Personne : Guzzetti, Ezequiel
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Left ventricular asymmetric remodeling and subclinical left ventricular dysfunction in patients with calcific aortic valve stenosis : results from a subanalysis of the PROGRESSA study
2021-03-13, Clisson, Marine, Guzzetti, Ezequiel, Bernard, Jérémy, Larose, Éric, Shen, Mylène, Bédard, Élisabeth, Côté, Nancy, Capoulade, Romain, Pibarot, Philippe, Clavel, Marie-Annick, Tastet, Lionel, Arsenault, Marie
Background: LV asymmetric remodeling (LVAR) is a feature commonly found in AS patients and it is presumed to be mainly related to the severity of valve stenosis. The aim of this study was to determine the associated factors and impact on left ventricular (LV) systolic function of LVAR in patients with mild and moderate aortic valve stenosis (AS). Methods: Clinical, Doppler-echocardiographic and computed-tomographic data of 155 AS patients with preserved LV ejection fraction (≥50%) prospectively recruited in the PROGRESSA study (NCT01679431) were analyzed. LVAR was defined as a septal wall thickness ≥ 13 mm and a ratio of septal/posterior wall thickness > 1.5. LV global longitudinal strain (LV-GLS) was available in 129 patients. Plasma levels of N-terminal natriuretic B-type peptides (Nt-proBNP) were also measured. Results: Mean age was 63 ± 15 years (70% men). LVAR was present in 21% (n = 33) of patients. A series of nested multivariate analysis revealed that age was the only factor associated with LVAR (all p ≤ 0.03). Additionally, these patients had higher baseline Nt-proBNP ratio (median [25–75 percentiles]: 1.04 [0.66–2.41] vs. 0.65 [0.33–1.19], p = 0.02), and significantly reduced LV-GLS (17.9[16.6–19.5] vs. 19.3[17.4–20.7] |%|, p = 0.04). A 1:1 matched analysis showed a significant association of LVAR with reduced LV-GLS (17.9[16.6–19.5] vs. 19.8[18.1–20.7] |%|, p = 0.02) and elevated Nt-proBNP (134[86–348] vs. 83[50–179]pg/ml, p = 0.03). Multivariable analysis also revealed that LVAR remains significantly associated with reduced LV-GLS (p = 0.03) and elevated Nt-proBNP (p = 0.001). LVAR was significantly associated with increased risk of major adverse cardiac events and death (Hazard ratio [95% confidence interval]: 2.32[1.28–4.22], p = 0.006). Conclusions: LVAR was found in ~20% of patients with mild or moderate AS and was not related to the degree of AS severity or concomitant comorbidities, but rather to older age. LVAR was significantly associated with reduced LV longitudinal systolic function, increased Nt-proBNP levels, and higher risk of major adverse events and death. These findings provide support for closer clinical and echocardiographic surveillance of patients harboring this adverse LV remodeling feature.
Transvalvular flow, sex, and survival after valve replacement surgery in patients with severe aortic stenosis
2020-04-28, Bilodeau, Anthony, Guzzetti, Ezequiel, Kalavrouziotis, Dimitri, Zhang, Bin, Couture, Christian, Annabi, Mohamed Salah, Pibarot, Philippe, Clavel, Marie-Annick, Dagenais, François.
Background : The respective impacts of transvalvular flow, gradient, sex, and their interactions on mortality in patients with severe aortic stenosis undergoing surgical aortic valve replacement (AVR) are unknown. Objectives : This study sought to compare the impact of pre-operative flow-gradient patterns on mortality after AVR and to examine whether there are sex differences. Methods : This study analyzed clinical, echocardiographic, and outcome data prospectively collected in 1,490 patients (544 women [37%]), with severe aortic stenosis and preserved left ventricular ejection fraction who underwent AVR. Results : In this cohort, 601 patients (40%) had normal flow (NF) with high gradient (HG), 405 (27%) NF with low gradient (LG), 246 (17%) paradoxical low flow (LF)/HG, and 238 (16%) LF/LG. During a median follow-up of 2.42 years (interquartile range: 1.04 to 4.29 years), 167 patients died. Patients with LF/HG exhibited the highest mortality after AVR (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.01; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.33 to 3.03; p < 0.01), which remained significant after multivariate adjustment (HR: 1.96; 95% CI: 1.29 to 2.98; p < 0.01). Both LF/LG and NF/LG patients had comparable outcome to NF/HG (p ≥ 0.47). Optimal thresholds of stroke volume index were obtained for men (40 ml/m2) and women (32 ml/m2). Using these sex-specific cutpoints, paradoxical LF was independently associated with increased mortality in both women (adjusted HR: 2.05; 95% CI: 1.21 to 3.47; p < 0.01) and men (adjusted HR: 1.54; 95% CI: 1.02 to 2.32; p = 0.042), whereas guidelines’ threshold (35 ml/m2) does not. Conclusions : Paradoxical LF/HG was associated with higher mortality following AVR, suggesting that a reduced flow is a marker of disease severity even in patients with HG aortic stenosis. Early surgical AVR (i.e., before gradient attains 40 mm Hg) might be preferable in these patients. Furthermore, the use of sex-specific thresholds (<40 ml/m2 for men and <32 ml/m2 for women) to define low-flow outperforms the guidelines’ threshold of 35 ml/m2 in risk stratification after AVR.
