid and the pathologic regulation of peptidase gene expression.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Bradykinin receptors : agonists, antagonists, expression, signaling, and adaptation to sustained stimulation
    (Elsevier Science, 2020-02-25) Bachelard, Hélène; Bawolak, Marie-Thérèse; Fortin, Jean-Philippe.; Marceau, François; Morissette, Guillaume; Charest-Morin, Xavier; Bouthillier, Johanne
    Bradykinin-related peptides, the kinins, are blood-derived peptides that stimulate 2 G protein–coupled receptors, the B1 and B2 receptors (B1R, B2R). The pharmacologic and molecular identities of these 2 receptor subtypes will be succinctly reviewed herein, with emphasis on drug development, receptor expression, signaling, and adaptation to persistent stimulation. Peptide and non-peptide antagonists and fluorescent ligands have been produced for each receptor. The B2R is widely and constitutively expressed in mammalian tissues, whereas the B1R is mostly inducible under the effect of cytokines during infection and immunopathology. The B2R is temporarily desensitized by a cycle of phosphorylation/endocytosis followed by recycling, whereas the nonphosphorylable B1R is relatively resistant to desensitization and translocated to caveolae on activation. Both receptor subtypes, mainly coupled to protein G Gq, phospholipase C and calcium signaling, mediate the vascular aspects of inflammation (vasodilation, edema formation). On this basis, icatibant, a peptide antagonist of the B2R, is approved in the management of hereditary angioedema attacks. This disease is the therapeutic showcase of the kallikrein-kinin system, with an orally bioavailable B2R antagonist under development, as well as other agents that inhibit the kinin forming protease, plasma kallikrein. Other clinical applications are still elusive despite the maturity of the medicinal chemistry efforts applied to kinin receptors.
  • Publication
    Accès libre
    Bifunctional ligands of the bradykinin B2 and B1 receptors : an exercise in peptide hormone plasticity
    (Elsevier, 2018-05-23) Bachelard, Hélène; Roy, Caroline; Bawolak, Marie-Thérèse; Fortin, Jean-Philippe.; Marceau, François; Morissette, Guillaume; Lajos, Gera; Charest-Morin, Xavier
    Kinins are the small and fragile hydrophilic peptides related to bradykinin (BK) and derived from circulating kininogens via the action of kallikreins. Kinins bind to the preformed and widely distributed B2 receptor (B2R) and to the inducible B1 receptor (B1R). B2Rs and B1Rs are related G protein coupled receptors that possess natural agonist ligands of nanomolar affinity (BK and Lys BK for B2Rs, Lys-des-Arg9-BK for B1R). Decades of structure-activity exploration have resulted in the production of peptide analogs that are antagonists, one of which is clinically used (the B2R antagonist icatibant), and also non-peptide ligands for both receptor subtypes. The modification of kinin receptor ligands has made them resistant to extracellular or endosomal peptidases and/or produced bifunctional ligands, defined as agonist or antagonist peptide ligands conjugated with a chemical fluorophore (emitting in the whole spectrum, from the infrared to the ultraviolet), a drug-like moiety, an epitope, an isotope chelator/carrier, a cleavable sequence (thus forming a pro-drug) and even a fused protein. Dual molecular targets for specific modified peptides may be a source of side effects or of medically exploitable benefits. Biotechnological protein ligands for either receptor subtype have been produced: they are enhanced green fluorescent protein or the engineered peroxidase APEX2 fused to an agonist kinin sequence at their C-terminal terminus. Antibodies endowed with pharmacological actions (agonist, antagonist) at B2R have been reported, though not monoclonal antibodies. These findings define classes of alternative ligands of the kinin receptor of potential therapeutic and diagnostic value.