Haemodynamic outcomes following aortic valve-in-valve procedure
2018-07-09, Dahou, Abdellaziz, Guzzetti, Ezequiel, Dumont, Éric, De Larochellière, Robert, Côté, Mélanie, Rodés-Cabau, Josep, Mohammadi, Siamak, Paradis, Jean-Michel, Doyle, Daniel, Zenses, Anne-Sophie, Pibarot, Philippe, Clavel, Marie-Annick, Ong, Géraldine, Chamandi, Chekrallah, Salaun, Erwan, Rodriguez-Gabella, Tania, Rieu, Régis
Background and objectives: Transcatheter aortic valve- in-valve implantation (ViV) has emerged as a valuable technique to treat failed surgical bioprostheses (BPs) in patients with high risk for redo surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR). Small BP size (≤21 mm), stenotic pattern of degeneration and pre-existing prosthesis– patient mismatch (PPM) have been associated with worse clinical outcomes after ViV. However, no study has evaluated the actual haemodynamic benefit associated with ViV. This study aims to compare haemodynamic status observed at post-ViV, pre-ViV and early after initial SAVR and to determine the factors associated with worse haemodynamic outcomes following ViV, including the rates of high residual gradient and ‘haemodynamic futility’. Methods: Early post-SAVR, pre-ViV and post-ViV echocardiographic data of 79 consecutive patients who underwent aortic ViV at our institution were retrospectively analysed. The primary study endpoint was suboptimal valve haemodynamics (SVH) following ViV defined by the Valve Academic Research Consortium 2 as the presence of high residual aortic mean gradient (≥20 mm Hg) and/or at least moderate aortic regurgitation (AR). Haemodynamic futility of ViV was defined as <10 mm Hg decrease in mean aortic gradient and no improvement in AR compared with pre-ViV. Results: SVH was found in 61% of patients (57% high residual gradient, 4% moderate AR) after ViV versus 24% early after SAVR. Pre-existing PPM and BP mode of failure by stenosis were independently associated with the primary endpoint (OR: 2.87; 95% CI 1.08 to 7.65; p=0.035 and OR: 3.02; 95% CI 1.08 to 8.42; p=0.035, respectively) and with the presence of high residual gradient (OR: 4.38; 95% CI 1.55 to 12.37; p=0.005 and OR: 5.37; 95% CI 1.77 to 16.30; p=0.003, respectively) following ViV. Criteria of ViV haemodynamic futility were met in 7.6% overall and more frequently in patients with pre-existing PPM and stenotic BP (18.5%) compared with other patients (2.0%). ViV restored haemodynamic function to early post-SAVR level in only 34% of patients. Conclusion: Although ViV was associated with significant haemodynamic improvement compared with pre-ViV in >90% of patients, more than half harboured SVH outcome. Furthermore, only one-third of patients had a restoration of valve haemodynamic function to the early post-SAVR level. Pre-existing PPM and stenosis pattern of BP degeneration were the mian factors associated with SVH and haemodynamic futility following ViV. These findings provide strong support for the prevention of PPM at the time of initial SAVR and careful preprocedural patient screening.
Sex-related differences in the extent of myocardial fibrosis in patients with aortic valve stenosis
2018-09-22, Guzzetti, Ezequiel, Kwiecinski, Jacek, Larose, Éric, Shen, Mylène, Bédard, Élisabeth, Everett, Russell J., Capoulade, Romain, Newby, David E., Beaudoin, Jonathan, Pibarot, Philippe, Clavel, Marie-Annick, Tastet, Lionel, Arsenault, Marie, Dweck, Marc
Usefulness of energy loss index for adjudication of low-gradient aortic stenosis severity
2020-04-07, Guzzetti, Ezequiel, Pibarot, Philippe, Clavel, Marie-Annick
Up to 40% of patients with aortic stenosis (AS) present with a low gradient (i.e., a mean transvalvular gradient [MG] <40 mmHg) despite a small aortic valve area (AVA≤1 cm2) at echocardiography or cardiac catheterization. This ‘discordant grading’ situation raises uncertainty about the true severity of AS and therefore about therapeutic decision making (1). A thorough, integrative approach including assessment of flow status and quantitation of aortic valve calcium score by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) has been proposed in the 2017 European guidelines for discriminating true versus pseudo-severe AS in the patients with low-gradient AS (2). It is, indeed, estimated that 50 to 70% of patients with low-gradient AS have a true-severe AS and thus an indication (Class I or IIa) for aortic valve replacement. However, it remains crucial to identify patients with pseudo-severe AS, who should be managed conservatively.
Sex-related differences in the extent of myocardial fibrosis in patients with aortic valve stenosis
2019-08-14, Guzzetti, Ezequiel, Kwiecinski, Jacek, Larose, Éric, Shen, Mylène, Bédard, Élisabeth, Everett, Russell J., Capoulade, Romain, Newby, David E., Beaudoin, Jonathan, Pibarot, Philippe, Clavel, Marie-Annick, Tastet, Lionel, Arsenault, Marie, Dweck, Marc
Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of sex on myocardial fibrosis as assessed by using cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging in aortic stenosis (AS). Background: Previous studies reported sex-related differences in the left ventricular (LV) remodeling response to pressure overload in AS. However, there are very few data regarding the effect of sex on myocardial fibrosis, a key marker of LV decompensation and adverse cardiac events in AS. Methods: A total of 249 patients (mean age 66 ± 13 years; 30% women) with at least mild AS were recruited from 2 prospective observational cohort studies and underwent comprehensive Doppler echocardiography and CMR examinations. On CMR, T1 mapping was used to quantify extracellular volume (ECV) fraction as a marker of diffuse fibrosis, and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) was used to assess focal fibrosis. Results: There was no difference in age between women and men (age 66 ± 15 years vs 66 ± 12 years; p = 0.78). However, women presented with a better cardiovascular risk profile than men with less hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, and coronary artery disease (all, p ≤ 0.10). As expected, LV mass index measured by CMR imaging was smaller in women than in men (p < 0.0001). Despite fewer comorbidities, women presented with larger ECV fraction (median: 29.0% [25th to 75th percentiles: 27.4% to 30.6%] vs. 26.8% [25th to 75th percentiles: 25.1% to 28.7%]; p < 0.0001) and similar LGE (median: 4.5% [25th–75th percentiles: 2.3% to 7.0%] vs. 2.8% [25th–75th percentiles: 0.6% to 6.8%]; p = 0.20) than men. In multivariable analysis, female sex remained an independent determinant of higher ECV fraction and LGE (all, p ≤ 0.05). Conclusions: Women have greater diffuse and focal myocardial fibrosis independent of the degree of AS severity. These findings further emphasize the sex-related differences in LV remodeling response to pressure overload.
Paravalvular regurgitation after transcatheter aortic valve replacement. Is the problem solved?
2018-10-01, Dahou, Abdellaziz, Guzzetti, Ezequiel, Annabi, Mohamed Salah, Pibarot, Philippe, Clavel, Marie-Annick, Toubal, Oumhani, Ong, Géraldine, Salaun, Erwan
Paravalvular regurgitation is a frequent complication after transcatheter aortic valve replacement and its association with worse outcomes depends on the degree of its severity. Despite substantial improvement in transcatheter heart valve design, sizing and implantation technique, moderate or severe paravalvular regurgitation still occurs in 2% to 7% of patients and is associated with a more than 2-fold increase in mortality. This review provides a state-of-the-art approach to (i) paravalvular regurgitation prevention by optimizing patient selection, valve sizing, and positioning and (ii) the detection, quantitation and management of paravalvular regurgitation during and after valve implantation.
Validation of aortic valve calcium quantification thresholds measured by computed tomography in Asian patients with calcific aortic stenosis
2021-06-25, Guzzetti, Ezequiel, Oh, Kyung Jin, Shen, Mylène, Pibarot, Philippe, Dweck, Marc R., Clavel, Marie-Annick, Poh, Kian Keong, Tastet, Lionel, Abbas, Amr E., Mando, Ramy, Pressman, Gregg, Brito, Daniel, Pawade, Tania, Falconi, Mariano Luis, Arenaza, Diego Perez de, Kong, William
Aims Sex-specific thresholds of aortic valve calcification (AVC) have been proposed and validated in Caucasians. Thus, we aimed to validate their accuracy in Asians. Methods and results Patients with calcific aortic stenosis (AS) from seven international centres were included. Exclusion criteria were ≥moderate aortic/mitral regurgitation and bicuspid valve. Optimal AVC and AVC-density sex-specific thresholds for severe AS were obtained in concordant grading and normal flow patients (CG/NF). We included 1263 patients [728 (57%) Asians, 573 (45%) women, 837 (66%) with CG/NF]. Mean gradient was 48 (26–64) mmHg and peak aortic velocity 4.5 (3.4–5.1) m/s. Optimal AVC thresholds were: 2145 Agatston Units (AU) in men and 1301 AU in women for Asians; and 1885 AU in men and 1129 AU in women for Caucasians. Overall, accuracy (% correctly classified) was high and comparable either using optimal or guidelines’ thresholds (2000 AU in men, 1200 AU in women). However, accuracy was lower in Asian women vs. Caucasian women (76–78% vs. 94–95%; P < 0.001). Accuracy of AVC-density (476 AU/cm2 in men and 292 AU/cm2 in women) was comparable to absolute AVC in Caucasians (91% vs. 91%, respectively, P = 0.74), but higher than absolute AVC in Asians (87% vs. 81%, P < 0.001). There was no interaction between AVC/AVC-density and ethnicity (all P > 0.41) with regards to AS haemodynamic severity. Conclusion AVC thresholds defining severe AS are comparable in Asian and Caucasian populations, and similar to those proposed in the guidelines. However, accuracy of AVC to identify severe AS in Asians (especially women) is sub-optimal. Therefore, the use of AVC-density is preferable in Asians.